Introduction to Physical Anthropology

Paperback | February 11, 2011

EditorJohn Steckley

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Brand new and distinctly Canadian, Introduction to Physical Anthropology is a fresh and engaging treatment of the fundamentals of the field. Written in his trademark approachable style, author John Steckley guides students through basic concepts such as archaeological tools and dating methods;taxonomy; and evolution and genetics; before moving on to more complex issues such as the transition from hominids to modern Homo sapiens; Neandertals; human variation; ethics and migration; and forensic anthropology. Combining scientific discoveries with personal anecdotes and controversial casestudies, the text exposes students to the subjective side of science and the human fallibility of scientists. Profiles of Canadian anthropologists, national research and examples, and Aboriginal material offer students a Canadian perspective on an international field of study. Rich, colourful photosexhibit a range of living species and fossil specimens, while unique pedagogical features encourage students to become active participants in their learning. Fascinating, accessible, and innovative, Introduction to Physical Anthropology is the ideal book for students new to the discipline.

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Brand new and distinctly Canadian, Introduction to Physical Anthropology is a fresh and engaging treatment of the fundamentals of the field. Written in his trademark approachable style, author John Steckley guides students through basic concepts such as archaeological tools and dating methods;taxonomy; and evolution and genetics; befor...

John Steckley is professor of sociology and anthropology at Humber College, where he has taught for over 20 years. He is a past president of the Ontario Archaeological Society; a specialist in Aboriginal languages, culture, and history (and reportedly the last known speaker of the Wyandot [or Huron] language; and has worked as a consu...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:360 pages, 11 × 8.5 × 0.43 inPublished:February 11, 2011Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195432150

ISBN - 13:9780195432152

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Table of Contents

PrefaceFrom the PublisherTables, Figures, and MapsBoxed Features1. IntroductionIntroduction: Physical Anthropology Faces BigfootThe Four Branches of AnthropologyA Case Study: Using the Four Branches to Solve a Historical MysteryBranches of Physical AnthropologyHuman EvolutionGeneticsPaleoanthropologyAnthropometryMedical AnthropologyForensic AnthropologyPrimatologyScienceThe Scientific MethodFact, Theory, and HypothesisObjectivity and Subjectivity: Lumpers and SplittersLumpers and Splitters: Declaring Which Side You Are OnHow Do You Feel about Apes?Author's MessageSummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey Species and SpecimensKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources2. Tools of the Trade: How Old Is That?IntroductionRelative DatingStratigraphySeriationAbsolute DatingA Warning about Websites and Absolute DatingWritingDendrochronologyVarvesRadiocarbon Dating: Carbon 14The Dead Sea Scrolls: An Exercise in Radiocarbon DatingStonehenge: Radiocarbon Dating Rewriting HistoryHow to Test a New Form of Dating: ConsiliencePotassium-Argon DatingElectron Spin ResonanceSummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsAnswers to Table 2.1Key TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources3. EvolutionWhat Is Evolution?What Evolution Is NotPhilosophical Stances and EvolutionNatural SelectionGregor Mendel and EvolutionGenetics: The PlayersMutation: We Are All X-MenIt's Not How Many Genes You've Got that CountsSelective PressureDebates within Evolutionary TheoryProofs for Evolution1. Direct Observation of Evolution2. Transitions and Consistency in the Fossil Record3. Biogeography4. Comparative Anatomy5. Unintelligent Design: Vestigial Structures, Imperfections, and Atavisms6. Molecular Biology7. The Embryo: 'Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny' (in part, anyway)SummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources4. Evolutionary PathwaysIntroductionFamily Trees and BushesTwo Concepts that are Hard to Grasp1. Deep Time2. Continental DriftTaxonomyTraitsGenus and BeyondSpeciesSo Is a Bird a Reptile, or What?So What is Louie?Concestors: They've Come a Long Way Since ThenLong Live the Kingdoms (or Maybe Not)Changing KingdomsAnimaliaRunning through the Family: From Farthest to our Closest RelationsMammalsPrimates and Their EvolutionFossil PrimatesProconsul: The Speciating GenusGigantopithecus: King Kong LivesSummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources5. Primates: Taxonomy and BehaviourPreface: The Dread of ApesIntroductionPrimatologyAn Ape is NOT a MonkeyDental PatternsTaxonomySubordersStrepsiirhiniWhat I Used to TeachHaplorrhiniTarsiiformes (Tarsiers)Simiformes (the Primates Formerly Known as Anthropoids)Platyrrhinii (New World Monkeys)Catarrhini (Old World Monkeys and Apes)Old World Monkeys: Cercopithecoidae (Superfamily) and Cercopithecidae (Family)Cercopithecoidae (superfamily) and Cercopithecidae (family)A Close Look at Some Catarrhini SpeciesBaboonsGibbonsGreat Apes and Humans: A Taxonomic ShiftOrangutansGorillasChimpanzees and BonobosSummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources6. Hominins before HomoIntroductionKey Anatomical TermsThe Arm or Upper LimbThe Leg or Lower LimbThe Skull or CraniumBipedalismThe Return of the Lumpers and the Splitters, and the Difficulties of Naming Dead SpeciesThe Species Concept and Its DifficultiesOpposing Models of Species DefinitionUnintelligent Design: Vestigial Structures and ImperfectionsFossil Hominin SpeciesSahelanthropus tchadensisOrrorin tugenensisArdipithecus kadabbaArdipithecus ramidusKenyanthropus platyopsAustralopithecus anamensisAustralopithecus afarensisAustralopithecus bahrelghazaliAustralopithecus africanusThe Robust AustralopithecinesAustralopithecus garhiAustralopithecus robustusAustralopithecus boiseiSummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources7. Early HomoIntroductionThe Brain GameHomo habilisKNM-ER 1470 and the Great Cranial Capacity DebateTwo Recent FindsDating H. habilisFinal Thoughts on the 'Handyman'Homo rudolfensisHomo erectusWhy Do They Have Thick Skulls?The Movius LineThe Big ComplicationHomo erectus Finds in IndonesiaEugene Dubois and the Discovery of Homo erectusMojokerto ChildSangiranNgandongHomo erectus Finds in ChinaHomo erectus pekingensis: Peking ManFireHomo erectus Finds in AfricaHomo erectus/ergasterTurkana BoyKNM-ER 1808Related Species: H. georgicus and H. floresiensisHomo georgicusHomo floresiensisSummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources8. Transition to Modern Homo sapiensIntroductionModern Homo sapiens: Lumper's and Splitter's TaxonomiesThe Origins of 'Modern' Human BeingsChanging from Homo erectus to Homo sapiensThe Origin of Homo sapiens: Three Hypotheses1. Out of Africa2. Multiregionalism2. Clinal ReplacementTool Talk, Part 1Mode 1Mode 2Mode 3Mode 4Homo heidelbergensisSignificant European FindsHeidelberg JawSteinheim SkullSwanscombe SkullPetralona SkullArago XXI or 'Tautavel Man'Sima de los Huesos (the Pit of Bones)Boxgrove ManGran DolinaHomo cepranensisThe Schoningen SpearsThe Upper PalaeolithicCro-MagnonAncient mtDNASignificant African FindsKabwe (Broken Hill) SkullFlorisbad ISale CraniumLH18 (Ngaloba)Bodo CraniumUA 31 (Buia)Omo I and IIH. sapiens idaltu (Herto)Klasies RiverBorder CaveSkhul VQafzeh CaveSignificant Chinese FindsDali CraniumJinniushan ManMaba CraniumLiujiangSummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources9. NeandertalIntroductionNeandertal in Popular CultureLocation and Time PeriodThe Physical DescriptionEarly Neandertal FindsThe Feldhofer Find: Naming the OtherOther Early FindsThe Spiritual Cannibal: Remaking Neandertal into a HumanFlowers and Compassion: Shanidar Cave, IraqWhy Did Neandertal Become Extinct?Theor 1: Violence between Cro-Magnon and NeandertalTheory 2: Differences in Hunting PracticesWere Neandertals Bad Hunters...Or Were They Turrific Hunters?Theory 3: Differences in Tool UseTool Talk, Part 2What's in the ToolboxTheory 4: The Acculturated NeandertalThe Chatelperronian TraditionAnatomy versus Culture: Who Was Better in the Cold?Gorham's CaveThe Famous Fossil Femur FluteHybridsLapedo ChildThe Romanian EvidenceSpanish TeethMitochondrial EvidenceMezmaiskaya CavePitfalls of mtDNA StudiesThe Neandertal GenomeSummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources10. Human VariationIntroductionVariation within (Non-human) SpeciesPhases, Mutations, and BreedsSubspeciesA Brief Look at the History of Race Concept in ScienceDefining the Races: Blumenbach, Morton, and CoonThe Race Game: Other ProblemsSkin Colour as a RacializerSkin Colour: Frequently Asked Student Questions and Rarely Given AnswersEye ColourThe Cephalic Index: Race and PlasticityDental AnthropologyThe Genetic ApproachMitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)Y-Chromosome: the General PictureRace and Measurement: A Modern PerspectiveRace and DiseaseBlood Disorder and Race1. Sickle-Cell Anemia2. Thalassemia3. Tay-SachsThe Thrifty GeneLactose IntoleranceHIV and CC5-Delta 32SummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources11. Recent History: Ethics, Migrations, and the Physical Costs of AgricultureIntroductionEthicsThe Case for ScienceOvercoming the Bias of the BookThe Case Against ScienceThe People's Rightful Connection to the BonesStories of Trophies of ScienceGeorge A. Dorsey and the HaidaWhat about Now? Science and Ethics TodayNAGPRA and the Kennewick Man DisputeCanadian CasesKwaday Dan Ts'inchiEthical Consideration in South and Central American CasesLatin America: A Different Attitude toward the DeadInca Mummies: Whose Are They?Trying to Resolve the Issue of Aboriginal OsteologyLearning About the Culture of a PeopleThe IcemanThe Shift to Agriculture: Effects on the BodyThe Peopling of the AmericasThey Came from AsiaThe Archaeological EvidenceThe Linguistic EvidenceThe Beringia Refuge HypothesisThe Genetic Evidence: Y-Chromosomes and the AmericasThe Cranial Evidence: Skulls versus GenesSummaryTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources12. Forensic AnthropologyIntroduction: Fact Meets FictionHow Do You Know You're Going to Be a Forensic Anthropologist?A Brief History of Forensic AnthropologyThomas Dwight, Father of American Forensic AnthropologyGeorge A. Dorsey and the Case of the Sausage Maker's WifeClyde Snow and the Angel of DeathWilliam Bass and The Body FarmForensic Anthropology Step by Step1. Determining That the Body Is Human2. Numbering the Skeletons3. Sexing the Skeleton4. Racing the Skeleton5. Aging the Skeleton6. Estimating Skeletal Stature7. Establishing Cause of DeathForensic Anthropology in Action: Two Canadian CasesThe Case of the Swansea SkullThe Robert Pickton CaseUnidentified Persons: A Sample from the RCMP Cold Case FilesHuman Rights Work: Witnesses to World OppressionThe Equipo Argentino de Antropologia, or Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team: From Disappeared to Witness for the ProsecutionClea Koff: The Bone WomanTypical Student QuestionsReview QuestionsDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey IndividualsRecommended Print and Online Resources13. ConclusionsIntroduction: A Changing FieldNew Thoughts on the Species ConceptNew Thoughts on Genetic Dating: The Penguins SpeakNew Thoughts on Race: The Place of Race in Physical Anthropology TodayNew Thoughts on Physical AnthropologistsNew Thoughts on BipedalismNew Thoughts on Human EvolutionNew Thoughts on Nations: Seeking the TainoConcluding RemarksDiscussion QuestionsKey TermsKey SpeciesKey IndividualsIf You Were to Read 10 Books...Other Recommended ResourcesGlossaryBibliographyCreditsIndex