Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment: A Guide to Principles and Practice

Paperback | September 19, 2014

byBram F. Noble

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This practical, step-by-step introduction to environmental impact assessment examines EIA tools, procedures, and methodology while taking into account both physical and human environments. With its interdisciplinary approach and extensive Canadian case studies, this text exposes students toEIA at work in the real world.

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This practical, step-by-step introduction to environmental impact assessment examines EIA tools, procedures, and methodology while taking into account both physical and human environments. With its interdisciplinary approach and extensive Canadian case studies, this text exposes students toEIA at work in the real world.

Bram Noble is a professor in the Department of Geography and Planning at the University of Saskatchewan. His PhD is in geography with a specialization in environmental assessment from Memorial University of Newfoundland.

other books by Bram F. Noble

Format:PaperbackDimensions:360 pages, 9 × 6 × 0.66 inPublished:September 19, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199006342

ISBN - 13:9780199006342

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Table of Contents

Part One: Environmental Impact Assessment Principles1. Aims and Objectives of Environmental Impact AssessmentIntroductionDefining Environmental Impact Assessment- Environmental Change and EffectsEIA Theory and Objective- EIA Output and Outcome ObjectivesThe Origins and Development of EIA- EIA Origins- EIA DevelopmentInternational Status of EIA- Canada- Australia- European Union- China- Developing Nations and Development AgenciesThe Basic EIA Process- Operating PrinciplesOpportunities for and Challenges to EIA- Ensuring a Quality EIA Process- Balancing Efficiency and Efficacy- Improved EIA Governance2. Overview of Environmental Impact Assessment in CanadaEIA in CanadaCanadian EIA Systems- Provincial EIA- Northern EIADevelopment of Federal EIA- EARP Origins- Canadian Environmental Assessment Act- Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012- Major Changes under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012- "Higher-Order" Assessment- EIA Directions3. Tools Supporting EIA PracticeThe Practitioner's ToolkitTools for Impact Identification, Interpretation, Organization, and Communication- Checklists- Matrices- Trends and Associations- Spatial AnalysisTools for Impact Prediction- Analogue Approaches- Judgment- Systems Modelling- Scenario AnalysisTool SelectionPart Two: Environmental Impact Assessment Practice4. Screening ProceduresScreeningScreening Approaches- Is an EIA Required?- Hybrid ScreeningScreening Requirements in Canada- Requirements for EIA- Determining Whether an EIA Is Required- Type of EIA RequiredGeneral Guidance for Screening- Screening and the Precautionary Principle5. Scoping and Environmental Baseline AssessmentsScopingScoping Requisites- Identification of Project Alternatives- Valued Ecosystem Components- Establish Assessment Boundaries- Conduct the Environmental Baseline StudyScoping Continuation6. Predicting Environmental ImpactsImpact PredictionPredicting Impacts on the Biophysical Environment- What to PredictPredicting Impacts on the Human Environment- What to PredictCharacterizing Predicted Impacts- Order of Environmental Effects- Nature of Environmental Effects and Impacts- Temporal Characteristics of Effects and Impacts- Magnitude, Direction- Spatial Extent- Reversibility and Irreversibility- Likelihood of Effects and ImpactsGood Practice Requirements for Impact Prediction- Accuracy and Precision- Verifiable Impact Predictions- Addressing Uncertainty7. Managing Project ImpactsImpact ManagementManaging Adverse Impacts- Avoidance- Mitigation- Remediation- CompensationManaging Positive Impacts- Creating Benefits- Enhancing BenefitsMeasures That Support Impact Management- Environmental Management Systems- Environmental Protection Plans- Adaptive Management StrategiesEIA and Impact Management in Canada8. Determining Impact SignificanceImpact SignificanceDetermining Significance- Effect and Impact Characteristics- Impact ImportanceApproaches to Significance Determination- Technical Approach- Collaborative Approach- Reasoned Argumentation- Composite ApproachToward a Higher Test for Impact Significance- Guidance for Determining Significance9. Follow-up and MonitoringFollow-up- Follow-up Requirements- Follow-up ComponentsRationale for Post-decision Monitoring- Compliance Monitoring- Progress Monitoring- Monitoring for UnderstandingEffective Follow-up and Monitoring- Objectives and Priorities Identified- Targeted Approach to Data Collection- Hypothesis-Based or Threshold-Based Approaches- Combined Stressor- and Effects-Based Monitoring- Control Sites- Continuity in Data Collection- Ensuring Adaptability, Flexibility, and Timelines- Socio-economic-Inclusive Monitoring- Participatory MonitoringMonitoring Methods and Techniques10. Public Participation in EIAInvolving the Publics- Rationale for Involving the PublicNature and Scope of Public Involvement- Identifying the Publics- Levels of Involvement- Provisions and Requirements for Public Participation in CanadaAboriginal Consultation and Engagement- Duty to Consult- Traditional Ecological KnowledgeMethods and TechniquesMeaningful Participation- Basic Principles- Operating PrinciplesPart Three: Advancing Principles and Practice11. Cumulative Environmental Effects AssessmentCumulative Environmental Effects- Definition of Cumulative Effects- Sources of Cumulative Effects- Types of Cumulative Effects- Pathways of Cumulative EffectsModels of Cumulative Effects Assessment- Effects-Based CEA- Stressor-Based CEA- Good CEAFramework for the Application of CEA- Scoping- Retrospective Analysis- Prospective Analysis- ManagementState of CEA in Canada- Enduring Challenges and Concerns12. Strategic Environmental AssessmentStrategically Oriented Environmental Assessment- Characteristics of SEASystems of SEA- SEA in Canada- SEA Benefits and Opportunities- Types of SEASEA Frameworks- Develop a Reference Framework- Scope the Baseline and Issues of Concern- Identify Trends and Stressors- Formulate Strategic Alternatives- Assess Potential Effects under Each Alternative- Identify a Strategic Direction- Determine Mitigation or Enhancement Needs- Develop a Follow-up Program- Implement the Strategy, Monitor, and EvaluateDirections in SEA13. Professional Practice and Ethics NEWProfessional Practice of EIA- Skills and QualificationsEthics and Practice- Ethical ResponsibilitiesThe Practitioner as Honest BrokerPart Four: Environmental Impact Assessment Postscript14. The Effectiveness of Environmental Assessment: Retrospect and ProspectIntroductionThe Substantive Effectiveness of Environmental Assessment- Environmental Impact Assessment- Cumulative Effects Assessment- Strategic Environmental AssessmentIntegrating the Silos of Environmental AssessmentProspectsGlossaryIndex

Editorial Reviews

"It is concise, comprehensive, and covers all the essential subject matter in EIA. The Canadian content is very helpful." --Peter R. Mulvihill, York University