Introduction to Mineralogy

Hardcover | August 5, 2011

byWilliam D. Nesse

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The second edition of Introduction to Mineralogy follows the highly successful first edition, which became an overnight market leader. Introduction to Mineralogy consolidates much of the material now covered in traditional mineralogy and optical mineralogy courses and focuses on describingminerals within their geologic context. It presents the important traditional content of mineralogy including crystallography, chemical bonding, controls on mineral structure, mineral stability, and crystal growth to provide a foundation that enables students to understand the nature and occurrenceof minerals. Physical, optical, and X-ray powder diffraction techniques of mineral study are described in detail, and common chemical analytical methods are outlined as well. Detailed descriptions of over 100 common minerals are provided, and the geologic context within which these minerals occur is emphasized.Appendices provide tables and diagrams to help students with mineral identification, using both physical and optical properties. Numerous line drawings, photographs, and photomicrographs help make complex concepts understandable. Introduction to Mineralogy is available with Daniel Schulze's An Atlasof Minerals in Thin Section for a nominal additional fee.

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The second edition of Introduction to Mineralogy follows the highly successful first edition, which became an overnight market leader. Introduction to Mineralogy consolidates much of the material now covered in traditional mineralogy and optical mineralogy courses and focuses on describingminerals within their geologic context. It pres...

William D. Nesse is the Chair and Professor of Geology at the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado.

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:496 pages, 8.82 × 10.98 × 1.18 inPublished:August 5, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199827389

ISBN - 13:9780199827381

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Table of Contents

Section I: Minerals1. IntroductionMineralsMineraloidsMineralogyMineral NomenclatureGeneral References on MineralogyReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading2. CrystallographyIntroductionTranslational SymmetryPlane LatticesTranslational Symmetry: 3-DSpace Lattices and Unit CellBravais Lattices and Crystal SystemsPoint SymmetryReflectionRotationInversionCompound Symmetry OperationsSymmetry Notation32 Point GroupsSteno's LawMeasurement of Crystal AnglesDetermining Crystal System and Crystal ClassSpace GroupsCrystal FacesLaws of Hauy and BravaisMiller IndicesIndices and Crystal Axes in the Hexagonal Crystal SystemDetermining Miller IndexAssigning Miller Indexes by InspectionCrystallographic DirectionsZonesCrystal FormsIsometric FormsNon-isometric FormsCombining Crystal FormsEnantiomorphous Forms and CrystalsPositive and Negative FormsForms in the Six Crystal SystemsTriclinic Crystal SystemMonoclinic Crystal SystemOrthorhombic Crystal SystemTetragonal Crystal SystemHexagonal Crystal SystemIsometric Crystal SystemCrystal HabitReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading3. Crystal ChemistryIntroductionThe Nature of Chemical ElementsNucleusEclectronsFormation of IonsAbundance of the ElementsChemical BondingValence-related bondingRelation among the Valence-dependent BondsBonds Not Involving Valence ElectronsSize of Atoms and IonsOxidation StateCoordinationReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading4. Crystal Structure IntroductionIntroductionControls of Crystal StructureStructure Controls with Metallic BondingStructure Controls with Covalent BondingStructural Controls with Molecular CrystalsStructure Controls with Ionic BondingApplication of Pauling's RulesIllustrating Mineral StructuresIsostructural MineralsPolymorphismReconstructive PolymorphismDisplacive PolymorphismOrder-Disorder PolymorphismPolytypismMineral ClassificationCompositional Variation in MineralsSubstitutional Solid SolutionMineral FormulasGraphical RepresentationBinary diagramsTernary diagramsReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading5. Mineral GrowthIntroductionMineral StabileyStabilityGibbs Free EnergyMineral reactionsMineral NucleationHomogeneous NucleationHeterogeneous NucleationCrystal GrowthRate of GrowthZoned CrystalsStructural DefectsPoint DefectsLine DefectsPlanar DefectsTwinningPost-crystallization ProcessesOrderingTwinningRecrystallizationExsolutionRadioactivity and MineralsReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional ReadingSection II: Mineral Properties of Minerals6. Physical Properties of MineralsIntroductionMass Dependent PropertiesDensitySpecific GravityProperties Related to Mechanical CohesionHarnessTenacityCleavageFracturePartingColor and LusterLightPerception of ColorMineral LusterMineral ColorColor From Mechanical CausesConsistency of Mineral ColorStreakLuminescenceMagnetismDiamagnetismParamagnetismFerromagnetismFerrimagnetismElectrical PropertiesElectrical ConductivityPiezoelectricityPyroelectricityMiscellaneous PropertiesReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading7. Optical MineralogyIntroductionLightLight WavesPolarized LightInteraction of Light and MatterOptically Isotropic vs. Anisotropic MaterialsReflection and RefractionDispersionPetrographic MicroscopeIlluminatorSubstage AssemblyMicroscope StageObjective LensesUpper PolarizeBertrand LensOcularsFocusing MechanismAccessoriesDirection ConventionsIsotropic MaterialsAnisotropic MineralsInterference PhenomenaUse of the Interference Color ChartExtinctionFunction of Accessory PlatesOptical IndicatrixIsotropic IndicatrixUniaxial IndicatrixBiaxial IndicatrixMineral Color and PleochroismIsotropic MineralsUniaxial MineralsBiaxialExtinction Angle and Sign of ElongationExtinction AngleSign of ElongationCategories of ExtinctionExtinction in Uniaxial MineralsInterference FiguresUniaxial Interference FiguresBiaxial Interference FigureRefractometry: Measurement of Index of RefractionImmersion MethodRefractometry in Thin SectionIsotropic MineralsUniaxial MineralsBiaxial MineralsReflected-Light OpticsObservation in Plane Polarized LightObservations with Crossed PolarizersTactics for Mineral IdentificationThin section identificationGrain Mount IdentificationPolished section identificationReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading8. Introduction to X-ray CrystallographyIntroductionX-raysX-ray GenerationX-ray DetectionX-ray DiffractionPowder MethodSample PreparationInstrumental OutputData ReductionPowder Diffraction FileBragg Reflection IndicesMineral IdentificationMixed SamplesEstimation of Relative Mineral AbundanceEstimation of CompositionDetermining Unit Cell ParametersReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading9. Chemical Analysis of MineralsIntroductionAnalytical MethodsWet ChemicalElectron Probe MicroanalysisX-ray FluorescenceMass SpectrometryConventions in Reporting Chemical AnalysesConversion of Chemical Analyses to Structural FormulasReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading10. Strategies for StudyIntroductionMineral Identification TacticsMineral SeparationHand Sample IdentificationThin Section IdentificationGrain Mount IdentificationPolished Section IdentificationX-ray DiffractionMineral AssociationProblems in ParadiseReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional ReadingIndexSection III: Silicates11. SilicatesIntroductionSilicate Structure and ClassificationMafic vs. FelsicIgneous RocksMagmatic ProcessesIgneous EnvironmentsTerrigenous Sedimentary RocksSedimentary ProcessesSedimentary EnvironmentsMetamorphic RocksMetamorphic VariablesMetamorphic ProcessesMetamorphic Grade, Facies, Mineral Zone Boundaries and IsogradsMajor Compositional Groups of Metamorphic RocksMetamorphic EnvironmentsReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading12. Framework SilicatesIntroductionSilica GroupQuartzTridymiteCristobaliteFeldspar GroupCompositionStructureAI/Si Order/DisorderExsolution in the FeldsparsOther Feldspar IntergrowthsTwinningPlagioclaseK-FeldsparFeldspathoidsNephelineLeuciteSodaliteZeolite GroupScapoliteReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading13. Sheet SilicatesIntroductionStructure and Classification1:1 Layer Silicates2:1 Layer SilicatesPolytypismTO Structures (1:1)Serpentine (Antigorite, Chrysotile, Lizardite)KaoliniteTOT StructuresTalcPyrophylliteTOT + c Structures: Mica Minerals (2:1)MuscoviteBiotiteGlauconiteTOT + c Structures: Brittle Micas (2:1)MargariteClintoniteTOT + O StructureChloriteClay MineralsStructure and ClassificationGeology of ClayIdentificationUsesClay in the EnvironmentOther Sheet SilicatesStilpnomelanePrehnite14. Chain SilicatesIntroductionPyroxene groupStructure and ClassificationGeology of PyroxenesOrthopyroxeneLo-Ca ClinopyroxeneCalcic ClinopyroxeneAegirine (Acmite), Aegirine-augiteJadeiteOmphaciteSpodumenePyroxenoid GroupIntroductionWollastoniteRhodonitePectoliteAmphibole GroupStructure and ClassificationGeology of AmphibolesOrthoamphiboleCummingtonite-GruneriteTremolite - Ferro-actinoliteHornblendeGlaucophane - RiebeckiteOther amphibolesReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading15. Disilicates and Ring SilicatesDisilicatesStructure and ClassificationZoisiteClinozoisite-EpidoteAllaniteLawsonitePumpellyitering SilicatesStructure and ClassificationBerylCordieriteTourmalineReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading16. OrthosilicatesIntroductionOlivine GroupGarnet GroupZirconAluminum SilicatesAndalusiteSillimaniteKyaniteStauroliteChloritoidTitaniteTopazReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading17. Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Borates, Tungstates, and MolybdatesStructure and ClassificationCarbonatesRhombohedral Carbonates (Calcite and Dolomite Groups)CalciteMagnesiteSideriteRhodochrositeDolomite-AnkeriteAragonite GroupAragoniteWitheriteStrontianiteOH-Bearing CarbonatesMalachiteAzuriteSulfatesGypsumAnhydriteBaritePhosphatesApatiteMonaziteXenotimeTourquoiseTungstates and MolybdatesBoratesReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading18. Oxides, Hydroxides, and HalidesIntroductionOxidesX20 GroupCupriteIceXO GroupXY204 MineralsSpinel GroupMagnetiteChromiteSpinel SeriesChrysoberylX2O3 GroupHematiteCorundumIlmeniteXO2 GroupRutileCassiteriteUraniniteHydroxidesBruciteIron Hydroxide MineralsAluminum Hydroxide MineralsManganese Oxide and Hydroxide MineralsHalidesHaliteSylviteFluoriteReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading19. Sulfides and Related MineralsIntroductionCrystal Chemistry and ClassificationSulfide ParagenesisHydrothermal DepositsSupergene ProcessesSulfide MineralsSphaleriteGalenaPyrrhotiteChalcopyriteCinnabarPyriteMarcasiteMolybdeniteBorniteChalcociteCovelliteSulfarsenidesArsenopyriteArsenidesTelluridesReferences Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading20. Native ElementsIntroductionMetalsGoldSilverCopperSemimetalsNonmetalsSulfurGraphiteDiamondReferences Cited and Suggestions for ReadingAppendices:Appendix A. Effective Ionic Radii of the ElementsAppendix B. Determinative TablesTable B.1. Non-metallic minerals with white, gray, or other pale colored streak.Table B.2. Non-metallic minerals with distinctly colored streak.Table B.3. Minerals with metallic and submetallic luster.Table B.4. Specific gravity.Table B.5. Minerals that may fluoresce.Table B.6. Color of minerals in thin section and grain mount.Table B.7. Indices of refraction of isotropic mineralsTable B.8. Indices of refraction of uniaxial minerals.Table B9. Indices of refraction of biaxial negative minerals arranged in order of increasing n?.Table B.10. Indices of refraction of biaxial positive minerals arranged in order of increasing n?.Table B.11. Minerals that produce pleochroic halos in surrounding minerals.Table B.12. Colors exhibited by opaque minerals in polished section viewed in air.Table B.13. Opaque or nearly opaque minerals that display internal reflections with reflected light.Appendix C. Mineral AssociationsTable C1. Mineralogy of Common Igneous RocksTable C2. Mineralogy of Sedimentary RocksTable C3. Mineralogy of Common Metamorphic RocksTable C4. Mineralogy of Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposits