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# Introduction to the Physics of Landslides: Lecture notes on the dynamics of mass wasting

## byFabio Vittorio de Blasio

### Hardcover | May 15, 2011

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Landslides represent one of the most destructive natural catastrophes. They can reach extremely long distances and velocities, and are capable of wiping out human communities and settlements. Yet landslides have a creative facet as they contribute to the modification of the landscape. They are the consequence of the gravity pull jointly with the tectonic disturbance of our living planet.Landslides are most often studied within a geotechnical and geomorphological perspective. Engineering calculations are traditionally applied to the stability of terrains. In this book, landslides are viewed as a physical phenomenon. A physical understanding of landslides is a basis for modeling and mitigation and for understanding their flow behavior and dynamics. We still know relatively little about many aspects of landslide physics. It is only recently that the field of landslide dynamics is approaching a more mature stage. This is testified by the release of modelling tools for the simulation of landslides and debris flows. In this book the emphasis is placed on the problems at the frontier of landslide research. Each chapter is self-consistent, with questions and arguments introduced from the beginning.

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Title:Introduction to the Physics of Landslides: Lecture notes on the dynamics of mass wastingFormat:HardcoverDimensions:423 pagesPublished:May 15, 2011Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9400711212

ISBN - 13:9789400711211

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Table of Contents

Preface.-1. Introduction and problems.-1.1 Landslides: an overview.-1.1.1. What is a landslide?.- 1.1.2. Landslides as a geological hazard.-1.1.3. Landslides as a geomorphic driving force.-1.1.4. Physical aspects of landslides.-1.2. Types of landslides.-1.2.1. Geometrical characteristics of a landslide.-1.2.2. Description of the seven types of movements.- 1.3. A physical classification of Gravity Mass Flows.-2. Friction, cohesion, and slope stability.-2.1. Friction and Cohesion.-2.1.1. Normal and shear stresses.- 2.1.2. Friction.- 2.1.3. Cohesion.-2.2. Slope Stability2.2.1. A few words on slope stability.-2.2.2. An example: layered slope. 2.2.3. A few basics concepts of soil mechanics and an application to slumps.- 2.2.4. Other factors contributing to instability.-3. Introduction to fluid mechanics.-3.1. Introduction.-3.1.1. What is a fluid?.-3.2.Fluid static.-3.3. Simple treatment of some topics in fluid dynamics.-3.3.1. Fluid flow (key concept: velocity field, streamlines, streamtubes).- 3.3.2. Fluid flow in a pipe with a constriction (key concepts: continuity, incompressibility).-3.3.3. Lift force on a half-cylinder (key concept: energy conservation and the Bernoulli equation).-3.3.4. Flow of a plate on a viscous fluid (key concepts: no-slip condition, viscosity, Newtonian fluids).- 3.3.5. Fluid pattern around a cylinder (key concepts: Reynolds number, turbulence).- 3.4. Microscopic model of a fluid and mass conservation.-3.4.1. The pressure in a gas is due to the impact of molecules.-3.4.2. Viscosity.-3.5. Conservation of mass: the continuity equation.-3.5.1. Flux.-3.5.2. Continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates.-3.6. A more rigorous approach to Fluid Mechanics: momentum and Navier-Stokes equation.-3.6.1. Lagrangian and Eulerian viewpoints.-3.6.2. Momentum equation.- 3.6.3. Analysis of the forces.-3.6.4. Adding up the rheological properties: the Navier-Stokes equation.-3.7. Some applications.-3.7.1. Dimensionless numbers in fluid dynamics.-3.7.2. Application to open flow of infinite width channel.-4. Non-Newtonian fluids, mudflows, and debris flows: a rheological approach.- 4.1. Momentum equations, rheology, and fluid flow.-4.2. Dirty water: the rheology of dilute suspensions.- 4.3. Very dirty water: rheology of clay slurries and muds.-4.3.1. Clay mixtures.-4.3.2. Interaction between clay particles.-4.3.2. Rheology of clay mixtures and other fluids.-4.3.4. Bingham and Herschel Bulkley.-4.3.5. Shear strength as a function of the solid concentration.-4.3.6. Relationship between soil properties and fluid dynamics properties.-4.4. Behavior of a mudflow described by Bingham rheology: one-dimensional system.-4.5. Flow of a Bingham fluid in a channel.- 4.6. Rheological flows: general properties.-4.6.1. Introduction.-4.6.2. Geological Materials of rheological flows.-4.6.3. Structure of a debris flow chute and deposit.- 4.6.4. Examples of rheological flows.-4.7. Debris flows: dynamics.-4.7.1. Velocity.- 4.7.2. Dynamical description of a debris flow.-4.7.3. Impact force of a debris flow against a barrier.- 4.7.4. Quasi-periodicity.-4.7.5. Theoretical and semiempirical formulas to predict the velocity.-5. A short introduction to the physics of granular media.-5.1 Introduction to granular materials.-5.1.1. Solid mechanics: Hooke's law, Poisson coefficients, elasticity.-5.1.2. Granular media in the Earth Sciences. Angle of repose.-5.1.3. Force between grains.-5.2. Static of granular materials.-5.2.1. Pressures inside a container filled with granular material.-5.2.2. Force chains.-5.3. Grain Collisions.-5.3.1. Grain-wall collisions.-5.3.2. Grain-grain collisions.- 5.4. Dynamics of granular materials; avalanching.-5.4.1. General.-5.4.2. Dynamics of granular materials at high shear rate: granular gases and granular temperature.-5.4.3. Haff's equation.-5.4.4. Fluid dynamical model of a granular flow.-5.5. Dispersive stresses and the Brazil nut effect.-5.5.1. Dispersive pressure.-5.5.2. Brazil nuts and inverse grading.-6. Granular flows and rock avalanches.-6.1. Rock avalanches: an introduction.-6.1.1. Historical note.-6.1.2. Examples of rock avalanches: a quick glance.-6.1.3. The volumes of rock avalanches.-6.2. Rock avalanche scars and deposits.-6.2.1. Rock avalanche deposits: large-scale features.-6.2.2. Rock avalanche deposits: intermediate-scale features.- 6.3 Dynamical properties of rock avalanches and stages of their development.-6.3.1. Velocity of a rock avalanche.-6.3.2. Stages in the development of a rock avalanche.-6.4. Simple lumped mass and slab models for rock avalanches.-6.4.1. A simple model of landslide movement.-6.4.2. Use of energy conservation (1): runout of a Coulomb frictional sliding body.-6.4.3. Use of energy conservation (2): calculation of the velocity with arbitrary slope path.-6.4.4. A slab model.-6.5. Application of the models to real case studies.-6.5.1. Elm.-6.5.2. The landslides of Novaya Zemlia test site.-6.6. The fahrböschung of a rock avalanche.-6.6.1. The importance of the centre of mass of the landslide distribution.-6.6.2. Fahrböschung of a rock avalanche.-6.7. How does a rock avalanche travel?.- 6.8 The problem of the anomalous mobility of large rock avalanches.-6.8.1. Statement of the problem.-6.8.2. A list of possible explanations.-6.8.3. Explanations than do not require liquid or gaseous phases.- 6.8.4. Explanation of the anomalous mobility of rock avalanches invoking exotic mechanisms and new phases.-6.9. Frictionites, frictional gouge, thermal effects, and behavior of rocks at high shear rates; fragmentation.-6.9.1. Frictionite, melt lubrication, and the Kofels landslide.-6.9.2. Vapor or gas at high pressure.-7. Landslides in peculiar environments.-7.1. Landslides falling into water reservoirs.-7.1.1. General classification.-7.1.2. Limit C landslide comparable to the water mass, C=1.-7.2. Coastal landslides and landslides falling onto large water basins, C>>1.-7.2.1. General.-7.2.3. Landslides propagating retrogressively from the sea to land.-7.2.5. Generation and propagation of the tsunami in lakes and fjords.-7.3. Landslides traveling on glaciers.-7.3.1. General considerations.-7.3.2. Dinamics of landslides traveling on glaciers.-7.4. Landslides in the Solar System.-7.4.1. Landslides on planets and satellites, except Mars.-7.4.2. Landslides on Mars.-8. Rockfalls, talus formation and hillslope evolution.-8.1. Introduction to the problems and examples.-8.1.1. General.-8.1.2. Physical processes during a rock fall.-8.2. Simple models of a simple object falling down a slope.-8.2.1. Simple models of rolling, bouncing, gliding, and falling.-8.3. Simple rockfall models.-8.3.1. A simple lumped mass model.- 8.3.2. The CRSP model.-8.3.3. Three-dimensional programs.-8.4. The impact with the terrain.-8.4.1. The physical process of impact against hard and soft ground.-8.4.2. Coefficents of restitution and friction.-8.4.3. Block disintegration and extremely energetic rockfalls.-8.5. Talus formation and evolution.-8.5.1. Kinds of talus and their structure.-8.5.2. Physical processes on top of taluses.- 8.6. Topple.-9. Subaqueous landslides.-9.1. Introduction and examples.-9.1.1. Some examples in brief.-9.2. Peculiarities of subaqueous landslides.-9.2.1. Types of subaqueous landslides.-9.2.2. Differences between subaerial and subaqueous landslides.-9.2.3. The H/R-volume diagram for submarine landslides.-9.3. Triggering of subaqueous landslides (especially submarine).-9.4. Forces on a body moving in a fluid.-9.4.1. General considerations.-9.4.2. Drag force.-9.4.3. Skin friction.-9.4.4. Added mass coefficient.-9.5. Tsunamis.-9.5.1. Introduction.-9.5.2. Propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean.-9.6. More dynamical problems.-9.6.1. Outrunner blocks.-9.6.2. Debris flows.-9.6.2. Theories for the mobility of submarine landslides.-10. Other forms of gravity mass flows with potentially hazardous effects.-10.1. Lava streams.-10.2. Ice avalanches.-10.3. Catastrophic flood waves.-10.4. Snow avalanches.-10.5 Slow landslides and soil creep.-10.5.1. Sackungs and lateral spreads.-10.5.2. Soil creep and other superficial mass movements.-10.6. Suspension flows: turbidites and turbidity currents, and relationship with submarine landslides.-10.6.1. Turbiditic basins.-10.1.2. Ancient turbidites.-10.6.3. Flow of a turbidity current.-Appendix GeoApp (Geological and Geotechnical).-Appendix PhysApp (Physical).-Appendix MathApp (Mathematical).- References.-