Introduction to Environmental Engineering by Richard O. MinesIntroduction to Environmental Engineering by Richard O. Mines

Introduction to Environmental Engineering

byRichard O. Mines, Laura W. Lackey

Paperback | February 10, 2009

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In Introduction to Environmental Engineering, First Edition, authors Richard Mines and Laura Lackey explain complicated environmental systems in easy-to-understand terms, providing numerous examples and an emphasis on current environmental issues such as global warming, the failing infrastructure within the United States, risk assessment, and hazardous waste remediation. KEY TOPICS: Environmental Engineering as a Profession; Introduction to Environmental Engineering Calculations: Dimensions, Units, and Conversions; Essential Chemical Concepts; Biological and Ecological Concepts; Risk Assessment; Design and Modeling of Environmental Systems; Sustainability and Green Development; Water Quality and Pollution; Water Treatment; Domestic Wastewater Treatment; Air Pollution; Fundamentals of Hazardous Waste Site Remediation; Introduction to Solid Waste Management. MARKET: Appropriate for engineers interested in a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to environmental engineering.
Title:Introduction to Environmental EngineeringFormat:PaperbackDimensions:384 pages, 9.8 × 8 × 1 inPublished:February 10, 2009Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0132347474

ISBN - 13:9780132347471

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Table of Contents

1 • ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AS A PROFESSION 1

1.1 Welcome 1

1.2 What’s Your Definition of Environmental Engineering? 1

1.3 Environmental Engineers Make a Difference 2

1.3.1 Jobs in Demand 2

1.3.2 A Lousy Report Card 2

1.3.3 Basic Necessities–New Challenges 3

1.4 Duties and Important Characteristics of Environmental Engineers 3

1.4.1 Multidisciplinary Teams 4

1.4.2 Work Outdoors 4

1.4.3 Consulting Firms 4

1.4.4 Government 4

1.4.5 Regulatory Agencies 5

1.4.6 Industry 5

1.4.7 Academia 5

1.4.8 Does Environmental Engineering Match My Interests? 5

1.5 Environmental Calamities 5

1.5.1 Love Canal 5

1.5.2 Milwaukee Cryptosporidium Outbreak 6

1.5.3 Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster 7

1.6 Becoming an Environmental Engineer: A Lifelong Process 7

1.6.1 College Education 7

1.6.2 Professional Licensure 7

1.6.3 Engineering Ethics 8

1.6.4 Continuing Education 9

1.7 Problem Solving 10

1.8 Environmental Management 12

 

2 • INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

CALCULATIONS: DIMENSIONS, UNITS, AND CONVERSIONS 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Dimensions and Units 15

2.3 Essential Derived Units and Conversion Practice 18

2.3.1 Density 18

2.3.2 Concentration 20

2.3.3 Flow rate 26

2.3.4 Residence time 27

2.4 Precision, Bias, and Accuracy 28

2.5 Significant Figures 29

Summary 30

Key Words 30

References 30

Exercises 30

 

3 • ESSENTIAL CHEMICAL CONCEPTS 32

3.1 Introduction 32

3.2 Fundamentals 32

3.2.1 Atoms 32

3.2.2 Elements 32

3.3 Chemical Reactions 37

3.3.1 Stoichiometry 38

3.4 Solution Chemistry–Aqueous Phase 42

3.4.1 Acid-Base Chemistry 42

3.4.2 Strong Acids and Bases vs.Weak Acids and Bases 45

3.4.3 The Carbonate System and Alkalinity 47

3.5 Solid-Phase Equilibrium Reactions 48

3.6 Solution Chemistry–Gas Phase 51

3.6.1 Ideal Gas Law 51

3.6.2 General Gas Laws–Boyle’s, Charles’, Gay-Lussac, Combined Gas 51

3.6.3 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure 53

3.6.4 Raoult’s Law and Henry’s Law 54

 

4 • BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS 59

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Biological Systems 59

4.2.1 Cell Structure 60

4.2.2 Classification of Organisms 60

4.2.3 Major Groups of Organisms 61

4.2.4 Microbial Growth 66

4.3 Ecological Systems 69

4.3.1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 70

4.3.2 Food Chains 71

4.3.3 Bioconcentration, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity 74

4.4 Nutrient Cycles 75

4.4.1 Carbon Cycle 75

4.4.2 Nitrogen Cycle 76

4.4.3 Phosphorus Cycle 79

4.4.4 Sulfur Cycle 80

4.5 Limnological Concepts and Eutrophication 81

4.5.1 Stratification 82

4.5.2 Lake Classification 84

4.5.3 Dissolved-Oxygen Depletion in Streams 85

Summary 93

Key Words 93

References 93

Exercises 94

 

5 • RISK ASSESSMENT 98

5.1 Concept or Perception of Risk 98

5.2 Risk Assessment 101

5.2.1 Data Collection and Evaluation 102

5.2.2 Toxicity Assessment 102

5.2.3 Exposure Assessment 107

5.2.4 Risk Characterization 110

5.3 Risk Management 112

5.4 Environmental Impact Analysis 113

5.4.1 Overview of Environmental Impact Statement 113

5.4.2 Environmental Impact Statement 113

Summary 116

Key Words 117

References 117

Exercises 117

 

6 • DESIGN AND MODELING OF ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 120

6.1 Introduction 120

6.2 Chemical and Biochemical Reactions 120

6.2.1 Rates of Reaction 121

6.2.2 Rate Law and Order of Reaction 121

6.2.3 Zero-Order Reactions 122

6.2.4 First-Order Reactions 123

6.2.5 Second-Order Reactions 125

6.2.6 Temperature Corrections 128

6.3 Material Balances 130

6.4 Flow Regimes and Reactors 134

6.4.1 Flow Regimes 134

6.4.2 Reactors 134

6.5 Energy Balances 143

6.5.1 Definition of Energy and Work 143

Summary 150

Key Words 150

References 150

Exercises 150

 

7 • SUSTAINABILITY AND GREEN DEVELOPMENT 154

7.1 Introduction 154

7.2 Sustainable Development and Green Engineering 155

7.2.1 Sustainable Development 155

7.2.2 Green Engineering 155

7.2.3 Material Selection 156

7.3 Nuclear Physics 158

7.3.1 Radioactivity 159

7.4 Case Histories 165

7.4.1 New Chairs from Haworth and Steelcase 165

7.4.2 Paper or Plastic Bags? 165

7.4.3 Selection of Materials for Beverage Containers 166

7.4.4 Coal versus Nuclear Energy 167

7.4.5 Advanced Integrated Wastewater Pond System (AIWPS) 167

Summary 169

Key Words 169

References 169

Exercises 171

 

8 • WATER QUALITY AND POLLUTION 172

8.1 Importance of Water 172

8.2 Beneficial Uses of Water 172

8.2.1 Public Supply 173

8.2.2 Domestic 174

8.2.3 Irrigation 174

8.2.4 Livestock 174

8.2.5 Aquaculture 174

8.2.6 Industrial 174

8.2.7 Mining 175

8.2.8 Thermoelectric Power 175

8.3 Hydrologic Cycle 175

8.4 Water Pollution 175

8.5 Water Quality Parameters 177

8.5.1 Conventional Water Quality Assessment Parameters 177

8.6 Water Quality Standards 194

8.6.1 Drinking Water Standards 194

8.6.2 Wastewater Effluent Standards 195

8.6.3 Surface Water Quality Standards 196

8.7 Kepone Contamination of the James River 197

Summary 197

Key Words 198

References 198

Exercises 199

 

9 • WATER TREATMENT 201

9.1 Introduction 201

9.2 General Considerations for Selecting Technology 202

9.2.1 Water Source and Quality 202

9.2.2 Drinking Water Standards 202

9.2.3 Microconstituents 203

9.3 Overview of Surface Water Treatment Systems 203

9.3.1 Conventional Surface Water Treatment 203

9.3.2 Membrane Treatment 205

9.4 Overview of Groundwater Treatment Systems 205

9.4.1 Conventional Lime-Soda Ash Treatment 206

9.4.2 Reverse Osmosis Treatment 206

9.5 Surface Water Treatment Processes 207

9.5.1 Coagulation and Flocculation 207

9.5.2 Mixing 210

9.5.3 Flocculation Tanks 213

9.5.4 Water Softening 215

9.5.5 Sedimentation 220

9.5.6 Filtration 226

9.5.7 Disinfection 233

9.6 Treatment of Water Treatment Plant Residuals 238

Summary 239

Key Words 239

References 239

Exercises 240

 

10 • DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT 243

10.1 Introduction 243

10.2 Wastewater Treatment Categorization 245

10.2.1 Secondary Wastewater Treatment 245

10.2.2 Advanced Wastewater Treatment (AWT) 246

10.3 Overview of Wastewater Treatment Systems 246

10.4 Preliminary Treatment 247

10.4.1 Screening 248

10.4.2 Grit Removal 248

10.5 Primary Treatment 249

10.6 Secondary Treatment 252

10.6.1 Activated Sludge 253

10.6.2 Aerator Systems 258

10.6.3 Trickling Filters 260

10.7 Secondary Clarification 262

10.8 Disinfection of Wastewater 264

10.8.1 Disinfectants Used in Wastewater Treatment 264

10.8.2 Chlorination of Wastewater 264

10.8.3 Chlorine Contact Basin 264

10.9 Sludge Treatment and Disposal 266

10.9.1 Sludge Weight and Volume Relationships 266

10.9.2 Thickening Operations 267

10.9.3 Stabilization 269

10.9.4 Dewatering 275

10.9.5 Sludge Disposal 275

Summary 275

Key Words 276

References 276

Exercises 277

 

11 • AIR POLLUTION 279

11.1 Introduction 279

11.2 History 280

11.3 Regulatory Overview 281

11.4 Sources and Effects 282

11.4.1 Particulates 282

11.4.2 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 283

11.4.3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 284

11.4.4 Sulfur Oxides (SOx) 284

11.4.5 Lead 285

11.4.6 Ozone (O3) 285

11.4.7 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) 286

11.4.8 The Greenhouse Effect and Global Climate Change 286

11.5 Control of Particulate Matter From Stationary Sources 289

11.5.1 Mechanical Separators–Settling Chambers 290

11.5.2 Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) 293

11.6 Gas and Vapor Control Technology 297

11.6.1 Incineration 297

11.6.2 Absorption–Packed-Bed Scrubbers and Flue Gas Desulfurization 298

Summary 302

Key Words 302

References 302

Exercises 303

 

12 • FUNDAMENTALS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE REMEDIATION 305

12.1 The Problem 305

12.1.1 Highlights in Hazardous Waste History 305

12.2 Contaminant Characteristics and Phase Distribution 309

12.2.1 Contaminants of Concern 309

12.2.2 Contaminant Characteristics 315

12.2.3 Darcy’s Law 320

12.3 Overview of Microbial Processes 323

12.3.1 An Overview of Bacteria 323

12.3.2 Environmental Factors Affecting Microbial Metabolism 323

12.4 Introduction to Engineered Remediation Processes 324

12.4.1 In situ Remediation Schemes 324

12.4.2 Ex situ Remediation Schemes — Composting and Landfarming 328

Summary 331

Key Words 331

References 331

Exercises 332

 

13 • INTRODUCTION TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 333

13.1 Introduction 333

13.2 Regulations and Solid Waste Management 335

13.2.1 RCRA Solid Waste Definition 335

13.2.2 RCRA Hazardous Waste Definition 336

13.2.3 RCRA Nonhazardous Waste 337

13.3 Waste Generation (Quantifying MSW Generation) 337

13.4 Solid Waste Collection 340

13.4.1 Types of Collection Systems 340

13.4.2 Equipment 341

13.4.3 Problems and Concerns 341

13.5 Landfill Containment and Monitoring Systems 343

Summary 345

Key Words 345

References 345

Exercises 346