Iproperty: Profiting From Ideas In An Age Of Global Innovation by William BarrettIproperty: Profiting From Ideas In An Age Of Global Innovation by William Barrett

Iproperty: Profiting From Ideas In An Age Of Global Innovation

byWilliam Barrett, Christopher Price, Thomas Hunt

Hardcover | January 9, 2008

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In today’s turbulent global economy, companies establish competitive advantage by creating the most exciting ideas and taking them to market. To sustain this competitive advantage and thrive long term, innovative companies must use intellectual property to protect their valuable ideas. iProperty explores the intellectual property strategies and tactics used by successful companies to protect ideas. It answers the question, "If I’m serious about strategically deploying intellectual property in a way that benefits my bottom line, what should I do on Monday morning to make that happen?" Too often, books dealing with strategy remain high-level and vague, while intellectual property books frequently bog the reader down in the intricacies of patent laws and regulations. Avoiding these extremes, iProperty emphasizes the concrete details involved in actual implementation and provides executives, managers and attorneys with practical advice for developing and executing a strategic intellectual property plan that will yield a measurable return on investment.
William Barrett is a patent attorney and author with a passion for developing novel approaches to managing intellectual property. He is Vice President of Intellectual Property for Advanced Liquid Logic, Inc., in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Christopher Price is CEO of LAAMScience, Inc., in Research Triangle Park, North Carol...
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Title:Iproperty: Profiting From Ideas In An Age Of Global InnovationFormat:HardcoverDimensions:288 pages, 10.22 × 7.35 × 0.98 inPublished:January 9, 2008Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0470171790

ISBN - 13:9780470171790

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[(to)-354.8(a)30(v)40(oid)-354.8(the)-354.8(otherwise)-354.8(ine)20(vitab)15(le)-354.8(commoditization.)-354.8(A)-354.7(r)20(ecent)-354.8(Kauffman)]TJ T* [(F)20(oundation)-278(r)20(epor)-25(t)-278(concluded:)]TJ 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 119.1356 464.9876 Tm [(T)150(oda)30(y?)100(s)-224(econom)30(y)-224(i)0(s)-224(d)0(r)-45(i)20(v)40(e)0(n)-224(b)25(y)-224(inno)40(v)30(ation?the)-224(de)20(v)40(elopment)-224(and)-224(adoption)-224(of)-224(ne)20(w)]TJ 0.1007 -1.1818 TD [(pr)30(oducts,)-233.8(pr)30(ocesses,)-233.8(and)-233.8(b)15(usiness)-233.8(models.)-233.8(Nations,)-233.8(states,)-233.8(r)20(e)0(g)-30(ions,)-233.8(r)-45(ms,)-233.8(and)-233.8(e)20(v)40(en)]TJ T* [(indi)20(viduals)-171.9(compete)-171.9(on)-171.9(their)-171.9(ability)-171.9(to)-171.9(accum)15(ulate)30(,)-171.9(agg)-30(r)20(egate)30(,)-171.9(and)-171.9(apply)-171.9(their)-171.9(assets)]TJ T* [(to)-231.5(cr)20(eate)-231.5(v)30(alue)-231.5(in)-231.5(ne)20(w)-231.5(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-231.5(for)-231.5(incr)20(easingly)-231.5(di)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(s)0(e)-231.5(customer)-20(s)-231.5(all)-231.5(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-231.5(the)-231.5(w)40(orld.)]TJ 7.6712 0 0 7.6712 462.6813 430.1114 Tm (3)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 126.2166 398.871 Tm [(Bar)-25(uch)-365.7(Le)20(v)100(,)-365.7(a)-365.7(leading)-365.7(think)30(er)-365.7(in)-365.7(the)-365.7(ar)20(ea)-365.7(of)-365.7(intang)-30(ib)15(le)-365.7(assets,)-365.7(r)20(efer)-20(s)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(to)-423.5(this)-423.5(phenomenon)-423.5(as)-423.5(?the)-423.5(urgency)-423.5(to)-423.5(inno)40(v)30(ate)30(.)125(?)-423.5(Accor)20(ding)-423.5(to)-423.5(Le)20(v)100(,)]TJ T* [(?g)-30(i)20(v)40(en)-273.3(the)-273.3(decr)20(easing)-273.3(economies)-273.3(of)-273.3(scale)-273.3(\(efciency)-273.3(gains\))-273.3(fr)30(om)-273.3(pr)30(oduc-)]TJ T* (tion)Tj 1.8248 0 TD [(.)-160(.)-160(.)-160(coupled)-414.3(with)-414.3(e)20(v)40(er)-414.3(incr)20(easing)-414.3(competiti)20(v)40(e)-414.3(pr)20(essur)20(es,)-414.3(inno)40(v)30(ation)]TJ -1.8248 -1.1538 TD [(has)-298.8(become)-298.8(a)-298.8(matter)-298.8(of)-298.8(cor)-40(porate)-298.8(sur)-25(vi)20(v)30(al.)125(?)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 331.8115 343.7965 Tm (4)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 341.0612 339.0952 Tm [(And)-298.8(while)-298.8(inno)40(v)30(ation)-298.8(ma)30(y)]TJ -17.9731 -1.1538 TD [(confer)-321.5(a)-321.5(competiti)20(v)40(e)-321.5(adv)30(antage)30(,)-321.5(i)0(n)-321.5(the)-321.5(rapidly)-321.5(adapting)-321.5(global)-321.5(econom)30(y)]TJ T* [(the)-252.9(competiti)20(v)40(e)-252.9(adv)30(antage)-252.9(will)-252.9(be)-252.9(shor)-25(t-li)20(v)40(e)0(d)-252.9(without)-252.9(some)-252.9(for)-45(m)-252.9(o)0(f)-252.9(p)0(r)30(o)0(-)]TJ T* [(tection)-278(fr)30(om)-278(those)-278(who)-278(w)40(ould)-278(simply)-278(cop)30(y)-278(the)-278(inno)40(v)30(ation.)]TJ ET 0.93 G 17.933 w 117.25 220.548 m 117.25 272.317 l S 17.534 w 108.342 263.549 m 478.952 263.549 l S BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 137.1756 237.5471 Tm [(Ho)40(w)-228.2(i)0(s)-228.2(the)-228.2(global)-228.2(r)20(edistr)-45(ib)15(ution)-228.2(of)-228.2(inno)40(v)30(ation)-228.2(impacting)-228.2(the)-228.2(w)30(a)30(y)-228.2(y)40(our)-228.2(compan)20(y)]TJ 0 -1.3182 TD (competes?)Tj ET 0 G 0.996 w 108.284 200.124 m 269.679 200.124 l S BT /F2 1 Tf 24.9066 0 0 24.9066 274.66 195.1431 Tm (|)Tj ET 317.748 200.124 m 479.143 200.124 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 126.2166 164.757 Tm [(Br)-25(uce)-222.6(Gr)20(eenw)30(ald,)-222.6(Columbia)-222.6(Business)-222.6(School)-222.6(pr)30(ofessor)-222.6(of)-222.6(nance)-222.6(and)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(asset)-228.4(management,)-228.4(and)-228.4(J)30(udd)-228.4(Kahn,)-228.4(chief)-228.4(operating)-228.4(ofcer)-228.4(of)-228.4(Humingbir)20(d)]TJ T* [(Management,)-322.7(LLC)30(,)-322.7(r)20(ecently)-322.7(emphasized)-322.7(the)-322.7(impor)-25(tance)-322.7(of)-322.7(?bar)-40(r)-45(ier)-20(s)-322.7(t)0(o)]TJ T* [(entr)-30(y?)-196(as)-196(a)-196(for)20(ce)-196(affecting)-196(the)-196(competiti)20(v)40(e)-196(en)40(vir)30(onment:)-196(?It)-196(is)-196(so)-196(dominant)]TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 26 0 obj > endobj 27 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 240.7101 724.8822 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Wh)25(y)-278(the)-278(W)100(orld)-278(Is)-278(Innov)40(ating)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 21.2254 0 TD (7)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 702.816 Tm [(that)-193.1(leader)-20(s)-193.1(seeking)-193.1(to)-193.1(de)20(v)40(elop)-193.1(and)-193.1(pur)-20(sue)-193.1(winning)-193.1(strateg)-30(ies)-193.1(should)-193.1(beg)-30(in)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(b)25(y)-339(ignor)-45(ing)-339([other)-339(for)20(ces])-339(and)-339(focus)-339(only)-339(on)-339(it)]TJ 18.8397 0 TD 0.16 Tc [(....)-179(N)160(o)]TJ 3.5319 0 TD 0 Tc [(other)-339(featur)20(e)-339(o)0(f)]TJ -22.3716 -1.1538 TD [(the)-297(competiti)20(v)40(e)-297(landscape)-297(has)-297(as)-297(m)15(uch)-297(inuence)-297(on)-297(a)-297(compan)20(y?)100(s)-297(success)]TJ T* [(as)-337.7(wher)20(e)-337.7(i)0(t)-337.7(stands)-337.7(in)-337.7(r)20(egar)20(d)-337.7(t)0(o)-337.7(these)-337.7(bar)-40(r)-45(ier)-20(s.)125(?)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 356.4613 662.6856 Tm (5)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 366.2152 657.9843 Tm [(Lester)-337.7(Thur)-40(r)30(o)40(w)120(,)-337.7(for)-45(mer)]TJ -19.096 -1.1538 TD [(dean)-218(of)-218(the)-218(MIT)-218(Sloan)-218(School)-218(of)-218(Management,)-218(maintains)-218(that)-218(in)-218(addition)]TJ T* [(to)-245.1(cop)30(yr)-45(ights)-245.1(and)-245.1(brands,)-245.1(the)-245.1(?only)-245.1(r)20(emaining)-245.1(sour)20(ce)-245.1(of)-245.1(tr)-25(ue)-245.1(competiti)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(adv)30(antage)-284.9([is])-284.9(technolo)20(g)-30(ies)-284.9(that)-284.9(other)-20(s)-284.9(d)0(o)-284.9(not)-284.9(ha)30(v)40(e)30(.)125(?)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 385.8028 617.8538 Tm (6)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 394.8726 613.1524 Tm [(W)125(alter)-284.9(W)15(illigan)-284.9(of)]TJ -21.3087 -1.1538 TD [(Pr)-45(ice)20(w)30(aterhouse)-278(Cooper)-20(s)-278(echoes)-278(this)-278(sentiment:)]TJ 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 130.7634 573.6084 Tm [(Successful)-391.3(cor)-40(porations)-391.3(of)-391.3(the)-391.3(next)-391.3(centur)-30(y)-391.3(will)-391.3(not)-391.3(be)-391.3(ab)15(le)-391.3(to)-391.3(r)20(ely)-391.3(solely)-391.3(on)]TJ 0.0078 -1.1818 TD [(the)-328.1(age-old)-328.1(le)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(s)-328.1(of)-328.1(competition)-328.1(viz.,)-328.1(labor)40(,)-328.1(capital)-328.1(and)-328.1(land.)-328.1(Rather)-328.1(the)20(y)-328.1(will)]TJ T* [(ha)30(v)40(e)-358.7(to)-358.7(supplement)-358.7(the)-358.7(management)-358.7(of)-358.7(these)-358.7(tang)-30(ib)15(le)-358.7(assets)-358.7(with)-358.7(the)-358.7(effecti)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(management)-261.2(and)-261.2(exploitation)-261.2(of)-261.2(their)-261.2(intellectual)-261.2(pr)30(oper)-25(ty?patents,)-261.2(trademarks)]TJ T* [(and)-278(technolo)20(gy)120(.)]TJ 7.6712 0 0 7.6712 199.1668 525.7808 Tm (7)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 136.8268 495.2101 Tm [(While)-274.8(strateg)-30(ic)-274.8(r)20(eliance)-274.8(on)-274.8(inno)40(v)30(ation)-274.8(is)-274.8(most)-274.8(appar)20(ent)-274.8(in)-274.8(companies)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(that)-341.3(traditionally)-341.3(ha)30(v)40(e)-341.3(made)-341.3(their)-341.3(li)20(ving)-341.3(fr)30(om)-341.3(technolo)20(g)-30(ical)-341.3(adv)30(ances)-341.3(in)]TJ T* [(elds)-393.3(such)-393.3(as)-393.3(eng)-30(ineer)-45(ing)-393.3(and)-393.3(chemistr)-30(y)120(,)-393.3(the)-393.3(urgency)-393.3(to)-393.3(inno)40(v)30(ate)-393.3(and)]TJ T* [(the)-326.6(cor)-40(r)20(esponding)-326.6(need)-326.6(to)-326.6(use)-326.6(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-326.6(to)-326.6(pr)30(otect)-326.6(that)-326.6(inno)40(v)30(ation)-326.6(im-)]TJ T* [(pacts)-225.6(all)-225.6(inno)40(v)30(ating)-225.6(r)-45(ms)-225.6(whose)-225.6(technolo)20(g)-30(ies)-225.6(ar)20(e)-225.6(a)0(s)-225.6(d)0(i)20(v)40(er)-20(se)-225.6(as)-225.6(biotechnol-)]TJ T* [(o)20(g)0(y)120(,)-335(banking,)-335(computer)-335(chips,)-335(and)-335(consumer)-335(goods.)-335(In)-335(a)-335(r)20(ecent)-335(ar)-25(ticle)30(,)]TJ T* [(Michael)-300.6(Scharge)30(,)-300.6(a)-300.6(r)20(esear)20(ch)-300.6(associate)-300.6(with)-300.6(MIT?)100(s)-300.6(Media)-300.6(Lab)50(,)-300.6(chr)30(onicled)]TJ T* [(the)-377.4(technolo)20(g)-30(ical)-377.4(e)20(v)40(olution)-377.4(of)-377.4(toaster)-20(s.)-377.4(Accor)20(ding)-377.4(to)-377.4(Scharge)30(,)-377.4(when)-377.4(it)]TJ T* [(comes)-259.5(to)-259.5(?counter)-25(top)-259.5(toasting)-259.5(technolo)20(gy)120(,)125(?)-259.5(those)-259.5(who)-259.5(do)-259.5(not)-259.5(differ)20(enti-)]TJ T* [(ate)30(,)-266.6(segment,)-266.6(and)-266.6(inno)40(v)30(ate)-266.6(ar)20(e)-266.6(doomed)-266.6(to)-266.6(f)-25(ail.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 354.5186 365.416 Tm (8)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 363.3506 360.7146 Tm [(He)-266.6(concludes)-266.6(that)-266.6(rather)]TJ -18.8749 -1.1538 TD [(than)-280.3(signaling)-280.3(the)-280.3(commoditization)-280.3(of)-280.3(a)-280.3(p)0(r)30(oduct,)-280.3(intense)-280.3(pr)-45(ice)-280.3(competi-)]TJ T* [(tion)-268.7(ma)30(y)-268.7(signal)-268.7(the)-268.7(need)-268.7(for)-268.7(inno)40(v)30(ation:)-268.7(?inno)40(v)30(ate)-268.7(in)-268.7(or)20(der)-268.7(to)-268.7(differ)20(enti-)]TJ T* [(ate)-205.1(.)-160(.)-160(.)-160(identify)-311.9(hidden)-311.9(or)-311.9(untapped)-311.9(potential)-311.9(for)-311.9(ne)20(w)-311.9(v)30(alue)-311.9(cr)20(eation.)125(?)-311.9(I)0(n)]TJ T* [(toda)30(y?)100(s)-278(econom)30(y)120(,)-278(it)-278(appear)-20(s)-278(that)-278(e)20(v)40(en)-278(toaster)-20(s)-278(m)15(ust)-278(be)-278(inno)40(v)30(ati)20(v)40(e)30(.)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 223.9482 261.7933 Tm 0.0193 Tc [(Globalization)-297.3(of)-297.3(Innovation)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 239.477 Tm 0 Tc [(The)-509.2(quest)-509.2(for)-509.2(inno)40(v)30(ation)-509.2(has)-509.2(gone)-509.2(global.)-509.2(Inno)40(v)30(ation)-509.2(hot)-509.2(spots)-509.2(ar)20(e)]TJ T* [(g)-30(r)30(o)40(wing)-226.1(in)-226.1(vir)-25(tually)-226.1(all)-226.1(cor)-40(ner)-20(s)-226.1(o)0(f)-226.1(the)-226.1(globe)30(.)-226.1(These)-226.1(hot)-226.1(spots)-226.1(pr)30(o)40(vide)-226.1(cr)-45(it-)]TJ T* [(ical)-353.1(concentrations)-353.1(of)-353.1(geo)20(g)-30(raphically)-353.1(localized)-353.1(inno)40(v)30(ation)-353.1(capabilities?)]TJ T* [(including)-769.9(eng)-30(ineer)-20(s,)-769.9(scientists,)-769.9(ar)-25(tists,)-769.9(entr)20(epr)20(eneur)-20(s,)-769.9(and)-769.9(pr)30(oduct)]TJ T* [(man)15(uf)-25(actur)-45(ing)-388.9(capabilities?and)-388.9(pr)30(o)40(vide)-388.9(their)-388.9(host)-388.9(cities)-388.9(with)-388.9(inter)-40(na-)]TJ T* [(tional)-350.7(competiti)20(v)40(e)-350.7(adv)30(antage)30(.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 269.8755 169.4586 Tm (9)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 279.7976 164.7572 Tm [(Businesses)-350.7(can)-350.7(nd)-350.7(inexpensi)20(v)40(e)-350.7(ser)-25(vices,)]TJ -12.4236 -1.1538 TD [(fr)30(om)-343.4(mechanical)-343.3(eng)-30(ineer)-45(ing)-343.3(to)-343.3(phar)-45(maceutical)-343.3(scale-up)-343.3(and)-343.4(man)15(uf)-25(ac-)]TJ T* [(tur)-45(ing.)-348.4(A)-348.3(r)20(ecent)-348.4(ar)-25(ticle)-348.4(in)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 10.741 0 TD [(The)-348.4(Economist)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 5.7908 0 TD [(concluded)-348.4(that)-348.4(China)-348.4(and)-348.4(In-)]TJ -16.5319 -1.1538 TD [(dia,)-363.8(hosts)-363.8(of)-363.8(man)20(y)-363.8(o)0(f)-363.8(the)-363.8(ne)20(w)-363.8(inno)40(v)30(ation)-363.8(hot)-363.8(spots,)-363.8(ar)20(e)-363.8(?chang)-30(ing)-363.8(the)]TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 29 0 obj > endobj 30 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 108.2839 725.3405 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(8)-10618.9(INNO)50(V)100(A)75(TING)-278(W)80(ORLD)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 702.816 Tm [(v)40(e)0(r)-30(y)-283.5(pr)30(ocess)-283.5(of)-283.5(de)20(v)40(elopment.)125(?)-283.5(The)-283.5(ar)-25(ticle)-283.5(pr)20(edicts)-283.5(that)-283.5(?the)-283.5(r)-45(ise)-283.5(of)-283.5(India)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(and)-253.6(China)-253.6(as)-253.6(centr)20(es)-253.6(of)-253.6(inno)40(v)30(ation)-253.6(will)-253.6(radically)-253.6(shak)30(e)-253.6(u)0(p)-253.6(the)-253.6(technolo)20(gy)]TJ T* [(industr)-30(y)-209.5(that)-209.5(is)-209.5(toda)30(y)-209.5(based)-209.5(mainly)-209.5(in)-209.5(r)-45(ich)-209.5(countr)-45(ies.)125(?)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 374.6974 677.6295 Tm (10)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 387.6724 672.9282 Tm [(The)-209.5(Organization)]TJ -21.572 -1.1538 TD [(for)-284(Economic)-284.1(Co-operation)-284.1(and)-284.1(De)20(v)40(elopment)-284.1(estimates)-284.1(that)-284.1(b)25(y)-284.1(the)-284.1(end)]TJ T* 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[(tion)-353.7(dr)-25(ugs.)-353.7(Man)20(y)-353.7(o)0(f)-353.7(its)-353.7(clients)-353.7(ar)20(e)-353.7(large)-353.7(phar)-45(maceutical)-353.7(companies)-353.7(that)]TJ T* [(ar)20(e)-262.7(offshor)-45(ing)-262.7(inno)40(v)30(ati)20(v)40(e)-262.7(dr)-25(ug)-262.7(disco)40(v)40(e)0(r)-30(y)-262.7(and)-262.7(de)20(v)40(elopment)-262.7(w)40(ork.)-262.7(Realiz-)]TJ T* [(ing)-265.9(that)-265.9(its)-265.9(customer)-20(s)-265.9(needed)-265.9(mor)20(e)-265.9(cost)-265.9(options,)-265.9(AMRI)-265.9(r)20(ecently)-265.9(opened)]TJ T* [(state-of-the-ar)-25(t)-329.9(chemistr)-30(y)-329.9(inno)40(v)30(ation)-329.9(f)-25(acilities)-329.9(in)-329.9(Hyderabad,)-329.9(India,)-329.9(and)]TJ T* [(in)-263.6(Singapor)20(e)30(,)-263.6(tw)40(o)-263.6(leading)-263.6(global)-263.6(inno)40(v)30(ation)-263.6(hot)-263.6(spots.)-263.6(No)40(w)120(,)-263.6(when)-263.6(quot-)]TJ T* 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[(the)-397.6(w)40(orld.)-397.6(The)-397.6(Silicon)-397.6(V)125(alle)20(y)-397.6(Index)-397.6(r)20(epor)-25(ts)-397.6(g)-30(r)30(o)40(wth)-397.6(in)-397.6(the)-397.6(n)15(umber)-397.6(of)]TJ T* [(patents)-300.5(naming)-300.5(Silicon)-300.5(V)125(alle)20(y)-300.5(i)0(n)40(v)40(entor)-20(s)-300.5(along)-300.5(with)-300.5(in)40(v)40(entor)-20(s)-300.5(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-300.5(other)]TJ T* [(countr)-45(ies.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 159.0538 230.3073 Tm (12)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 173.6815 225.6059 Tm [(Accor)20(ding)-337.1(to)-337.1(the)-337.1(Index,)-337.1(this)-337.1(?co-patenting?)-337.1(b)25(y)-337.1(v)30(alle)20(y)-337.1(em-)]TJ -5.0495 -1.1538 TD [(plo)40(y)40(ees)-386.3(and)-386.3(for)20(eign)-386.3(collaborator)-20(s)-386.3(incr)20(eased)-386.3(sixfold)-386.3(fr)30(om)-386.3(1993)-386.3(to)-386.3(2005.)]TJ T* [(Most)-464.6(for)20(eign)-464.6(coemplo)40(y)40(ees)-464.6(ar)20(e)-464.6(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-464.6(India,)-464.6(China,)-464.6(Italy)120(,)-464.6(Hong)-464.6(K)30(ong,)]TJ T* [(Finland)-370.1(and)-370.1(T)110(aiw)30(an.)-370.1(A)-370(Scr)-45(ipps)-370.1(Ne)20(ws)-370.1(ar)-25(ticle)-370.1(obser)-25(v)40(e)0(d)-370.1(that)-370.1(?Globaliza-)]TJ T* [(tion)-362.4(is)-362.4(helping)-362.4(to)-362.4(expand)-362.4(the)-362.4(v)30(alle)20(y?)100(s)-362.4(econom)30(y)120(,)-362.4(rather)-362.4(than)-362.4(thr)20(eatening)]TJ T* [(it.)125(?)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 123.3854 155.5875 Tm (13)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 138.8794 150.8861 Tm [(Thus,)-404(competition)-404(and)-404(collaboration)-404(with)-404(global)-404(inno)40(v)30(ation)-404(hot)]TJ -2.3623 -1.1538 TD [(spots)-323.7(appear)-323.7(to)-323.7(be)-323.7(ha)30(ving)-323.7(a)-323.7(positi)20(v)40(e)-323.7(effect)-323.7(on)-323.7(inno)40(v)30(ation)-323.7(in)-323.7(Silicon)-323.7(V)125(al-)]TJ T* [(le)20(y)120(.)-266.7(Scr)-45(ipps)-266.7(Ne)20(ws)-266.7(concludes)-266.7(that)-266.7(?[d]espite)-266.7(some)-266.7(pr)20(edictions)-266.7(that)-266.7(Silicon)]TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj > endobj 32 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 240.7101 724.8822 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Wh)25(y)-278(the)-278(W)100(orld)-278(Is)-278(Innov)40(ating)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 21.2254 0 TD (9)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 702.816 Tm [(V)125(alle)20(y)-323.8(w)40(ould)-323.8(lose)-323.8(out)-323.8(because)-323.8(of)-323.8(globalization,)-323.8(the)-323.8(r)20(e)0(g)-30(ion)-323.8(is)-323.8(k)30(eeping)-323.8(its)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(lead)-278(as)-278(a)-278(capital)-278(of)-278(technolo)20(gy)-278(in)40(v)40(estment)-278(and)-278(emplo)40(yment.)125(?)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 427.6967 692.5735 Tm (14)Tj 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 204.4303 649.7893 Tm 0.0193 Tc [(iProperty)-297.3(Risks)-297.3(and)-297.3(Opportunities)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 627.473 Tm 0 Tc [(The)-281.1(rapid)-281(global)-281(spr)20(ead)-281(of)-281(inno)40(v)30(ation)-281.1(pr)30(o)40(vides)-281(companies)-281(with)-281(lo)40(w-cost)]TJ T* [(sour)20(ces)-348.5(of)-348.5(inno)40(v)30(ation)-348.5(that)-348.5(ne)20(v)40(e)0(r)-348.5(existed)-348.5(befor)20(e)30(.)-348.5(But)-348.5(companies)-348.5(ar)20(e)-348.5(also)]TJ T* [(mor)20(e)-401.1(lik)30(ely)-401.1(to)-401.1(f)-25(ace)-401.1(competiti)20(v)40(e)-401.1(r)-45(isks)-401.1(fr)30(om)-401.1(places)-401.1(that)-401.1(w)40(ould)-401.1(not)-401.1(ha)30(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(been)-239.5(consider)20(ed)-239.5(10)-239.5(y)40(ear)-20(s)-239.5(ago)50(.)-239.5(These)-239.5(thr)20(eats)-239.5(ma)30(y)-239.5(r)20(esult)-239.5(fr)30(om)-239.5(tw)40(o)-239.5(f)-25(acts:)-239.5(\(1\))]TJ T* [(competitor)-20(s)-249.6(a)0(r)20(e)-249.6(mo)40(ving)-249.6(their)-249.6(o)40(w)0(n)-249.6(center)-20(s)-249.6(o)0(f)-249.6(inno)40(v)30(ation)-249.6(to)-249.6(less)-249.6(expensi)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* 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9.9626 0 0 9.9626 140.3138 446.9246 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 147.0883 443.9358 Tm [(Competitor)-339.8(setting)-339.8(up)-339.8(man)15(uf)-25(actur)-45(ing)-339.8(operations)-339.8(to)-339.8(mak)30(e)-339.8(a)-339.8(cop)30(y-)]TJ T* [(cat)-380.3(pr)30(oduct)-380.4(in)-380.4(a)-380.4(countr)-30(y)-380.4(wher)20(e)-380.4(the)-380.4(inno)40(v)30(ator)-380.4(has)-380.4(no)-380.3(meaningful)]TJ T* [(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-278(pr)30(otection)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 140.3138 399.1039 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 147.0883 396.1151 Tm [(Competitor)-291.8(selling)-291.8(pr)30(oducts)-291.8(in)-291.8(mark)30(ets)-291.8(in)-291.8(which)-291.8(the)-291.8(inno)40(v)30(ator)-291.8(has)]TJ T* [(passed)-278(up)-278(the)-278(oppor)-25(tunity)-278(to)-278(obtain)-278(patents)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 140.3138 366.2272 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 147.0883 363.2384 Tm [(Escape)-418.4(of)-418.4(v)30(aluab)15(le)-418.4(trade)-418.4(secr)20(ets,)-418.4(kno)40(w-ho)40(w)120(,)-418.4(and)-418.4(other)-418.4(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)]TJ T* [(fr)30(om)-410.8(an)-410.8(offshor)20(e)-410.8(operation)-410.8(when)-410.8(emplo)40(y)40(ees)-410.7(lea)30(v)40(e)-410.8(to)-410.8(w)40(ork)-410.8(for)-410.8(a)]TJ T* [(local)-278(competitor)-278(or)-278(to)-278(star)-25(t)-278(their)-278(o)40(w)0(n)-278(compan)20(y)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 140.3138 318.4066 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 147.0883 315.4178 Tm [(Litigation,)-206.6(such)-206.6(as)-206.6(a)-206.6(patent)-206.6(infr)-45(ingement)-206.6(suit,)-206.6(initiated)-206.6(in)-206.6(y)40(our)-206.6(coun-)]TJ T* [(tr)-30(y)-278(b)25(y)-278(a)-278(compan)20(y)-278(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-278(a)-278(distant)-278(inno)40(v)30(ation)-278(hot)-278(spot)]TJ -2.1769 -2.402 TD [(These)-301(and)-301(man)20(y)-301(other)-301(potential)-301(thr)20(eats)-301(ar)20(e)-301(incr)20(easing)-301(in)-301(pr)30(obability)-301(due)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(to)-200.3(economic)-200.3(globalization,)-200.3(the)-200.3(incr)20(easingly)-200.3(global)-200.3(expansion)-200.3(of)-200.3(inno)40(v)30(ati)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(capabilities,)-206.2(the)-206.2(high)-206.2(mobility)-206.2(of)-206.2(brain)-206.2(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)40(,)-206.2(and)-206.2(the)-206.2(incr)20(easingly)-206.2(densely)]TJ T* [(populated)-278(global)-278(patent)-278(landscape)30(.)]TJ 1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(In)-450.4(2005,)-450.4(a)-450.4(r)20(ecor)20(d)-450.4(y)40(ear)-450.4(for)-450.4(inter)-40(national)-450.4(patent)-450.4(applications)-450.4(at)-450.4(the)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(W)125(orld)-471.5(Intellectual)-471.5(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-471.5(Organization,)-471.5(South)-471.5(K)30(o)0(r)20(e)0(a)-471.5(sur)-40(passed)-471.5(the)]TJ T* [(Netherlands)-269.7(in)-269.7(the)-269.7(n)15(umber)-269.7(of)-269.7(inter)-40(national)-269.7(applications)-269.7(led,)-269.7(and)-269.7(China)]TJ T* [(sur)-40(passed)-378.7(Canada,)-378.7(r)20(e)20(v)40(ealing)-378.7(a)-378.7(deniti)20(v)40(e)-378.7(shift)-378.7(to)-378.7(the)-378.7(East.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 416.5899 169.4586 Tm (15)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 431.7558 164.7572 Tm (Companies)Tj -24.1565 -1.1538 TD [(competing)-281.7(for)-281.7(the)-281.7(futur)20(e)-281.7(based)-281.7(on)-281.7(their)-281.7(inno)40(v)30(ati)20(v)40(e)-281.7(pr)30(oducts)-281.7(and)-281.7(ser)-25(vices)]TJ T* [(cannot)-216.2(affor)20(d)-216.2(t)0(o)-216.2(dismiss)-216.2(the)-216.2(impor)-25(tance)-216.2(of)-216.2(this)-216.2(change)30(.)-216.2(The)-216.2(w)40(orld?)100(s)-216.2(patent)]TJ T* [(landscape)-339(is)-339(being)-339(dramatically)-339(r)20(eshaped)-339(as)-339(it)-339(is)-339(rapidly)-339(being)-339(populated)]TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 34 0 obj > endobj 35 0 obj > endobj 36 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 108.2839 725.3405 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(10)-10373.9(INNO)50(V)100(A)75(TING)-278(W)80(ORLD)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 702.816 Tm [(b)25(y)-396(patents)-396(or)-45(ig)-30(inating)-396(fr)30(om)-396(companies)-396(in)-396(a)-396(n)0(e)20(w)-396(set)-396(of)-396(countr)-45(ies)-396(with)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(g)-30(r)30(o)40(wing)-445.5(inno)40(v)30(ati)20(v)40(e)-445.5(capacity)120(.)-445.5(Companies)-445.5(that)-445.5(ar)20(e)-445.5(comfor)-25(tab)15(le)-445.5(looking)]TJ T* [(only)-368.8(in)-368.8(their)-368.8(o)40(w)0(n)-368.8(backy)30(ar)20(ds)-368.8(for)-368.8(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-368.8(competition)-368.8(ar)20(e)-368.8(lik)30(ely)-368.8(to)-368.8(be)]TJ T* [(sur)-40(pr)-45(ised,)-401(to)-401(sa)30(y)-401(the)-401(least.)-401(These)-401(issues)-401(ar)20(e)-401(explor)20(ed)-401(in)-401(mor)20(e)-401(detail)-401(in)]TJ T* [(Chapter)-278(2.)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 207.0366 601.9686 Tm 0.0193 Tc [(Lagging)-297.3(Legal)-297.3(Standardization)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 579.6523 Tm 0 Tc [(Businesses)-218.9(no)40(w)-219(operate)-219(in)-218.9(an)-219(economic)-219(w)40(orld)-219(in)-218.9(which)-219(political)-218.9(and)-218.9(geo-)]TJ T* [(g)-30(raphic)-268.2(boundar)-45(ies)-268.2(ar)20(e)-268.2(incr)20(easingly)-268.2(de)20(v)40(oid)-268.2(of)-268.2(meaning.)-268.2(Generally)-268.2(speak-)]TJ T* [(ing,)-218.5(inno)40(v)30(ati)20(v)40(e)-218.5(goods)-218.5(and)-218.5(ser)-25(vices)-218.5(and)-218.5(the)-218.5(funds)-218.5(that)-218.5(b)15(u)0(y)-218.5(them)-218.5(o)40(w)-218.5(f)0(r)20(eely)]TJ T* [(fr)30(om)-347.4(countr)-30(y)-347.4(t)0(o)-347.4(countr)-30(y)120(.)-347.4(But,)-347.4(with)-347.4(a)-347.4(f)0(e)20(w)-347.4(exceptions,)-347.4(the)-347.4(legal)-347.4(systems)]TJ T* [(that)-415.5(pr)30(otect)-415.5(the)-415.5(ideas)-415.5(embodied)-415.5(in)-415.5(those)-415.5(goods)-415.5(ar)20(e)-415.5(still)-415.5(r)-45(mly)-415.5(fenced)]TJ T* [(in.)-328.4(Ther)20(e)-328.4(i)0(s)-328.4(n)0(o)-328.4(global)-328.4(system)-328.4(of)-328.4(intellectual)-328.4(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-328.4(r)-45(ights.)-328.4(Intellectual)]TJ T* [(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-305(systems)-305(come)-305(in)-305(all)-305(shapes)-305(and)-305(sizes.)-305(And)-305(e)20(v)40(en)-305(wher)20(e)-305(the)-305(legal)]TJ T* [(standar)20(ds)-260.2(appar)20(ently)-260.2(ar)20(e)-260.2(similar)40(,)-260.2(the)-260.2(cultural)-260.2(contexts)-260.2(in)-260.2(which)-260.2(those)-260.2(la)30(ws)]TJ T* [(ar)20(e)-278(enfor)20(ced)-278(contin)15(ue)-278(to)-278(v)30(a)0(r)-30(y)-278(widely)120(.)]TJ 1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(In)-176.9(1994,)-176.9(the)-176.9(W)125(orld)-176.9(T)100(rade)-176.9(Organization)-176.9(\(WT)30(O\))-176.8(pr)30(oacti)20(v)40(ely)-176.9(\(with)-176.9(pr)20(es-)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(sur)20(e)-230.7(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-230.7(w)40(ester)-40(n)-230.7(countr)-45(ies\))-230.7(and)-230.7(pr)30(ofoundly)-230.7(changed)-230.7(the)-230.7(futur)20(e)-230.7(o)0(f)-230.7(global)]TJ T* [(intellectual)-259.5(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-259.5(standar)20(ds)-259.5(with)-259.5(its)-259.5(T)100(rade)-259.5(Related)-259.5(Aspects)-259.5(of)-259.5(Intellec-)]TJ T* [(tual)-368.9(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-368.9(Rights)-368.9(Ag)-30(r)20(eement)-368.9(\(TRIPS\).)-368.9(As)-368.9(descr)-45(ibed)-368.9(in)-368.9(the)-368.9(TRIPS)]TJ T* [(pr)20(eamb)15(le)30(,)-278(the)-278(objecti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-278(o)0(f)-278(the)-278(ag)-30(r)20(eement)-278(ar)20(e)-278(thr)20(eefold:)]TJ 1.1769 -2.402 TD [(1.)-384.6(Reducing)-278(distor)-25(tions)-278(and)-278(impediments)-278(to)-278(inter)-40(national)-278(trade)]TJ 0 -1.3846 TD [(2.)-384.6(Pr)30(omoting)-193.8(effecti)20(v)40(e)-193.8(and)-193.8(adequate)-193.8(pr)30(otection)-193.8(of)-193.8(intellectual)-193.8(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)]TJ 1.1346 -1.1538 TD [(r)-45(ights)]TJ -1.1346 -1.3846 TD [(3.)-384.6(Ensur)-45(ing)-412(that)-412(measur)20(es)-412(and)-412(pr)30(ocedur)20(es)-412(for)-412(enfor)20(cing)-412(intellectual)]TJ 1.1346 -1.1538 TD [(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-413.5(r)-45(ights)-413.5(do)-413.5(not)-413.5(themselv)40(es)-413.5(become)-413.5(bar)-40(r)-45(ier)-20(s)-413.5(t)0(o)-413.5(leg)-30(itimate)]TJ T* (trade)Tj -2.3115 -2.6327 TD [(The)-250.2(TRIPS)-250.2(ag)-30(r)20(eement)-250.2(is)-250.2(widely)-250.2(r)20(eco)20(gnized)-250.2(as)-250.2(the)-250.2(most)-250.2(signicant)-250.2(intel-)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(lectual)-291.8(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-291.8(accor)20(d)-291.8(o)0(f)-291.8(the)-291.8(tw)40(entieth)-291.8(centur)-30(y)120(.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 357.4416 229.2343 Tm (16)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 371.4822 224.533 Tm [(Among)-291.8(other)-291.8(things,)]TJ -20.3219 -1.1538 TD [(TRIPS)-213.3(r)20(equir)20(es)-213.3(countr)-45(ies)-213.4(to)-213.4(tr)20(eat)-213.3(nationals)-213.3(and)-213.4(for)20(eigner)-20(s)-213.3(equally)-213.3(when)-213.3(it)]TJ T* [(comes)-229.6(to)-229.6(obtaining)-229.6(and)-229.6(enfor)20(cing)-229.6(intellectual)-229.6(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-229.6(la)30(ws.)-229.6(The)-229.6(r)20(esult)-229.6(of)]TJ T* [(TRIPS)-252.5(has)-252.6(been)-252.6(the)-252.6(incr)20(easing)-252.6(standar)20(dization)-252.6(of)-252.6(a)30(v)30(ailability)120(,)-252.6(acquisition,)]TJ T* [(scope)30(,)-427.2(maintenance)30(,)-427.2(and)-427.2(enfor)20(cement)-427.2(of)-427.2(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-427.2(r)-45(ights)-427.2(in)-427.2(countr)-45(ies)]TJ T* [(large)-396.8(and)-396.8(small)-396.8(ar)30(ound)-396.8(the)-396.8(globe)30(.)-396.8(F)20(or)-396.8(example)30(,)-396.8(India)-396.8(and)-396.8(China)-396.8(both)]TJ T* [(made)-269.4(confor)-45(ming,)-269.4(though)-269.4(not)-269.4(complete)30(,)-269.4(changes)-269.4(to)-269.4(their)-269.4(patent)-269.4(systems)]TJ T* [(in)-278(2005,)-278(and)-278(China)-278(is)-278(planning)-278(another)-278(extensi)20(v)40(e)-278(o)40(v)40(erhaul)-278(in)-278(2007.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj > endobj 38 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 237.9032 724.8822 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Wh)25(y)-278(the)-278(W)100(orld)-278(Is)-278(Innov)40(ating)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 20.9804 0 TD (11)Tj ET 0.93 G 17.933 w 480.538 657.347 m 480.538 711.506 l S 17.534 w 118.952 702.739 m 489.562 702.739 l S BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.8941 674.3458 Tm [(When)-351.9(w)30(a)0(s)-351.9(the)-351.9(last)-351.9(time)-351.9(y)40(o)0(u)-351.9(had)-351.9(a)-351.9(discussion)-351.9(with)-351.9(y)40(our)-351.9(patent)-351.9(counsel)-351.9(about)]TJ 0 -1.3182 TD [(inter)-40(national)-278(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-278(de)20(v)40(elopments)-278(and)-278(their)-278(impact)-278(on)-278(y)40(our)-278(organization?)]TJ ET 0 G 0.996 w 118.894 636.923 m 280.289 636.923 l S BT /F2 1 Tf 24.9066 0 0 24.9066 285.2702 631.9418 Tm (|)Tj ET 328.359 636.923 m 489.753 636.923 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 136.8268 598.567 Tm [(Ha)30(ving)-308.8(the)-308.8(la)30(ws)-308.8(on)-308.8(the)-308.8(books)-308.8(is)-308.8(one)-308.8(thing.)-308.8(Actually)-308.8(enfor)20(cing)-308.8(them)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(is)-289.1(another)40(.)-289.1(Among)-289.1(the)-289.1(tools)-289.1(that)-289.1(the)-289.1(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-289.1(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(nment)-289.1(has)-289.1(to)-289.1(encourage)30(,)]TJ T* [(push,)-346.1(cajole)30(,)-346.1(and)-346.1(manipulate)-346.1(countr)-45(ies)-346.1(into)-346.1(impr)30(o)40(ving)-346.1(their)-346.1(intellectual)]TJ T* [(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-334.4(systems)-334.4(is)-334.4(a)-334.4(y)40(early)-334.4(r)20(epor)-25(t)-334.4(car)20(d,)-334.4(affectionately)-334.4(r)20(efer)-40(r)20(e)0(d)-334.4(t)0(o)-334.4(a)0(s)-334.4(the)]TJ T* [(Special)-344(301)-344(Repor)-25(t.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 223.5425 543.4926 Tm (17)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 238.2595 538.7913 Tm [(China,)-344(for)-344(example)30(,)-344(a)0(l)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-344(gets)-344(f)-25(ailing)-344(g)-30(rades)-344(in)]TJ -9.2164 -1.1538 TD [(all)-305.1(subjects.)-305.1(The)-305.1(2007)-305.1(Special)-305.1(301)-305.1(Repor)-25(t)-305.1(r)20(etains)-305.1(China)-305.1(on)-305.1(the)-305.1(Pr)-45(ior)-45(ity)]TJ T* [(W)125(atch)-267.5(List,)-267.5(a)-267.5(distinction)-267.5(that)-267.5(identies)-267.5(China)-267.5(as)-267.5(a)-267.5(member)-267.5(of)-267.5(the)-267.5(w)40(orld?)100(s)]TJ T* [(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-257.1(axis)-257.1(of)-257.1(e)20(vil.)-257.1(Pr)-45(ior)-45(ity)-257.1(W)125(atch)-257.1(List)-257.1(countr)-45(ies)-257.1(ha)30(v)40(e)-257.1(f)-25(ailur)20(es)-257.1(in)-257.1(?IPR)]TJ T* [([Intellectual)-213.6(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-213.6(Rights])-213.6(pr)30(otection,)-213.6(enfor)20(cement,)-213.6(or)-213.6(mark)30(et)-213.6(access.)125(?)]TJ T* [(In)-188.7(the)-188.7(under)-20(stated)-188.7(language)-188.7(of)-188.7(diplomatese)30(,)-188.7(the)-188.7(listed)-188.7(countr)-30(y)-188.7(i)0(s)-188.7(?the)-188.7(focus)]TJ T* [(of)-212.1(incr)20(eased)-212.1(bilateral)-212.1(attention)-212.1(concer)-40(ning)-212.1(the)-212.1(pr)30(ob)15(lem)-212.1(ar)20(eas.)125(?)-212.1(I)0(n)-212.1(the)-212.1(most)]TJ T* [(r)20(ecent)-285.4(r)20(epor)-25(t,)-285.4(Argentina,)-285.4(Chile)30(,)-285.4(Egypt,)-285.4(India,)-285.4(Israel,)-285.4(Lebanon,)-285.4(Thailand,)]TJ T* [(T)125(urk)30(e)20(y)120(,)-278(Ukraine)30(,)-278(and)-278(V)125(enezuela)-278(ar)20(e)-278(singled)-278(out)-278(for)-278(special)-278(attention.)]TJ 1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(Because)-194(the)-194(enfor)20(cement)-194(pr)30(ob)15(lems)-194(ar)20(e)-194(often)-194(mor)20(e)-194(immediate)-194(at)-194(a)-194(local)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(le)20(v)40(e)0(l)-408.4(\(especially)-408.4(in)-408.4(China\),)-408.4(the)-408.4(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-408.4(T)100(rade)-408.4(Repr)20(esentati)20(v)40(e)-408.4(has)-408.4(r)20(ecently)]TJ T* [(star)-25(ted)-249.4(g)-30(i)20(ving)-249.4(attention)-249.4(in)-249.4(the)-249.4(Special)-249.4(301)-249.4(Repor)-25(t)-249.4(t)0(o)-249.4(local)-249.4(pr)30(otection)-249.4(and)]TJ T* [(enfor)20(cement)-306.8(thr)30(ough)-306.8(a)-306.8(special)-306.8(local)-306.8(r)20(e)20(vie)20(w)120(.)-306.8(The)-306.8(goal)-306.8(of)-306.8(local)-306.8(scr)-25(utin)20(y)-306.8(i)0(s)]TJ T* [(to)-292(single)-292(out)-292(pirate)-292(hangouts)-292(and)-292(to)-292(pr)20(essur)20(e)-292(r)20(esponsib)15(le)-292(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(nments)-292(to)]TJ T* [(star)-25(t)-247.6(doling)-247.6(out)-247.6(penalties)-247.6(for)-247.6(pirating)-247.6(that)-247.6(ar)20(e)-247.6(sufciently)-247.6(ser)-45(ious)-247.6(that)-247.6(the)20(y)]TJ T* [(actually)-295.4(ser)-25(v)40(e)-295.4(as)-295.4(a)-295.4(deter)-40(r)20(ent?rather)-295.4(than)-295.4(the)-295.4(insignicant)-295.4(hand-slapping)]TJ T* [(that)-169.3(is)-169.3(often)-169.3(the)-169.3(r)20(esult)-169.3(of)-169.3(intellectual)-169.3(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-169.3(litigation)-169.3(in)-169.3(China)-169.3(toda)30(y)120(.)-169.3(The)]TJ T* [(2007)-251.7(r)20(epor)-25(t)-251.7(lists)-251.7(a)-251.7(v)30(ar)-45(iety)-251.7(of)-251.7(pirate)-251.7(hangouts)-251.7(fr)30(om)-251.7(ar)30(ound)-251.7(the)-251.7(globe)30(,)-251.7(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)]TJ T* [(Silk)-342.1(Str)20(eet)-342.1(Mark)30(et,)-342.1(Beijing,)-342.1(China,)-342.1(to)-342.1(the)-342.1(tr)-45(ibor)20(der)-342.1(r)20(e)0(g)-30(ion)-342.1(in)-342.1(P)30(aragua)30(y)120(,)]TJ T* [(Argentina,)-278(and)-278(Brazil.)]TJ 1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(Another)-298(impor)-25(tant)-298(tool)-298(for)-298(handling)-298(differ)20(ences)-298(in)-298(intellectual)-298(pr)30(op-)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(er)-25(ty)-288.8(standar)20(ds)-288.8(among)-288.8(countr)-45(ies)-288.8(is)-288.8(the)-288.8(dispute)-288.8(r)20(esolution)-288.8(mechanism)-288.8(cr)20(e-)]TJ T* [(ated)-419.4(b)25(y)-419.4(TRIPS)40(.)-419.4(W)0(T)30(O)-419.2(member)-20(s)-419.4(can)-419.4(br)-45(ing)-419.4(cases)-419.4(alleg)-30(ing)-419.4(violation)-419.4(of)]TJ T* [(TRIPS)-433.5(pr)30(o)40(visions)-433.7(b)25(y)-433.7(other)-433.7(countr)-45(ies)-433.7(befor)20(e)-433.7(the)-433.7(WT)30(O)100(.)-433.7(If)-433.7(the)-433.7(case)-433.7(is)]TJ T* [(pr)30(o)40(v)40(ed,)-202.4(the)-202.4(losing)-202.4(countr)-30(y)-202.4(m)0(a)30(y)-202.4(be)-202.4(r)20(equir)20(ed)-202.4(to)-202.4(pa)30(y)-202.4(damages)-202.4(and/or)-202.4(change)]TJ T* [(its)-280.5(la)30(ws.)-280.5(If)-280.5(the)-280.5(losing)-280.5(countr)-30(y)-280.5(does)-280.5(not)-280.5(pa)30(y)-280.5(the)-280.5(damages,)-280.5(the)-280.5(winner)-280.5(ma)30(y)]TJ T* [(impose)-231.4(tar)-45(iffs)-231.4(on)-231.4(impor)-25(ts)-231.4(fr)30(om)-231.4(the)-231.4(losing)-231.4(countr)-30(y)-231.4(and)-231.4(pa)30(y)-231.4(the)-231.4(pr)30(oceeds)-231.4(of)]TJ T* [(those)-300.1(tar)-45(iffs)-300.1(dir)20(ectly)-300.1(to)-300.1(companies)-300.1(that)-300.1(ha)30(v)40(e)-300.1(been)-300.1(damaged)-300.1(b)25(y)-300.1(the)-300.1(losing)]TJ T* [(countr)-30(y?)100(s)-278(violation.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj > /ExtGState > >> endobj 40 0 obj > endobj 41 0 obj > endobj 42 0 obj > endobj 43 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 108.2839 725.3405 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(12)-10373.9(INNO)50(V)100(A)75(TING)-278(W)80(ORLD)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 126.2166 702.816 Tm [(The)-321.9(United)-321.9(States)-321.9(has)-321.9(rar)20(ely)-321.9(used)-321.9(the)-321.9(dispute)-321.9(r)20(esolution)-321.9(pr)30(ocedur)20(es,)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(b)15(u)0(t)-351.1(ther)20(e)-351.1(a)0(r)20(e)-351.1(signs)-351.1(that)-351.1(the)-351.1(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-351.1(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(nment)-351.1(is)-351.1(tur)-40(ning)-351.1(up)-351.1(the)-351.1(heat.)-351.1(In)]TJ T* [(J)30(une)-379.2(2006,)-379.2(the)-379.2(T)100(rade)-379.2(Repr)20(esentati)20(v)40(e)-379.2(cr)20(eated)-379.2(a)-379.2(n)0(e)20(w)-379.2(Ofce)-379.2(of)-379.2(Intellec-)]TJ T* [(tual)-334(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-334(and)-334(Inno)40(v)30(ation)-334(and)-334(appointed)-334(a)-334(Chief)-334(Negotiator)-334(for)-334(In-)]TJ T* [(tellectual)-340.7(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-340.7(Enfor)20(cement)-340.7(to)-340.7(enhance)-340.7(its)-340.7(focus)-340.7(on)-340.7(pr)30(otecting)-340.7(and)]TJ T* [(enfor)20(cing)-286.1(intellectual)-286.1(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-286.1(r)-45(ights.)-286.1(In)-286.1(2007,)-286.1(the)-286.1(T)100(rade)-286.1(Repr)20(esentati)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(fur)-25(ther)-219.8(ramped)-219.8(up)-219.8(the)-219.8(pr)20(essur)20(e)-219.8(o)0(n)-219.8(China)-219.8(b)25(y)-219.8(r)20(equesting)-219.8(dispute)-219.8(settlement)]TJ T* [(consultations,)-217.1(in)-217.1(par)-25(t)-217.1(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-217.1(deciencies)-217.1(in)-217.1(China?)100(s)-217.1(legal)-217.1(r)20(e)0(g)-30(ime)-217.1(for)-217.1(pr)30(otect-)]TJ T* [(ing)-221.3(and)-221.3(enfor)20(cing)-221.3(cop)30(yr)-45(ights.)-221.3(The)-221.3(2007)-221.3(Special)-221.3(301)-221.3(Repor)-25(t)-221.3(indicates)-221.3(that)]TJ T* [(the)-393.2(United)-393.2(States)-393.2(will)-393.2(consider)-393.2(dispute)-393.2(settlement)-393.2(consultations)-393.2(wher)20(e)]TJ T* [(countr)-45(ies)-278(do)-278(not)-278(appear)-278(to)-278(ha)30(v)40(e)-278(fully)-278(addr)20(essed)-278(their)-278(TRIPS)-278(ob)15(ligations.)]TJ 1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(Since)-364.6(the)-364.6(mid-1980s,)-364.6(the)-364.6(United)-364.6(States)-364.6(and)-364.7(China)-364.6(ha)30(v)40(e)-364.6(consider)20(ed)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(intellectual)-362.7(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-362.7(issues)-362.7(of)-362.7(such)-362.7(cr)-45(itical)-362.7(impor)-25(tance)-362.7(that,)-362.7(in)-362.7(addition)]TJ T* [(to)-301.1(m)30(y)0(r)-45(iad)-301.1(lesser)-301.1(diplomatic)-301.1(effor)-25(ts,)-301.1(these)-301.1(issues)-301.1(ha)30(v)40(e)-301.1(fr)20(equently)-301.1(been)-301.1(ad-)]TJ T* [(dr)20(essed)-207.5(in)-207.5(discussions)-207.5(betw)40(een)-207.5(the)-207.5(chief)-207.5(ex)40(ecuti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-207.5(o)0(f)-207.5(the)-207.5(tw)40(o)-207.5(countr)-45(ies.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 468.6349 498.3022 Tm (18)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 478.6569 Tm [(Suppor)-25(t)-356.5(appear)-20(s)-356.5(str)30(ong)-356.5(on)-356.5(both)-356.5(sides)-356.5(for)-356.5(str)20(engthening)-356.5(cooperation)-356.5(on)]TJ T* [(intellectual)-276.5(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-276.5(pr)30(otection.)-276.5(In)-276.5(a)-276.5(r)20(ecent)-276.5(meeting)-276.5(with)-276.5(the)-276.5(dir)20(ector)-276.5(of)]TJ T* [(the)-283.9(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-283.9(P)30(atent)-283.9(and)-283.9(T)100(rademark)-283.9(Ofce)30(,)-283.9(Chinese)-283.9(ofcials)-283.9(emphasized)-283.9(that)]TJ T* [(China)-304(attaches)-304(g)-30(r)20(eat)-304(impor)-25(tance)-304(to)-304(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-304(exper)-45(ience)-304(in)-304(the)-304(ar)20(ea)-304(of)-304(intel-)]TJ T* [(lectual)-249.8(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-249.8(pr)30(otection.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 247.7655 423.5825 Tm (19)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 261.2618 418.8811 Tm [(The)-249.8(countr)-45(ies)-249.8(ha)30(v)40(e)-249.8(e)20(v)40(en)-249.8(designated)-249.8(special)]TJ -11.8117 -1.1538 TD [(liaison)-260.1(ofcer)-20(s)-260.1(t)0(o)-260.1(deal)-260.1(with)-260.1(intellectual)-260.1(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-260.1(pr)30(ojects,)-260.1(and)-260.1(the)-260.1(United)]TJ T* [(States)-231.5(plans)-231.5(to)-231.5(send)-231.5(exper)-25(ts)-231.5(to)-231.5(train)-231.5(Chinese)-231.5(intellectual)-231.5(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-231.5(ofcials.)]TJ T* [(In)-338.6(J)30(uly)-338.6(2006,)-338.6(China)-338.6(pub)15(lished)-338.6(r)20(e)20(vised)-338.6(patent)-338.6(examination)-338.6(guidelines)-338.6(to)]TJ T* [(signicantly)-225.1(impr)30(o)40(v)40(e)-225.1(its)-225.1(patent)-225.1(system)-225.1(in)-225.1(such)-225.1(ar)20(eas)-225.1(as)-225.1(softw)30(ar)20(e)-225.1(and)-225.1(chem-)]TJ T* [(ical)-217.9(patents)-217.9(and)-217.9(the)-217.9(r)20(equir)20(ement)-217.9(for)-217.9(no)40(v)40(elty)120(.)-217.9(Y)160(et)-217.9(China?)100(s)-217.9(rhetor)-45(ic)-217.9(indicates)]TJ T* [(that)-247.9(it)-247.9(is)-247.9(r)20(esentful)-247.9(of)-247.9(w)40(ester)-40(n)-247.9(meddling)-247.9(in)-247.9(its)-247.9(inter)-40(nal)-247.9(intellectual)-247.9(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)]TJ T* [(aff)-25(air)-20(s.)-191(And)-191(despite)-191.1(man)20(y)-191(impr)30(o)40(v)40(ements)-191(in)-191.1(its)-191(intellectual)-191(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-191(systems)]TJ T* [(aimed)-229.7(at)-229.7(impr)30(o)40(ving)-229.7(and)-229.7(har)-45(monizing)-229.7(the)-229.7(r)20(ele)20(v)30(ant)-229.7(la)30(ws,)-229.7(man)20(y)-229.7(deciencies)]TJ T* [(r)20(emain.)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 188.2829 246.8493 Tm 0.0193 Tc [(Increasing)-297.3(Global)-297.3(Economic)-297.3(Output)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 224.533 Tm 0 Tc [(Finally)120(,)-352.9(while)-353(a)-353(detailed)-353(discussion)-353(of)-352.9(the)-353(impor)-25(tant)-353(policy)-353(topic)-353(of)-353(in-)]TJ T* [(cr)20(easing)-278(global)-278(economic)-278(output)-278(is)-278(outside)-278(of)-278(the)-278(scope)-278(of)-278(this)-278(book,)-278(w)40(e)]TJ T* [(wish)-394.8(to)-394.8(mention)-394.8(her)20(e)-394.8(that)-394.8(globalization)-394.8(of)-394.8(inno)40(v)30(ation)-394.8(capabilities)-394.8(plus)]TJ T* [(impr)30(o)40(v)40(e)0(d)-325.2(intellectual)-325.2(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-325.2(pr)30(otections)-325.2(ar)30(ound)-325.2(the)-325.2(w)40(orld)-325.2(can)-325.2(be)-325.2(ex-)]TJ T* [(pected)-233.6(to)-233.6(accelerate)-233.6(an)-233.6(upw)30(ar)20(d)-233.6(economic)-233.6(spiral.)-233.6(Impr)30(o)40(v)40(e)0(d)-233.6(legal,)-233.6(political,)]TJ T* [(and)-413.6(cultural)-413.6(pr)30(otections)-413.6(for)-413.6(intellectual)-413.6(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-413.6(will)-413.6(stim)15(ulate)-413.6(fur)-25(ther)]TJ T* [(in)40(v)40(estments)-403.1(in)-403.1(inno)40(v)30(ation,)-403.1(which)-403.1(stim)15(ulate)-403.1(fur)-25(ther)-403.1(inno)40(v)30(ations,)-403.1(which)]TJ T* [(incr)20(ease)-372.3(pr)30(oducti)20(vity)120(,)-372.3(which)-372.3(yields)-372.3(economic)-372.3(g)-30(r)30(o)40(wth,)-372.3(which)-372.3(stim)15(ulates)]TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj > endobj 45 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 237.9032 724.8822 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Wh)25(y)-278(the)-278(W)100(orld)-278(Is)-278(Innov)40(ating)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 20.9804 0 TD (13)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 702.816 Tm [(fur)-25(ther)-300.1(in)40(v)40(estment)-300.1(in)-300.1(inno)40(v)30(ation.)-300.1(In)-300.1(the)-300.1(w)40(o)0(r)20(d)0(s)-300.1(o)0(f)-300.1(one)-300.1(commentator)40(,)-300.1(?It)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(is)-379.7(b)25(y)-379.7(means)-379.7(of)-379.7(enfor)20(cing)-379.7(such)-379.7(standar)20(ds)-379.7(that)-379.7(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(nments)-379.7(bolster)-379.7(their)]TJ T* [(inno)40(v)30(ati)20(v)40(e)-278(capacity)]TJ 7.7103 0 TD [(.)-160(.)-160(.)-160(and)-278(not)-278(b)25(y)-278(a)-278(p)0(r)30(opensity)-278(to)-278(r)20(esor)-25(t)-278(t)0(o)-278(shor)-25(tcuts.)125(?)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 473.6512 677.6295 Tm (20)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 136.8268 657.9843 Tm [(F)20(o)0(r)-391.9(example)30(,)-391.9(consider)-391.9(A)60(v)40(esthagen,)-391.9(a)-391.9(compan)20(y)-391.9(i)0(n)-391.9(Bangalor)20(e)30(,)-391.9(India,)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(that)-422.9(mak)30(es)-422.9(gener)-45(ic)-422.9(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sions)-422.9(of)-422.9(biotech)-422.9(dr)-25(ugs.)-422.9(The)-422.9(compan)20(y)-422.9(has)-422.9(b)15(uilt)]TJ T* [(mor)20(e)-359.9(than)-359.9(30)-359.9(alliances)-359.9(and)-359.9(par)-25(tner)-20(ships)-359.9(with)-359.9(industr)-30(y)-359.9(and)-359.9(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(nment)]TJ T* [(organizations)-261.4(in)-261.4(India)-261.4(and)-261.4(else)20(wher)20(e)30(,)-261.4(r)20(elationships)-261.4(it)-261.4(has)-261.4(le)20(v)40(eraged)-261.4(with)-261.4(a)]TJ T* [(g)-30(r)30(o)40(wing)-257.9(por)-25(tfolio)-257.9(of)-257.9(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)120(,)-257.9(including)-257.9(140)-257.9(patents)-257.9(and)-257.9(patent)-257.9(applica-)]TJ T* [(tions.)-280.7(In)-280.7(2007,)-280.7(this)-280.7(r)20(ecor)20(d)-280.7(enab)15(led)-280.7(A)60(v)40(esthagen)-280.7(to)-280.7(attract)-280.7(into)-280.7(India)-280.7(a)-280.7($32)]TJ T* [(million)-278(in)40(v)40(estment)-278(funded)-278(in)-278(par)-25(t)-278(b)25(y)-278(Fidelity)-278(Inter)-40(national.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 422.1017 573.0219 Tm (21)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 136.8268 553.3766 Tm [(In)-177.2(another)-177.2(example)30(,)-177.2(Aptuit,)-177.2(Inc)30(.)-177.2(and)-177.2(Laur)-25(us)-177.2(Labs)-177.2(Limited)-177.2(teamed)-177.2(up)-177.2(in)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(2007)-174.4(to)-174.4(de)20(v)40(elop)-174.4(a)-174.4(n)0(e)20(w)-174.4(dr)-25(ug)-174.4(de)20(v)40(elopment)-174.4(compan)20(y)-174.4(i)0(n)-174.4(India,)-174.4(named)-174.4(Aptuit)]TJ T* [(Laur)-25(us.)-298(The)-298(ne)20(w)-298(compan)20(y)-298(will)-298(be)-298(back)30(ed)-298(b)25(y)-298(a)-298($100)-298(million)-298(in)40(v)40(estment)]TJ T* [(in)-281.2(de)20(v)40(elopment,)-281.2(man)15(uf)-25(actur)-45(ing,)-281.2(and)-281.2(infor)-45(matics)-281.2(capabilities.)-281.2(In)-281.2(addition)]TJ T* [(to)-357.8(a)-357.8(signicant)-357.8(in)40(v)40(estment)-357.8(in)-357.8(infrastr)-25(uctur)20(e)30(,)-357.8(the)-357.8(deal)-357.8(will)-357.8(add)-357.8(hundr)20(eds)]TJ T* [(of)-333.1(high-pa)30(ying)-333.1(jobs)-333.1(in)-333.1(medicinal)-333.1(chemistr)-30(y)120(,)-333.1(solid-state)-333.1(chemistr)-30(y)120(,)-333.1(large-)]TJ T* [(scale)-255.6(phar)-45(maceutical)-255.6(dosage)-255.6(for)-45(m)-255.6(man)15(uf)-25(actur)-45(ing,)-255.6(clinical)-255.6(packag)-30(ing,)-255.6(and)]TJ T* [(lo)20(g)-30(istics.)-290.4(The)-290.4(companies)-290.4(sa)30(w)-290.4(the)-290.4(intellectual)-290.4(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-290.4(issue)-290.4(as)-290.4(signicant)]TJ T* [(enough)-242(to)-242(mention)-242(it)-242(in)-242(their)-242(pr)20(ess)-242(r)20(elease;)-242(pointing)-242(to)-242(the)-242(impor)-25(tance)-242(of)]TJ T* [(the)-278(r)20(ecent)-278(Indian)-278(patent)-278(la)30(w)-278(r)20(efor)-45(ms,)-278(the)-278(pr)20(ess)-278(r)20(elease)-278(stated:)]TJ 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 131.509 394.4342 Tm [(The)-407.9(secur)-45(ity)-407.9(of)-407.9(IP)-407.8(in)-407.9(the)-407.9(r)20(e)0(g)-30(ion)-407.9(is)-407.9(fur)-25(ther)-407.9(suppor)-25(ted)-407.9(b)25(y)-407.9(the)-407.9(implementation)]TJ -0.0602 -1.1818 TD [(of)-274.9(the)-274.9(W)125(orld)-274.9(T)100(rade)-274.9(Organization)-274.9(\(WT)30(O\))-274.9(Ag)-30(r)20(eement)-274.9(on)-274.9(T)100(rade-Related)-274.9(Aspects)]TJ T* [(of)-428.1(Intellectual)-428.1(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-428(Rights)-428.1(\(TRIPS\))-427.9(and)-428(other)-428.1(steps)-428.1(tak)30(en)-428(b)25(y)-428(the)-428(Indian)]TJ T* [(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(nment)-278(to)-278(pr)30(otect)-278(pr)30(oduct)-278(patents.)]TJ 7.6712 0 0 7.6712 301.0075 359.558 Tm (22)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 136.8268 329.1406 Tm [(Ho)40(w)-269.5(the)-269.5(w)40(orld?)100(s)-269.5(d)0(e)20(v)40(eloping)-269.5(economies)-269.5(implement)-269.5(intellectual)-269.5(pr)30(op-)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(er)-25(ty)-383.5(policies)-383.5(is)-383.5(not)-383.5(a)-383.5(simple)-383.5(issue)30(.)-383.5(W)125(e)-383.5(a)0(g)-30(r)20(ee)-383.5(with)-383.5(man)20(y)-383.5(commentator)-20(s)]TJ T* [(that)-300.6(while)-300.6(India,)-300.6(China,)-300.6(Singapor)20(e)30(,)-300.6(and)-300.6(other)-300.6(de)20(v)40(eloping)-300.6(countr)-45(ies)-300.6(ma)30(y)]TJ T* [(be)-282.3(r)20(eady)-282.3(for)-282.3(full-edged)-282.3(intellectual)-282.3(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-282.3(systems,)-282.3(it)-282.3(w)40(ould)-282.3(be)-282.3(detr)-45(i-)]TJ T* [(mental,)-229.3(if)-229.3(not)-229.3(impossib)15(le)30(,)-229.3(for)-229.3(man)20(y)-229.3(o)0(f)-229.3(the)-229.3(poor)20(est)-229.3(countr)-45(ies)-229.3(to)-229.3(implement)]TJ T* [(the)-340.8(intellectual)-340.8(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-340.8(policies)-340.8(of)-340.8(the)-340.8(de)20(v)40(eloped)-340.8(w)40(orld.)-340.8(Ho)40(w)40(e)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-340.8(the)]TJ T* [(v)30(alue)-223.3(of)-223.3(an)-223.3(effecti)20(v)40(e)-223.3(intellectual)-223.3(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-223.3(system)-223.3(for)-223.3(attracting)-223.3(in)40(v)40(estment,)]TJ T* [(cr)20(eating)-304.5(jobs)-304.5(and)-304.5(v)30(aluab)15(le)-304.5(pr)30(oducts)-304.5(and)-304.5(ser)-25(vices,)-304.5(will)-304.5(moti)20(v)30(ate)-304.5(insightful)]TJ T* [(leader)-20(s)-178.7(i)0(n)-178.7(d)0(e)20(v)40(eloping)-178.7(countr)-45(ies)-178.7(to)-178.7(implement)-178.7(effecti)20(v)40(e)-178.7(policies)-178.7(appr)30(opr)-45(iate)]TJ T* [(to)-301.2(their)-301.2(countr)-30(y?)100(s)-301.2(stage)-301.2(of)-301.2(de)20(v)40(elopment.)-301.2(As)-301.2(elegantly)-301.2(stated)-301.2(b)25(y)-301.2(jour)-40(nalist)]TJ T* [(Da)30(vid)-255.9(W)125(a)0(r)-20(s)0(h)-255.9(i)0(n)-255.9(his)-255.9(w)40(ork)-255.9(on)-255.9(the)-255.9(economics)-255.9(of)-255.9(kno)40(wledge)30(,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 23.1397 0 TD [(Knowledge)-255.9(and)]TJ -23.1397 -1.1538 TD [(the)-300.9(W)100(ealth)-300.9(of)-300.9(Nations)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 7.9887 0 TD [(,)-300.9(?If)-300.9(the)-300.9(intr)-45(icate)-300.9(system)-300.9(of)-300.9(incenti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-300.9(t)0(o)-300.9(c)0(r)20(eate)-300.9(ne)20(w)]TJ -7.9887 -1.1538 TD [(ideas)-295.7(is)-295.7(under)20(de)20(v)40(eloped,)-295.7(society)-295.7(suffer)-20(s)-295.7(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-295.7(the)-295.7(general)-295.7(lack)-295.7(of)-295.7(pr)30(o)20(g)-30(r)20(ess)]TJ T* [(\(most)-249(of)-249(all,)-249(the)-249(poor\).)-249(So)50(,)-249(too)50(,)-249(i)0(f)-249(these)-249(incenti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-249(a)0(r)20(e)-249(too)-249(la)30(vish)-249(or)-249(closely)]TJ T* [(held.)125(?)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 148.8509 124.6266 Tm (23)Tj ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj > endobj 47 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 108.2839 725.3405 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(14)-10373.9(INNO)50(V)100(A)75(TING)-278(W)80(ORLD)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 111.3126 702.6357 Tm 0.0629 Tc [(FUELING)-340.8(THE)-340.8(GLOBAL)-340.8(SPREAD)-340.8(OF)-340.8(INNOVATION)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 673.246 Tm 0 Tc [(So)-356.8(f)-25(a)0(r)-356.8(w)40(e)-356.8(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-356.8(outlined)-356.8(the)-356.8(interacti)20(v)40(e)-356.8(r)20(elationship)-356.8(among)-356.8(a)-356.8(v)30(ar)-45(iety)-356.8(of)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(tr)20(ends,)-263.2(including)-263.2(technolo)20(gy)-263.2(inno)40(v)30(ation,)-263.2(the)-263.2(globalization)-263.2(of)-263.2(inno)40(v)30(ation,)]TJ T* [(the)-254(urgency)-254.1(of)-254(inno)40(v)30(ation,)-254(change)-254(and)-254(stagnation)-254.1(in)-254.1(intellectual)-254(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)]TJ T* [(la)30(ws)-422.7(and)-422.7(enfor)20(cement)-422.7(systems,)-422.7(and)-422.7(the)-422.7(r)20(elationship)-422.7(of)-422.7(these)-422.7(tr)20(ends)-422.7(to)]TJ T* [(global)-320(economic)-320(health.)-320(In)-320(addition)-320(to)-320(these)-320(tr)20(ends,)-320(six)-320(f)-25(actor)-20(s)-320(a)0(r)20(e)-320(both)]TJ T* [(inuenced)-278(b)25(y)-278(and)-278(contr)-45(ib)15(uting)-278(to)-278(the)-278(globalization)-278(of)-278(inno)40(v)30(ation:)]TJ 1.1769 -2.3855 TD [(1.)-384.6(The)-278(r)-45(ise)-278(of)-278(a)-278(global)-278(?cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-278(class?)-278(of)-278(kno)40(wledge)-278(w)40(ork)30(er)-20(s)]TJ 0 -1.3846 TD [(2.)-384.6(Business)-278(pr)30(ocess)-278(outsour)20(cing)-278(and)-278(offshor)-45(ing)-278(tr)20(ends)]TJ T* [(3.)-384.6(The)-278(incr)20(easing)-278(cost)-278(of)-278(inno)40(v)30(ation)-278(in)-278(de)20(v)40(eloped)-278(countr)-45(ies)]TJ T* [(4.)-384.6(The)-335.6(impr)30(o)40(v)40(ement)-335.6(of)-335.6(economies)-335.6(and)-335.6(infrastr)-25(uctur)20(es)-335.6(in)-335.6(de)20(v)40(eloping)]TJ 1.1346 -1.1538 TD [(countr)-45(ies)]TJ -1.1346 -1.3846 TD [(5.)-384.6(The)-278(globalization)-278(of)-278(education)]TJ T* [(6.)-384.6(The)-245.2(de)20(v)40(elopment)-245.2(of)-245.2(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(nment)-245.2(and)-245.2(pr)-45(i)20(v)30(ate)-245.2(initiati)20(v)40(e)0(s)-245.2(designed)-245.2(to)]TJ 1.1346 -1.1538 TD [(suppor)-25(t)-278(entr)20(epr)20(eneur)-45(ial)-278(b)15(usinesses)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 231.0266 410.2105 Tm 0.0193 Tc [(The)-297.3(??Creative)-297.3(Class??)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 387.8942 Tm 0 Tc [(In)-392.3(his)-392.3(book,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 5.416 0 TD [(The)-392.3(Rise)-392.3(of)-392.3(the)-392.3(Creativ)15(e)-392.3(Class)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.6436 0 TD [(,)-392.3(economist)-392.3(Richar)20(d)-392.3(Flor)-45(ida)]TJ -17.0596 -1.1538 TD [(intr)30(oduced)-394.8(the)-394.8(concept)-394.8(of)-394.8(the)-394.8(?cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-394.8(class.)125(?)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 351.963 377.6516 Tm (24)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 367.3376 372.9502 Tm [(This)-394.8(class,)-394.8(sometimes)]TJ -20.0019 -1.1538 TD [(r)20(efer)-40(r)20(e)0(d)-374.8(t)0(o)-374.8(a)0(s)-374.8(?kno)40(wledge)-374.8(w)40(ork)30(er)-20(s,)125(?)-374.8(includes)-374.8(those)-374.8(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-374.8(indi)20(viduals)]TJ T* [(who)-192.9(become)-192.9(the)-192.9(scientists,)-192.9(eng)-30(ineer)-20(s,)-192.9(ar)-25(tists,)-192.9(and)-192.9(entr)20(epr)20(eneur)-20(s)-192.9(who)-192.9(dr)-45(i)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(inno)40(v)30(ation-based)-225.3(economic)-225.3(g)-30(r)30(o)40(wth.)-225.3(Member)-20(s)-225.3(o)0(f)-225.3(the)-225.3(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-225.3(class)-225.3(ar)20(e)-225.3(the)]TJ T* [(k)30(e)20(y)-381.1(pla)30(y)40(e)0(r)-20(s)-381.1(in)-381.1(the)-381.1(globalization)-381.1(of)-381.1(inno)40(v)30(ation.)-381.1(Indi)20(viduals)-381.1(in)-381.1(this)-381.1(often)]TJ T* [(fr)20(ee-spir)-45(ited)-288.6(g)-30(r)30(oup)-288.6(ar)20(e)-288.6(moti)20(v)30(ated)-288.6(b)25(y)-288.6(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-288.6(oppor)-25(tunities)-288.6(and)-288.6(locations)]TJ T* [(that)-345.1(offer)-345.1(un)15(usual)-345.1(and)-345.1(di)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(s)0(e)-345.1(lifestyle)-345.1(oppor)-25(tunities.)-345.1(In)-345.1(his)-345.1(latest)-345.1(book,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf T* [(The)-354(Flight)-354(of)-354(the)-354(Creativ)15(e)-354(Class)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.9932 0 TD [(,)-354(Flor)-45(ida)-354(descr)-45(ibes)-354(ho)40(w)-354(a)-354(discussion)-354(with)]TJ -11.9932 -1.1538 TD [(a)-343.2(g)-30(r)30(oup)-343.2(of)-343.2(inter)-40(national)-343.2(g)-30(raduate)-343.2(students)-343.2(about)-343.2(their)-343.2(postcollege)-343.2(plans)]TJ T* [(inuenced)-425(his)-425(thinking)-425.1(about)-425(the)-425(global)-425(r)20(edistr)-45(ib)15(ution)-425(of)-425.1(the)-425(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* (class:)Tj 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 121.4763 200.1872 Tm [(The)-328.5(mor)20(e)-328.5(w)40(e)-328.5(p)0(r)30(obed)-328.5(the)-328.5(issue)30(,)-328.5(the)-328.5(mor)20(e)-328.5(concer)-40(ned)-328.5(w)40(e)-328.5(became)30(.)-328.5(These)-328.5(y)40(oung)]TJ -0.1129 -1.1818 TD [(people)-348(w)40(e)0(r)20(e)-348(only)-348(the)-348(tip)-348(of)-348(the)-348(iceberg.)-348(Not)-348(just)-348(for)-348(them,)-348(b)15(u)0(t)-348(for)-348(estab)15(lished)]TJ T* [(scientists)-283.1(and)-283.1(eng)-30(ineer)-20(s,)-283.1(for)-283.1(entr)20(epr)20(eneur)-20(s)-283.1(and)-283.1(emplo)40(y)40(ees,)-283.1(for)-283.1(ar)-25(tists)-283.1(and)-283.1(cultural)]TJ T* [(ma)30(v)40(ens,)-349.2(Amer)-45(ica)-349.2(w)30(a)0(s)-349.2(n)0(o)-349.2(longer)-349.2(the)-349.2(only)-349.2(place)-349.2(to)-349.2(be)30(.)-349.2(This)-349.2(w)30(a)0(s)-349.2(doub)15(ly)-349.2(tr)-25(ue)-349.2(of)]TJ T* [(our)-427.9(for)20(eign-bor)-40(n)-427.9(students,)-427.9(on)-427.9(whom)-427.9(w)40(e)-427.9(depend)-427.9(to)-427.9(help)-427.9(b)15(uild)-427.9(our)-427.9(scientic)]TJ T* [(enter)-40(pr)-45(ises,)-235.4(and)-235.4(of)-235.4(immig)-30(rant)-235.4(emplo)40(y)40(ees)-235.4(and)-235.4(entr)20(epr)20(eneur)-20(s,)-235.4(who)-235.4(po)40(w)40(e)0(r)-235.4(s)0(o)-235.4(m)15(uch)]TJ T* [(of)-278(our)-278(g)-30(r)30(o)40(wth.)-278(The)-278(balance)-278(of)-278(the)-278(w)40(orld?)100(s)-278(c)0(r)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-278(brainpo)40(w)40(e)0(r)-278(w)30(as)-278(shifting.)]TJ 7.6712 0 0 7.6712 445.531 126.4567 Tm (25)Tj ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj > endobj 49 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 215.8943 724.8822 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Fueling)-278(the)-278(Global)-278(Spread)-278(of)-278(Innov)40(ation)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 22.9014 0 TD (15)Tj ET 0.93 G 17.933 w 480.538 662.16 m 480.538 711.506 l S 17.534 w 118.952 702.739 m 489.562 702.739 l S BT 10.9589 0 0 10.9589 118.8941 676.7369 Tm [(What)-259.7(is)-259.7(y)40(our)-259.7(compan)20(y)-259.7(doing)-259.7(to)-259.7(attract)-259.7(and)-259.7(r)20(etain)-259.7(its)-259.7(shar)20(e)-259.7(o)0(f)-259.7(the)-259.7(global)-259.7(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)]TJ 0 -1.3182 TD (class?)Tj ET 0 G 0.996 w 118.894 641.736 m 280.289 641.736 l S BT /F2 1 Tf 24.9066 0 0 24.9066 285.2702 636.7548 Tm (|)Tj ET 328.359 641.736 m 489.753 641.736 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 136.8268 606.3688 Tm [(Countr)-45(ies)-336.5(ar)30(ound)-336.5(the)-336.5(w)40(orld)-336.5(ha)30(v)40(e)-336.5(for)-336.5(y)40(ear)-20(s)-336.5(been)-336.5(losing)-336.5(talent)-336.5(to)-336.5(the)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(United)-196(States)-196(and)-196(Eur)30(ope)30(.)-196(A)-196(study)-196.1(b)25(y)-196.1(Vi)20(v)40(eck)-196(W)125(adhw)30(a)-196(o)0(f)-196(Duk)30(e)-196(Uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sity)]TJ T* [(and)-202.4(other)-20(s)-202.4(highlights)-202.4(the)-202.4(contr)-45(ib)15(ution)-202.4(that)-202.4(these)-202.4(immig)-30(rants)-202.4(ha)30(v)40(e)-202.4(made)-202.4(to)]TJ T* [(the)-270.9(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-270.9(econom)30(y)-270.9(i)0(n)-270.9(par)-25(ticular)40(.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 279.4876 566.2383 Tm (26)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 293.2577 561.537 Tm [(Accor)20(ding)-270.9(to)-270.9(W)125(adhw)30(a,)-270.9(the)-270.9(per)20(centage)]TJ -13.4629 -1.1538 TD [(of)-258.2(patents)-258.2(led)-258.2(b)25(y)-258.2(for)20(eigner)-20(s)-258.2(\(non-U)80(.S)40(.)-258.2(citizens\))-258.2(li)20(ving)-258.2(in)-258.2(the)-258.2(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-258.2(tr)-45(ipled)]TJ T* [(in)-230.7(the)-230.7(past)-230.7(decade)30(.)-230.7(A)-230.7(large)-230.7(pr)30(opor)-25(tion)-230.7(of)-230.7(patent)-230.7(applications)-230.7(listing)-230.7(at)-230.7(least)]TJ T* [(one)-226.5(for)20(eign)-226.5(national)-226.5(for)-226.5(large)-226.5(patent)-226.5(holder)-20(s)-226.5(list)-226.5(at)-226.5(least)-226.5(one)-226.5(for)20(eign)-226.5(patent)]TJ T* [(applicant,)-278(for)-278(example:)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 141.31 475.2266 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 148.0846 472.2379 Tm [(Qualcomm)-278(Inc)30(.,)-278(72%)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 141.31 457.2939 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 148.0846 454.3051 Tm [(Mer)20(ck)-278(&)-278(C)0(o)50(.)0(,)-278(65%)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 141.31 439.3611 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 148.0846 436.3724 Tm [(Exxon)-278(Mobile)-278(Cor)-40(p)60(.)0(,)-278(48%)]TJ /F6 1 Tf 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 141.31 421.4284 Tm ()Tj /F1 1 Tf 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 148.0846 418.4396 Tm [(The)-278(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-278(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(nment,)-278(41%)]TJ -0.8692 -2.2795 TD [(These)-473(same)-473(countr)-45(ies)-473(ar)20(e)-473(n)0(o)40(w)-473(g)-30(r)30(o)40(wing)-473(their)-473(o)40(w)0(n)-473(high-tech)-473(and)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(biotech)-332.1(sector)-20(s,)-332.1(and)-332.1(the)20(y)-332.1(a)0(r)20(e)-332.1(also)-332.1(w)40(orking)-332.1(har)20(d)-332.1(t)0(o)-332.1(lur)20(e)-332.1(their)-332.1(expatr)-45(iates)]TJ T* [(back)-421.3(home)30(.)-421.3(Both)-421.3(China)-421.3(and)-421.3(India)-421.3(ha)30(v)40(e)-421.3(a)-421.3(diaspora)-421.3(of)-421.3(millions)-421.3(of)-421.3(ex-)]TJ T* [(patr)-45(iates)-284(who)-284(can)-284(ser)-25(v)40(e)-284(as)-284(a)-284(r)20(esour)20(ce)-284(for)-284(their)-284(countr)-45(ies?)-284(de)20(v)40(elopment)-284(in)]TJ T* [(ter)-45(ms)-211.7(of)-211.7(capital,)-211.7(b)15(usiness)-211.7(kno)40(w-ho)40(w)120(,)-211.7(education,)-211.7(and)-211.7(adv)30(anced)-211.7(technolo)20(g-)]TJ T* [(ical)-222.5(kno)40(wledge)30(.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 197.9301 318.8979 Tm (27)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 211.0727 314.1965 Tm 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[(One)-331.3(r)20(epor)-25(t)-331.3(indicated)-331.3(that)-331.3(in)-331.3(a)-331.3(sur)-25(v)40(e)20(y)]TJ -13.6448 -1.1538 TD [(of)-368(Indian)-368(ex)40(ecuti)20(v)40(e)0(s)-368(i)0(n)-368(the)-367.9(United)-368(States,)-367.9(68)-368(per)20(cent)-367.9(w)40(e)0(r)20(e)-367.9(looking)-368(for)]TJ T* [(oppor)-25(tunities)-330.2(to)-330.2(r)20(etur)-40(n)-330.2(t)0(o)-330.2(India.)-330.2(A)-330.2(similar)-330.2(study)-330.2(of)-330.2(g)-30(raduates)-330.2(of)-330.2(the)-330.2(All)]TJ T* [(India)-386.8(Institute)-386.8(of)-386.8(Medical)-386.8(Sciences)-386.8(found)-386.8(that)-386.8(40)-386.8(per)20(cent)-386.8(of)-386.8(g)-30(raduates)]TJ T* [(li)20(ving)-278(abr)30(oad)-278(w)40(e)0(r)20(e)-278(r)20(eady)-278(to)-278(r)20(etur)-40(n.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 296.9901 199.3463 Tm (30)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 136.8268 179.7009 Tm 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[(competing.)-404.8(Companies)-404.8(lose)-404.8(talent,)-404.8(and)-404.8(w)40(ork)30(er)-20(s)-404.8(a)0(r)20(e)-404.8(r)20(esentful)-404.8(and)-404.8(ang)-30(r)-30(y)120(.)-404.8(It?)100(s)-404.8(a)]TJ T* [(lose-lose)-278(situation.)]TJ 7.6712 0 0 7.6712 200.2497 669.2768 Tm (32)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 126.2166 640.9899 Tm [(And)-301.4(the)-301.4(mor)20(e)-301.4(expatr)-45(iates)-301.4(r)20(etur)-40(n)-301.4(home)-301.4(to)-301.4(star)-25(t)-301.4(and)-301.4(g)-30(r)30(o)40(w)-301.4(technolo)20(gy)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(companies,)-274.1(the)-274.1(mor)20(e)-274.1(jobs)-274.1(ar)20(e)-274.1(c)0(r)20(eated)-274.1(for)-274.1(other)-274.1(highly)-274.1(educated)-274.1(scientists)]TJ T* [(and)-357.2(eng)-30(ineer)-20(s)-357.2(who)-357.2(w)30(ant)-357.2(to)-357.2(r)20(etur)-40(n)-357.2(o)0(r)-357.2(sta)30(y)-357.3(a)0(t)-357.2(home)30(.)-357.2(The)-357.2(net)-357.2(effect)-357.2(is)-357.2(a)]TJ T* 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[(dents)-259.5(ar)20(e)-259.5(cur)-40(r)20(ently)-259.5(outsour)20(cing)-259.5(some)-259.5(or)-259.5(all)-259.5(of)-259.5(their)-259.5(applications,)-259.5(ser)-25(vices,)]TJ T* [(or)-400.5(operations)-400.5(and)-400.5(about)-400.5(43)-400.5(per)20(cent)-400.5(ar)20(e)-400.5(cur)-40(r)20(ently)-400.5(e)20(v)30(aluating)-400.5(outsour)20(c-)]TJ T* [(ing)-267.4(pr)30(o)40(vider)-20(s.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 178.1367 452.4067 Tm (33)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 191.8615 447.7054 Tm [(This)-267.4(impor)-25(tant)-267.4(tr)20(end)-267.4(r)20(esults)-267.4(in)-267.4(the)-267.4(channeling)-267.4(of)-267.4(mone)20(y)]TJ -6.4532 -1.1538 TD [(into)-233.9(de)20(v)40(eloping)-233.9(economies,)-233.9(wher)20(e)-233.9(i)0(t)-233.9(often)-233.9(funds)-233.9(infrastr)-25(uctur)20(e)-233.9(and)-233.9(b)15(uilds)]TJ T* [(comm)15(unities)-381.9(that)-381.9(ar)20(e)-381.9(attracti)20(v)40(e)-381.9(to)-381.9(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-381.9(w)40(ork)30(er)-20(s.)-381.9(Mor)20(eo)40(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-381.9(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(w)40(ork)30(er)-20(s)-298.4(a)0(r)20(e)-298.4(needed)-298.4(to)-298.4(de)20(v)40(elop)-298.4(and)-298.4(maintain)-298.4(the)-298.4(technolo)20(g)-30(ies)-298.4(that)-298.4(mak)30(e)]TJ T* [(it)-206.8(possib)15(le)-206.8(to)-206.8(connect)-206.8(lo)40(w-skill)-206.8(outsour)20(cing)-206.8(center)-20(s)-206.8(t)0(o)-206.8(their)-206.8(customer)-206.8(base)30(,)]TJ T* [(largely)-212.2(in)-212.2(the)-212.2(de)20(v)40(eloped)-212.2(w)40(orld.)-212.2(Outsour)20(cing)-212.2(operations)-212.2(ar)20(e)-212.2(training)-212.2(a)-212.2(n)0(e)20(w)]TJ T* [(class)-251(of)-251(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-251(w)40(ork)30(er)-20(s)-251(and)-251(contr)-45(ib)15(uting)-251(to)-251(the)-251(r)20(edistr)-45(ib)15(ution)-251(of)-251(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)]TJ T* [(capacity)-278(ar)30(ound)-278(the)-278(w)40(orld.)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 238.6012 306.625 Tm 0.0193 Tc [(Cost)-297.3(of)-297.3(Innovation)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 284.3087 Tm 0 Tc [(An)-304.5(impor)-25(tant)-304.5(and)-304.5(mor)20(e)-304.5(r)20(ecent)-304.5(tr)20(end)-304.5(is)-304.5(the)-304.5(outsour)20(cing)-304.5(or)-304.5(offshor)-45(ing)-304.5(of)]TJ T* [(inno)40(v)30(ation)-200.7(jobs.)-200.7(As)-200.7(inno)40(v)30(ation)-200.7(hot)-200.7(spots)-200.7(emerge)-200.7(in)-200.7(lo)40(w-cost)-200.7(labor)-200.7(mark)30(ets)]TJ T* [(ar)30(ound)-228.1(the)-228.1(w)40(orld,)-228.1(b)15(usinesses)-228.1(ha)30(v)40(e)-228.1(mor)20(e)-228.1(options)-228.1(than)-228.1(e)20(v)40(er)-228.1(for)-228.1(outsour)20(cing)]TJ T* [(or)-269.2(offshor)-45(ing)-269.2(inno)40(v)30(ation.)-269.2(The)-269.2(cost)-269.2(of)-269.2(human)-269.2(talent)-269.2(is)-269.2(typically)-269.2(m)15(uch)-269.2(less)]TJ T* 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[(with)-274.5(a)-274.5(Ph.D)105(.)-274.5(biotech)-274.5(scientist)-274.5(who)-274.5(mo)40(v)40(e)0(d)-274.5(back)-274.5(to)-274.5(India)-274.5(after)-274.5(w)40(orking)-274.5(at)]TJ T* [(a)-302.7(U)80(.S)40(.)-302.7(biotech)-302.7(r)-45(m)-302.7(for)-302.7(se)20(v)40(eral)-302.7(y)40(ear)-20(s.)-302.7(His)-302.7(Indian)-302.7(salar)-30(y)-302.7(i)0(s)-302.7(about)-302.7(one-fth)]TJ T* [(the)-322.3(amount)-322.3(he)-322.3(w)30(a)0(s)-322.3(paid)-322.3(in)-322.3(the)-322.3(United)-322.3(States.)-322.3(In)-322.3(India,)-322.3(he)-322.3(has)-322.3(the)-322.3(same)]TJ T* [(skills,)-185.6(access)-185.6(to)-185.6(the)-185.6(same)-185.6(high-tech)-185.6(equipment,)-185.6(and)-185.6(he)-185.6(is)-185.6(sur)-40(r)30(ounded)-185.6(b)25(y)-185.6(the)]TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj > endobj 54 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 215.8943 724.8822 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Fueling)-278(the)-278(Global)-278(Spread)-278(of)-278(Innov)40(ation)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 22.9014 0 TD (17)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 702.816 Tm [(same)-198(quality)-198(of)-198(scientists)-198(as)-198(he)-198(w)30(a)0(s)-198(when)-198(w)40(orking)-198(in)-198(the)-198(United)-198(States.)-198(His)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(inno)40(v)30(ati)20(v)40(e)-292(capacity)-292(is)-292(a)30(v)30(ailab)15(le)-292(in)-292(India)-292(for)-292(a)-292(fraction)-292(of)-292(the)-292(cost)-292(of)-292(those)]TJ T* [(same)-233.1(skills)-233.1(in)-233.1(the)-233.1(United)-233.1(States.)-233.1(And)-233.1(his)-233.1(salar)-30(y)-233.1(enab)15(les)-233.1(him)-233.1(to)-233.1(maintain)-233.1(an)]TJ T* [(acceptab)15(le)-251.1(standar)20(d)-251.1(o)0(f)-251.1(l)0(i)20(ving)-251.1(in)-251.1(his)-251.1(home)-251.1(countr)-30(y)120(,)-251.1(wher)20(e)-251.1(h)0(e)-251.1(can)-251.1(be)-251.1(closer)]TJ T* [(to)-278(his)-278(f)-25(amily)-278(and)-278(raise)-278(his)-278(childr)20(en)-278(within)-278(his)-278(pr)20(efer)-40(r)20(e)0(d)-278(cultur)20(e)30(.)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 237.3897 605.5424 Tm 0.0193 Tc [(Growing)-297.3(Infrastructure)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 583.2261 Tm 0 Tc [(As)-491.3(alr)20(eady)-491.3(suggested,)-491.3(outsour)20(cing)-491.3(and)-491.3(offshor)-45(ing)-491.3(tr)20(ends)-491.3(ar)20(e)-491.3(enab)15(ling)]TJ T* [(local)-473.6(economies)-473.6(to)-473.6(b)15(uild)-473.6(attracti)20(v)40(e)-473.6(w)40(ork)-473.6(en)40(vir)30(onments)-473.6(for)-473.6(their)-473.6(cr)20(e-)]TJ T* [(ati)20(v)40(e)-320.2(w)40(ork)30(er)-20(s,)-320.2(ther)20(eb)25(y)-320.2(enticing)-320.2(educated)-320.2(expatr)-45(iates)-320.2(back)-320.2(home)30(.)-320.2(Infosys)]TJ T* [(T)150(echnolo)20(g)-30(ies)-350.9(Limited)-350.9(\(ITL\))-350.8(is)-350.9(one)-350.8(of)-350.9(man)20(y)-350.8(examples.)-350.9(The)-350.9(compan)20(y)-350.8(i)0(s)]TJ T* [(headquar)-25(ter)20(ed)-361.4(in)-361.4(Bangalor)20(e)30(,)-361.4(India,)-361.4(another)-361.4(inno)40(v)30(ation)-361.4(hot)-361.4(spot,)-361.4(wher)20(e)]TJ T* [(magnicent)-356.4(metallic)-356.4(str)-25(uctur)20(es)-356.4(housing)-356.4(global)-356.4(b)15(usinesses)-356.4(ar)20(e)-356.4(b)15(uilt)-356.4(amid)]TJ T* [(the)-319.5(r)20(emains)-319.5(of)-319.5(an)-319.5(ancient)-319.5(ci)20(vilization)-319.5(and)-319.5(sur)-40(r)30(ounded)-319.5(b)25(y)-319.5(abject)-319.5(po)40(v)40(e)0(r)-25(t)0(y)120(.)]TJ T* [(Thomas)-267.2(Fr)-45(iedman)-267.2(descr)-45(ibes)-267.2(ITL)100(?)100(s)-267.2(global)-267.2(confer)20(encing)-267.2(center)-267.2(as)-267.2(?g)-30(r)30(ound)]TJ T* [(zer)30(o?)-180.7(of)-180.7(the)-180.7(Indian)-180.7(outsour)20(cing)-180.7(industr)-30(y:)-180.7(a)-180.7(c)0(a)30(v)40(er)-40(nous)-180.7(w)40(ood-paneled)-180.7(r)30(oom)]TJ T* [(with)-279.3(cameras)-279.3(in)-279.3(the)-279.3(ceiling)-279.3(for)-279.3(teleconfer)20(encing)-279.3(and)-279.3(a)-279.3(massi)20(v)40(e)-279.3(super-size)]TJ T* [(at-scr)20(een)-418.1(TV)-417.9(that)-418.1(can)-418.1(pull)-418.1(to)20(gether)-418.1(ITL)100(?)100(s)-418.1(entir)20(e)-418.1(supply)-418.1(chain?Ne)20(w)]TJ T* [(Y)160(ork,)-311.8(London,)-311.8(Boston,)-311.8(San)-311.8(Francisco)50(,)-311.8(Singapor)20(e?all)-311.8(at)-311.8(once)30(,)-311.8(all)-311.8(li)20(v)40(e)30(.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 479.2451 423.5441 Tm (36)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 403.8988 Tm [(As)-227.2(compar)20(ed)-227.2(with)-227.2(locations)-227.2(in)-227.2(other)-227.2(countr)-45(ies,)-227.2(companies)-227.2(in)-227.2(outsour)20(cing)]TJ T* [(hot)-311(spots)-311(ha)30(v)40(e)-311(better)-311(access)-311(to)-311(b)15(uilding)-311(mater)-45(ials,)-311(such)-311(as)-311(steel)-311(and)-311(con-)]TJ T* [(cr)20(ete)30(,)-317.7(a)0(s)-317.7(w)40(ell)-317.7(as)-317.7(better)-317.7(r)30(oads,)-317.7(cleaner)-317.7(w)30(ater)40(,)-317.7(mor)20(e)-317.7(r)20(eliab)15(le)-317.7(electr)-45(icity)-317.7(and)]TJ T* [(comm)15(unications,)-211.5(and)-211.5(other)-211.5(components)-211.5(of)-211.5(infrastr)-25(uctur)20(e)30(.)-211.5(The)-211.5(infrastr)-25(uc-)]TJ T* [(tur)20(e)-209.2(that)-209.2(underlies)-209.2(and)-209.2(is)-209.2(enab)15(led)-209.2(b)25(y)-209.2(the)-209.2(economics)-209.2(of)-209.2(outsour)20(cing)-209.2(is)-209.2(also)-209.2(a)]TJ T* [(fundamental)-173.8(enab)15(ling)-173.8(technolo)20(gy)-173.8(for)-173.8(the)-173.8(global)-173.8(distr)-45(ib)15(ution)-173.8(of)-173.8(inno)40(v)30(ation.)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 242.375 291.6812 Tm 0.0193 Tc [(Improving)-297.3(Education)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 269.3649 Tm 0 Tc [(The)-288.2(uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sities)-288.2(of)-288.2(the)-288.2(United)-288.2(States)-288.2(and)-288.2(Eur)30(ope)-288.2(ha)30(v)40(e)-288.2(traditionally)-288.2(been)]TJ T* [(the)-265.4(k)30(e)20(y)-265.4(destinations)-265.4(for)-265.4(top)-265.4(students)-265.4(fr)30(om)-265.4(de)20(v)40(eloping)-265.4(economies,)-265.4(such)-265.4(as)]TJ T* [(China)-315.8(and)-315.8(India.)-315.8(After)-315.8(lea)30(ving)-315.8(school,)-315.8(man)20(y)-315.8(o)0(f)-315.8(these)-315.8(students)-315.8(r)20(emained)]TJ T* [(in)-380.1(the)-380.1(W)125(est)-380.1(to)-380.1(enjo)40(y)-380.1(the)-380.1(standar)20(d)-380.1(o)0(f)-380.1(l)0(i)20(ving,)-380.1(and)-380.1(man)20(y)-380.1(c)0(r)20(eated)-380.1(compa-)]TJ T* [(nies,)-387(raised)-387(v)40(entur)20(e)-387(capital)-387(fr)30(om)-387(her)20(e)-387(and)-387(abr)30(oad,)-387(and)-387(b)15(uilt)-387(companies)]TJ T* [(that)-338.1(added)-338.1(ne)20(w)-338.1(p)0(r)30(oducts)-338.1(and)-338.1(ser)-25(vices)-338.1(to)-338.1(the)-338.1(econom)30(y)120(.)-338.1(But)-338.1(no)40(w)-338.1(higher)]TJ T* [(education)-278(is)-278(?going)-278(global.)125(?)]TJ 1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(Uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sities)-426.4(in)-426.4(de)20(v)40(eloping)-426.4(nations,)-426.4(such)-426.4(as)-426.4(the)-426.4(Indian)-426.4(Institutes)-426.4(of)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(T)150(echnolo)20(gy)120(,)-224.4(often)-224.4(r)20(efer)-40(r)20(e)0(d)-224.4(t)0(o)-224.4(a)0(s)-224.4(the)-224.4(MIT)-224.3(of)-224.4(India,)-224.4(ar)20(e)-224.4(ear)-40(ning)-224.4(top)-224.4(ratings,)]TJ T* [(and)-345.1(man)20(y)-345.1(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-345.1(close)-345.1(ties)-345.1(to)-345.1(top)-345.1(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-345.1(and)-345.1(Eur)30(opean)-345.1(Union)-345.1(uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sities.)]TJ T* [(At)-302.5(the)-302.5(same)-302.5(time)30(,)-302.5(w)40(ester)-40(n)-302.5(uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sities)-302.5(ar)20(e)-302.5(offer)-45(ing)-302.5(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-302.5(local)-302.5(options)]TJ ET endstream endobj 55 0 obj > endobj 56 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 108.2839 725.3405 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(18)-10373.9(INNO)50(V)100(A)75(TING)-278(W)80(ORLD)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 702.816 Tm [(for)-317.8(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-20(seas)-317.8(students.)-317.8(F)20(o)0(r)-317.8(example)30(,)-317.8(Duk)30(e)-317.8(Uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sity)-317.8(in)-317.8(Durham,)-317.8(Nor)-25(th)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(Car)30(olina,)-412.2(and)-412.2(the)-412.2(National)-412.2(Uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sity)-412.2(of)-412.2(Singapor)20(e)-412.2(opened)-412.2(a)-412.2(medical)]TJ T* [(school)-292.1(in)-292.1(Singapor)20(e)30(,)-292.1(its)-292.1(r)-20(st)-292.1(g)-30(raduate)-292.1(medical)-292.1(school,)-292.1(and)-292.1(Duk)30(e)-292.1(plans)-292.1(to)]TJ T* [(open)-228.2(a)-228.2(second)-228.2(medical)-228.2(school)-228.2(in)-228.2(Beijing.)-228.2(Mor)20(eo)40(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-228.2(the)-228.2(cost)-228.2(of)-228.2(education)]TJ T* [(in)-273.2(de)20(v)40(eloping)-273.2(economies)-273.2(is)-273.2(m)15(uch)-273.2(less)-273.2(than)-273.2(that)-273.2(in)-273.2(de)20(v)40(eloped)-273.2(economies.)]TJ 1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(One)-221.7(measur)20(e)-221.7(o)0(f)-221.7(success)-221.7(in)-221.7(a)-221.7(nation?)100(s)-221.7(effor)-25(ts)-221.7(to)-221.7(impr)30(o)40(v)40(e)-221.7(its)-221.7(homeg)-30(r)30(o)40(wn)]TJ -1.3846 -1.1538 TD [(inno)40(v)30(ation)-260.4(capacity)-260.4(is)-260.4(the)-260.4(incr)20(ease)-260.4(in)-260.4(the)-260.4(a)30(w)30(a)0(r)20(d)0(s)-260.4(o)0(f)-260.4(doctoral)-260.4(deg)-30(r)20(ees,)-260.4(par-)]TJ T* [(ticularly)-208.8(in)-208.8(the)-208.8(sciences,)-208.8(fr)30(om)-208.8(domestic)-208.8(institutions.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 365.5104 602.9098 Tm (37)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 378.476 598.2085 Tm [(China,)-208.8(for)-208.8(example)30(,)]TJ -20.862 -1.1538 TD [(mo)40(v)40(e)0(d)-209.5(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-209.5(essentially)-209.5(zer)30(o)-209.5(i)0(n)-209.5(1985)-209.5(to)-209.5(almost)-209.5(7,500)-209.5(domestically)-209.5(a)30(w)30(a)0(r)20(ded)]TJ T* [(doctorates)-349.5(in)-349.5(2000.)-349.5(South)-349.5(K)30(o)0(r)20(ean)-349.5(a)30(w)30(a)0(r)20(d)0(s)-349.5(incr)20(eased)-349.5(fr)30(om)-349.5(128)-349.5(to)-349.5(almost)]TJ T* [(3,000)-362.1(in)-362.1(r)30(oughly)-362.1(the)-362.1(same)-362.1(per)-45(iod.)-362.1(A)-362(r)20(elated)-362.1(measur)20(e)-362.1(i)0(s)-362.1(the)-362.1(n)15(umber)-362.1(of)]TJ T* [(scientic)-263.7(paper)-20(s)-263.7(pub)15(lished)-263.7(in)-263.7(peer-r)20(e)20(vie)20(w)40(e)0(d)-263.7(jour)-40(nals.)-263.7(In)-263.7(2003,)-263.7(for)-263.7(exam-)]TJ T* [(ple)30(,)-290.5(author)-20(s)-290.5(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-290.5(China,)-290.5(Singapor)20(e)30(,)-290.5(South)-290.5(K)30(o)0(r)20(ea,)-290.5(and)-290.5(T)110(aiw)30(an)-290.5(pub)15(lished)]TJ T* [(55,300)-182.1(paper)-20(s)-182.1(i)0(n)-182.1(the)-182.1(Amer)-45(ican)-182.1(Chemical)-182.1(Society?)100(s)-182.1(jour)-40(nals,)-182.1(up)-182.1(fr)30(om)-182.1(7,200)]TJ T* [(paper)-20(s)-216.5(i)0(n)-216.5(1998.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 184.9969 498.3022 Tm (38)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 198.0629 493.6009 Tm [(Because)-216.5(it)-216.5(is)-216.5(no)-216.6(longer)-216.5(necessar)-30(y)-216.5(for)-216.5(students)-216.6(to)-216.5(tra)30(v)40(e)0(l)-216.5(t)0(o)]TJ -6.932 -1.1538 TD [(the)-224.9(United)-224.9(States)-224.9(and)-224.9(Eur)30(ope)-224.9(for)-224.9(top-rated)-224.9(educations)-224.9(or)-224.9(to)-224.9(put)-224.9(those)-224.9(ed-)]TJ T* [(ucations)-259.9(into)-260(use)30(,)-259.9(man)20(y)-259.9(o)0(f)-259.9(the)-260(w)40(orld?)100(s)-259.9(best)-259.9(minds)-259.9(ar)20(e)-260(comfor)-25(tab)15(le)-260(sta)30(ying)]TJ T* [(r)-45(ight)-278(at)-278(home)30(.)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 178.2376 406.2514 Tm 0.0193 Tc [(Governmental)-297.3(and)-297.3(Nonprofit)-297.3(Initiatives)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 383.9351 Tm 0 Tc [(In)-277.9(vie)20(w)-277.9(o)0(f)-277.9(the)-277.9(economic)-277.9(gains)-277.9(cr)20(eated)-277.9(b)25(y)-277.9(center)-20(s)-277.9(o)0(f)-277.9(inno)40(v)30(ation,)-277.9(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(n)0(-)]TJ T* [(ments)-355.4(ar)20(e)-355.4(spending)-355.4(their)-355.4(nations?)-355.4(har)20(d-ear)-40(ned)-355.4(cash)-355.4(to)-355.4(cr)20(eate)-355.4(their)-355.4(o)40(w)0(n)]TJ T* [(center)-20(s)-333(for)-333(attracting)-333(cr)20(eati)20(v)40(e)-333(w)40(ork)30(er)-20(s)-333(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-333.1(a)0(r)30(ound)-333(the)-333(w)40(orld.)-333(Biotech-)]TJ T* [(nolo)20(gy)-372.2(center)-20(s)-372.2(a)0(r)20(e)-372.2(r)20(epr)20(esentati)20(v)40(e)-372.2(of)-372.2(this)-372.2(tr)20(end.)-372.2(The)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 21.104 0 TD [(Chicago)-372.2(T)120(r)-25(ib)15(une)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 6.3645 0 TD -0.02 Tc [(re)-20(-)]TJ -27.4686 -1.1538 TD 0 Tc [(cently)-385.9(r)20(epor)-25(ted)-385.9(that)-385.9(biotech)-385.9(center)-20(s)-385.9(a)0(r)20(e)-385.9(spr)-45(ing)-30(ing)-385.9(up)-385.9(acr)30(oss)-385.9(the)-385.9(globe)30(,)]TJ T* [(fr)30(om)-261.9(Australia)-261.9(to)-261.9(T)150(o)0(r)30(onto)-261.9(and)-261.9(Singapor)20(e)-261.9(t)0(o)-261.9(Amster)20(dam.)]TJ 9.9626 0 0 9.9626 393.9463 313.9167 Tm (39)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 407.5998 309.2154 Tm [(Until)-261.9(r)20(ecently)]TJ -23.1106 -1.1538 TD [(the)-300.3(United)-300.3(States)-300.3(accounted)-300.3(for)-300.3(most)-300.3(of)-300.3(the)-300.3(w)40(orld?)100(s)-300.3(biotech)-300.3(in)40(v)40(estment,)]TJ T* [(b)15(u)0(t)-274(countr)-45(ies)-274(ar)30(ound)-274(the)-274(w)40(orld)-274(ar)20(e)-274(using)-274(go)40(v)40(e)0(r)-40(nment)-274(subsidies)-274(to)-274(attract)]TJ T* [(biotech)-230(companies)-230(and)-230(the)-230(in)40(v)40(estments)-230(and)-230(jobs)-230(that)-230(go)-230(along)-230(with)-230(them.)]TJ T* [(Inter)20(estingly)120(,)-326.4(v)40(entur)20(e)-326.4(capital)-326.4(funds)-326.4(ar)20(e)-326.4(star)-25(ting)-326.4(to)-326.4(o)40(w)-326.4(t)0(o)-326.4(these)-326.4(ne)20(w)-326.4(hot)]TJ T* [(spots)-213.7(\(e)30(.g.,)-213.7(in)-213.7(China)-213.7(and)-213.7(India\),)-213.7(to)-213.7(tak)30(e)-213.7(adv)30(antage)-213.7(of)-213.7(the)-213.7(lo)40(w)-213.7(cost)-213.7(of)-213.7(R&D)105(.)]TJ 13.9477 0 0 13.9477 154.5306 194.6452 Tm [(PLA)100(YING)-278(THE)-278(GLOB)20(AL)-278(iPR)100(OPER)100(TY)-278(GAME)]TJ 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 108.2839 164.7572 Tm [(P)30(a)0(r)-25(ticipating)-328.9(in)-328.9(this)-328.9(global)-328.9(competition,)-328.9(although)-328.9(a)-328.9(ser)-45(ious)-328.9(b)15(usiness)-328.9(en-)]TJ T* [(dea)30(v)40(o)0(r)40(,)-215.9(is)-216(in)-216(man)20(y)-216(r)20(espects)-216(a)-216(game:)-216(the)-216(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-216(game)30(.)-216(Inno)40(v)30(ator)-215.9(compa-)]TJ T* [(nies)-268.1(m)15(ust)-268.1(mak)30(e)-268.1(a)0(n)-268.1(expensi)20(v)40(e)-268.1(in)40(v)40(estment)-268.1(in)-268.1(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-268.1(chips.)-268.1(Pla)30(y)40(e)0(r)-20(s)-268.1(place)]TJ T* [(the)-373.2(chips,)-373.2(technolo)20(gy)-373.2(and)-373.2(mark)30(et)-373.2(bets,)-373.2(in)-373.2(a)-373.2(strateg)-30(ically)-373.2(selected)-373.2(set)-373.2(of)]TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj > endobj 58 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F4 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 225.4895 724.8822 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(Pla)30(ying)-278(the)-278(Global)-278(iProper)-20(ty)-278(Game)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 22.0639 0 TD (19)Tj 12.9514 0 0 12.9514 118.8941 702.816 Tm [(countr)-45(ies)-254.5(on)-254.5(a)-254.5(w)40(orldwide)-254.5(pla)30(ying)-254.5(boar)20(d.)-254.5(Once)-254.5(chips)-254.5(ar)20(e)-254.5(placed,)-254.5(the)20(y)-254.5(can)]TJ 0 -1.1538 TD [(be)-213.6(r)20(emo)40(v)40(ed,)-213.6(b)15(u)0(t)-213.6(the)20(y)-213.6(cannot)-213.6(be)-213.6(mo)40(v)40(e)0(d)-213.6(t)0(o)-213.6(other)-213.6(countr)-45(ies)-213.6(\(i.e)30(.,)-213.6(pr)30(otection)]TJ T* [(effor)-25(ts)-210.1(can)-210.1(be)-210.1(abandoned,)-210.1(b)15(u)0(t)-210.1(i)0(f)-210.1(not)-210.1(initiated)-210.1(in)-210.1(other)-210.1(countr)-45(ies)-210.1(in)-210.1(a)-210.1(timely)]TJ T* [(manner)40(,)-319.1(the)-319.1(oppor)-25(tunity)-319.1(for)-319.1(pr)30(otection)-319.1(in)-319.1(those)-319.1(countr)-45(ies)-319.1(ma)30(y)-319.1(b)0(e)-319.1(lost\).)]TJ T* [(The)-252.7(usefulness)-252.7(of)-252.7(a)-252.7(specic)-252.7(placement)-252.7(of)-252.7(chips)-252.7(is)-252.7(subject)-252.7(to)-252.7(a)-252.7(high)-252.7(deg)-30(r)20(e)0(e)]TJ T* [(of)-249.1(uncer)-25(tainty)120(.)-249.1(Attempts)-249.1(to)-249.1(place)-249.1(a)-249.1(chip)-249.1(ar)20(e)-249.1(not)-249.1(al)20(w)30(a)30(y)0(s)-249.1(successful)-249.1(\(i.e)30(.,)-249.1(the)]TJ T* [(expected)-379.9(pr)30(otection)-379.9(ma)30(y)-379.9(not)-379.9(mater)-45(ialize)-379.9(despite)-379.9(the)-379.9(in)40(v)40(estment)-379.9(or)-379.9(the)]TJ T* [(technolo)20(gy)-268.6(ma)30(y)-268.6(f)-25(ail\).)-268.6(Ev)40(en)-268.6(when)-268.6(a)-268.6(chip)-268.6(is)-268.6(successfully)-268.6(placed,)-268.6(it)-268.6(ma)30(y)-268.6(not)]TJ T* [(ha)30(v)40(e)-263.7(its)-263.7(intended)-263.7(effect)-263.7(\(e)30(.g.,)-263.7(legal)-263.7(pr)30(otections)-263.7(ma)30(y)-263.7(b)0(e)-263.7(estab)15(lished)-263.7(b)15(u)0(t)-263.7(not)]TJ T* [(successfully)-299.5(enfor)20(ced\).)-299.5(An)-299.5(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-299.5(chip)-299.5(ma)30(y)-299.5(b)0(e)-299.5(t)0(r)-25(umped)-299.5(b)25(y)-299.5(a)-299.5(super)-45(ior)]TJ T* [(chip)-186.2(placed)-186.2(b)25(y)-186.2(another)-186.2(pla)30(y)40(e)0(r)-186.2(\()0(e)30(.g.,)-186.2(e)20(v)40(en)-186.2(if)-186.2(a)-186.2(patent)-186.2(is)-186.2(g)-30(ranted,)-186.2(a)-186.2(competitor)]TJ T* [(ma)30(y)-290.1(h)0(a)30(v)40(e)-290.1(super)-45(ior)-290.1(patent)-290.1(r)-45(ights)-290.1(that)-290.1(b)15(lock)-290.1(the)-290.1(compan)20(y)-290.1(f)0(r)30(o)0(m)-290.1(exploiting)]TJ T* [(its)-278.1(o)40(w)0(n)-278.1(patent\).)-278.1(Thr)20(eats)-278.1(will)-278.1(ar)-45(ise)-278.1(in)-278.1(countr)-45(ies)-278.1(wher)20(e)-278.1(n)0(o)-278.1(patent)-278.1(chip)-278.1(w)30(a)0(s)]TJ T* [(placed)-188.8(\(i.e)30(.,)-188.8(unless)-188.8(all)-188.8(economically)-188.8(viab)15(le)-188.8(countr)-45(ies)-188.8(ar)20(e)-188.8(p)0(r)30(otected,)-188.8(cop)30(ying)]TJ /F4 1 Tf T* (will)Tj /F1 1 Tf 1.5592 0 TD [(occur)-257.2(in)-257.2(countr)-45(ies)-257.2(wher)20(e)-257.2(the)-257.2(compan)20(y)-257.2(has)-257.2(not)-257.2(in)40(v)40(ested)-257.2(in)-257.2(pr)30(otecting)]TJ -1.5592 -1.1538 TD [(its)-297.9(ideas\).)-297.9(The)-297.9(most)-297.9(successful)-297.9(companies)-297.9(in)-297.9(this)-297.9(economic)-297.9(game)-297.9(will)-297.9(be)]TJ T* [(those)-231.7(that)-231.7(inno)40(v)30(ate)-231.7(w)40(ell;)-231.6(the)20(y)-231.7(will)-231.6(ha)30(v)40(e)-231.7(mor)20(e)-231.7(chips)-231.7(to)-231.7(pla)30(y)-231.7(with)-231.7(than)-231.7(their)]TJ T* [(less)-380.9(inno)40(v)30(ati)20(v)40(e)-380.9(competitor)-20(s.)-380.9(And)-380.9(among)-380.9(companies)-380.9(that)-380.9(inno)40(v)30(ate)-380.9(w)40(ell,)]TJ T* [(those)-264.1(companies)-264.1(that)-264.1(ar)20(e)-264.1(masterful)-264.1(at)-264.1(pr)30(otecting)-264.1(the)-264.1(r)20(esulting)-264.1(ideas)-264.1(in)-264.1(the)]TJ T* [(complex)-393.8(global)-393.8(ar)20(ena)-393.8(will)-393.8(ha)30(v)40(e)-393.8(a)-393.8(competiti)20(v)40(e)-393.8(adv)30(antage)-393.8(\(i.e)30(.,)-393.8(o)40(wnage\))]TJ T* [(o)40(v)40(e)0(r)-278(those)-278(that)-278(ar)20(e)-278(not.)]TJ /F3 1 Tf 11.9552 0 0 11.9552 118.8941 375.0455 Tm (N)Tj 8.4682 0 0 8.4682 128.6135 375.0455 Tm [(O)45(TES)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 10.4608 0 0 10.4608 124.0198 360.1015 Tm [(1.)-474.3(Thomas)-312.3(Fr)-45(iedman,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 9.1338 0 TD [(The)-312.3(W)100(orld)-312.3(Is)-312.3(Flat:)-312.3(A)-312.2(B)0(r)-25(ief)-312.3(Histor)-15(y)-312.3(o)0(f)-312.3(the)-312.3(T)130(wenty-?rst)-312.3(Centur)-15(y)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 23.5319 0 TD [(\(Ne)20(w)]TJ -31.4415 -1.2381 TD [(Y)160(ork:)-278(Far)-40(rar)40(,)-278(Straus)-278(and)-278(Gir)30(oux,)-278(2006\),)-278(8.)]TJ -1.2243 -1.4286 TD [(2.)-474.3(See)-353.3(K)30(enichi)-353.3(Ohmae)30(,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 9.9452 0 TD [(The)-353.3(Next)-353.3(Global)-353.3(Stage:)-353.3(The)-353.3(Challenges)-353.3(and)-353.3(Oppor)-20(tunities)-353.3(in)-353.3(Our)]TJ -8.7209 -1.2381 TD [(Bor)20(derless)-278(W)100(orld.)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 6.532 0 TD [(\(Upper)-278(Saddle)-278(Ri)20(v)40(e)0(r)40(,)-278(NJ:)-278(Whar)-25(ton)-278(School)-278(Pub)15(lishing,)-278(2005\).)]TJ -7.7563 -1.4286 TD [(3.)-474.3(The)-176.9(2007)-176.9(State)-176.9(Ne)20(w)-176.9(Econom)30(y)-176.9(Index,)-176.9(The)-176.9(Kauffman)-176.9(F)20(oundation)-176.9(with)-176.9(the)-176.9(Infor)-45(mation)]TJ 1.2243 -1.2381 TD [(T)150(echnolo)20(gy)-278(and)-278(Inno)40(v)30(ation)-278(F)20(oundation)-278(\(2007\),)-278(4?5.)]TJ -1.2243 -1.4286 TD [(4.)-474.3(Bar)-25(uch)-426.4(Le)20(v)100(,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 6.5441 0 TD [(Intangib)20(les:)-426.4(Management,)-426.4(Measurement,)-426.4(and)-426.4(Repor)-20(ting)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 20.9792 0 TD [(\(W)125(ashington,)-426.4(DC:)]TJ -26.299 -1.2381 TD [(Br)30(ookings)-278(Institution)-278(Pr)20(ess,)-278(2001\),)-278(14?16.)]TJ -1.2243 -1.4286 TD [(5.)-474.3(Br)-25(uce)-332.2(Gr)20(eenw)30(ald)-332.2(and)-332.2(J)30(udd)-332.2(Kahn,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 15.1665 0 TD [(Competition)-332.2(Dem)25(ysti?ed:)-332.2(A)-332.2(Radicall)25(y)-332.2(Simpli?ed)-332.2(Ap-)]TJ -13.9423 -1.2381 TD [(proac)-20(h)-278(t)0(o)-278(Business)-278(Str)20(ateg)20(y)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 9.916 0 TD [(\(Ne)20(w)-278(Y)160(ork:)-278(P)50(enguin)-278(Books,)-278(2005\),)-278(5.)]TJ -11.1403 -1.4286 TD [(6.)-474.3(Lester)-319.9(Thur)30(o)40(w)120(,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 7.6021 0 TD [(For)-20(tune)-319.9(F)20(a)0(v)15(ors)-319.9(the)-319.9(Bold:)-319.9(What)-319.9(W)100(e)-319.9(Must)-319.9(Do)-319.9(to)-319.9(Build)-319.9(a)-319.9(New)-319.9(and)-319.9(Lasting)]TJ -6.3778 -1.2381 TD [(Global)-278(Prosper)-25(ity)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 6.551 0 TD [(\(Ne)20(w)-278(Y)160(ork:)-278(Har)-40(perCollins,)-278(2003\),)-278(x?y)120(.)]TJ -7.7753 -1.4286 TD [(7.)-474.3(W)125(alter)-282.4(W)15(illigan,)-282.4(?Le)20(v)40(erag)-30(ing)-282.4(Y)160(our)-282.4(Intellectual)-282.4(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty:)-282.4(A)-282.4(P)0(r)30(o)40(v)40(e)0(d)-282.4(P)30(ath)-282.4(to)-282.4(V)125(alue)-282.4(Ex-)]TJ 1.2243 -1.2381 TD [(traction,)125(?)-278(P)0(r)-45(ice)20(w)30(aterhouseCooper)-20(s)-278(LLP)175(,)-278(1998.)]TJ -1.2243 -1.4286 TD [(8.)-474.3(?The)-342.3(Myth)-342.3(of)-342.3(Commoditization,)125(?)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 15.3764 0 TD [(MIT)-342.2(Sloan)-342.3(Management)-342.3(Review)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 12.473 0 TD [([0]\(W)15(inter)-342.3(2007\),)]TJ -26.6252 -1.2381 TD (10?14.)Tj -1.2243 -1.4286 TD [(9.)-474.3(See)-292.7(Michael)-292.7(P)50(o)0(r)-25(ter)40(,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 9.3424 0 TD [(The)-292.7(Competitiv)15(e)-292.7(A)0(d)15(v)40(antage)-292.7(of)-292.7(Nations)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 14.4565 0 TD [(\(Ne)20(w)-292.7(Y)160(ork:)-292.7(The)-292.7(Fr)20(ee)-292.7(Pr)20(ess,)]TJ -22.5747 -1.2381 TD [(1990\),)-278(580.)]TJ ET endstream endobj 59 0 obj > endobj 60 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 48.694 l 550.844 24.784 m 550.844 48.694 l 568.827 66.677 m 592.737 66.677 l S BT /F1 1 Tf 11.457 0 0 11.457 108.2839 725.3405 Tm 0 g 0 Tc 0 Tw [(20)-10373.9(INNO)50(V)100(A)75(TING)-278(W)80(ORLD)]TJ 10.4608 0 0 10.4608 108.2839 704.4872 Tm [(10.)-474.3(?Thinking)-339.2(for)-339.2(Themselv)40(es:)-339.2(India)-339.2(and)-339.2(China)-339.2(Aim)-339.2(to)-339.2(Challenge)-339.2(W)125(ester)-40(n)-339.2(T)150(ech)-339.2(Fir)-45(ms)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(Thr)30(ough)-263.7(Inno)40(v)30(ation,)-263.7(Not)-263.7(J)30(ust)-263.7(Cheap)-263.7(Labour)40(,)125(?)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 18.6641 0 TD [(The)-263.7(Economist)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 5.6214 0 TD [(\(October)-263.7(22,)-263.7(2005\),)-263.7(15.)]TJ -25.9997 -1.4286 TD [(11.)-474.3(Organization)-372.8(for)-372.8(Economic)-372.8(Co-operation)-372.8(and)-372.8(De)20(v)40(elopment,)-372.8(?China)-372.8(W)15(ill)-372.8(Become)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(W)125(orld?)100(s)-219.3(Second)-219.3(Highest)-219.3(In)40(v)40(estor)-219.3(in)-219.3(R&D)-219.3(b)25(y)-219.3(End)-219.3(of)-219.3(2006,)-219.3(Finds)-219.3(OECD)105(,)125(?)-219.3(pr)20(ess)-219.3(r)20(elease)30(,)]TJ T* [(Apr)-45(il)-278(12,)-278(2006,www)120(.oecd.org/dataoecd/37/18/37770382.xls.)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(12.)-474.3(J)30(oint)-415.6(V)125(entur)20(e)-415.6(Silicon)-415.6(V)125(alle)20(y)-415.6(Netw)40(ork,)-415.6(?The)-415.6(Silicon)-415.6(V)125(alle)20(y)-415.6(Index?)-415.6(\(San)-415.6(J)30(ose:)-415.6(J)30(oint)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(V)125(entur)20(e)30(,)-278(2007\).)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(13.)-474.3(Car)30(oline)-402.8(Said,)-402.8(?Silicon)-402.8(V)125(alle)20(y)-402.8(Hits)-402.8(Another)-402.8(Boom)-402.8(Cycle)30(,)125(?)-402.8(Scr)-45(ippsNe)20(ws,)-402.8(F)20(ebr)-25(uar)-30(y)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(2006,)-278(www)120(.scr)-45(ippsne)20(ws.com/node/19085.)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(14.)-474.3(Ibid.)]TJ T* [(15.)-474.3(W)125(orld)-235.5(Intellectual)-235.5(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-235.5(Organization,)-235.5(?Exceptional)-235.5(Gr)30(o)40(wth)-235.5(fr)30(om)-235.5(Nor)-25(th)-235.5(East)-235.5(Asia)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(in)-278(Recor)20(d)-278(Y)160(ear)-278(for)-278(Inter)-40(national)-278(P)30(atent)-278(Filings,)125(?)-278(p)0(r)20(ess)-278(r)20(elease)30(,)-278(F)20(ebr)-25(uar)-30(y)-278(3)0(,)-278(2006.)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(16.)-474.3(F)20(o)0(r)-327.3(a)-327.3(helpful)-327.3(account)-327.3(of)-327.3(the)-327.3(e)20(v)40(ents)-327.3(leading)-327.3(up)-327.3(to)-327.3(TRIPS)-327.2(and)-327.3(its)-327.3(impact)-327.3(on)-327.3(intellec-)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(tual)-381.1(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-381.1(policy)120(,)-381.1(see)-381.1(P)30(a)0(t)-381.1(Choate)30(,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 15.1996 0 TD [(Hot)-381.1(Proper)-20(ty:)-381.1(The)-381.1(Stealing)-381.1(of)-381.1(Ideas)-381.1(in)-381.1(an)-381.1(Age)-381.1(of)]TJ -15.1996 -1.2381 TD (Globalization)Tj /F1 1 Tf 5.1896 0 TD [(\(Ne)20(w)-231.6(Y)160(ork:)-231.6(Alfr)20(ed)-231.6(A.)-231.6(Knopf)-30(,)-231.6(2005\),)-231.6(chapter)-231.6(8.)-231.6(In)-231.6(f)-25(act,)-231.6(despite)-231.6(the)-231.6(some-)]TJ -5.1896 -1.2381 TD [(what)-265.9(misleading)-265.9(title)30(,)-265.9(the)-265.9(entir)20(e)-265.9(book)-265.9(is)-265.9(w)40(ell)-265.9(w)40(o)0(r)-25(t)0(h)-265.9(r)20(eading)-265.9(for)-265.9(an)20(y)40(one)-265.9(who)-265.9(wishes)-265.9(to)]TJ T* [(under)-20(stand)-278(the)-278(e)20(v)40(olution)-278(of)-278(intellectual)-278(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-278(la)30(ws)-278(in)-278(the)-278(tw)40(entieth)-278(centur)-30(y)120(.)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(17.)-474.3(See)-363.2(W)15(illiam)-363.2(Alfor)20(d,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 10.125 0 TD [(T)130(o)-363.2(Steal)-363.2(a)-363.2(Book)-363.2(Is)-363.2(an)-363.2(Elegant)-363.2(Offense:)-363.2(Intellectual)-363.2(Proper)-20(ty)-363.2(Law)-363.2(in)]TJ -8.4107 -1.2381 TD [(Chinese)-354.6(Civilization)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 7.9502 0 TD [(\(Stanfor)20(d,)-354.6(C)10(A)0(:)-354.6(Stanfor)20(d)-354.6(Uni)20(v)40(e)0(r)-20(sity)-354.6(Pr)20(ess,)-354.6(1995\),)-354.6(for)-354.6(a)-354.6(r)20(e)20(vie)20(w)-354.6(o)0(f)]TJ -7.9502 -1.2381 TD [(the)-286(histor)-30(y)-286(o)0(f)-286(h)0(o)40(w)-286(the)-286(United)-286(States)-286(used)-286(the)-286(Special)-286(301)-286(Repor)-25(t)-286(t)0(o)-286(p)0(r)20(essur)20(e)-286(T)110(aiw)30(an)]TJ T* [(to)-278(impr)30(o)40(v)40(e)-278(its)-278(intellectual)-278(pr)30(oper)-25(ty)-278(la)30(ws)-278(in)-278(the)-278(1980s.)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(18.)-474.3(See)-353.5(W)15(illiam)-353.5(Alfor)20(d,)-353.5(ibid.,)-353.5(chapter)-353.5(6,)-353.5(for)-353.5(an)-353.5(excellent)-353.5(r)20(e)20(vie)20(w)-353.5(o)0(f)-353.5(the)-353.5(histor)-30(y)-353.5(o)0(f)-353.5(these)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(interactions.)-190.4(Alfor)20(d)-190.4(per)-20(suasi)20(v)40(ely)-190.4(argues)-190.4(that)-190.4(the)-190.4(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-190.4(appr)30(oach)-190.4(of)-190.4(using)-190.4(exter)-40(nal)-190.4(pr)20(essur)20(e)]TJ T* [(to)-342.3(for)20(ce)-342.3(domestic)-342.3(legal)-342.3(changes)-342.3(in)-342.3(China)-342.3(is)-342.3(?deeply)-342.3(a)30(w)40(e)0(d)-342.3(i)0(n)-342.3(both)-342.3(its)-342.3(methodolo)20(gy)]TJ T* [(and)-284.9(objecti)20(v)40(es,)-284.9(and)-284.9(ultimately)-284.9(self-deluding)-284.9(as)-284.9(to)-284.9(the)-285(pr)30(ocess)-285(and)-284.9(implications)-285(of)-284.9(legal)]TJ T* [(change)30(.)125(?)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(19.)-474.3(?China,)-207.8(U)80(.)0(S)40(.)-207.8(V)125(o)40(w)-207.8(t)0(o)-207.8(Deepen)-207.8(Co-op)-207.8(on)-207.8(iPr)30(oper)-25(ty)-207.8(Pr)30(otection,)125(?)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 26.2892 0 TD [(China)-207.8(View)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 4.6035 0 TD [(\(No)40(v)40(ember)]TJ -29.1785 -1.2381 TD [(13,)-278(2006\).)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(20.)-474.3(Br)-45(ight)-297.4(Simons,)-297.4(?Dr)-25(ug)-297.4(P)30(atents)-297.4(Don?)75(t)-297.4(Kill)-297.4(P)50(oor)-297.4(P)30(atients,)125(?)-297.5(Ohm)30(y)-297.4(N)0(e)20(ws,)-297.5(J)30(une)-297.4(4,)-297.5(2007,)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(http://english.ohm)30(yne)20(ws.com/ar)-25(ticle)20(vie)20(w/ar)-25(ticle)]TJ ET 0.398 w 332.514 309.17 m 335.653 309.17 l S BT 10.4608 0 0 10.4608 335.6525 308.9708 Tm [(vie)20(w)120(.asp?at)]TJ ET 381.021 309.17 m 384.159 309.17 l S BT 10.4608 0 0 10.4608 384.1594 308.9708 Tm (code=414276.)Tj -26.3724 -1.4286 TD [(21.)-474.3(Seema)-325(Singh,)-325(?A)60(v)40(esthagen)-325(Closes)-325($32.5M)-325(Funding,)125(?)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 23.2256 0 TD [(Red)-325(Her)-25(r)-25(ing)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 4.5851 0 TD [(,)-325(J)30(an)15(uar)-30(y)-325(24,)-325(2007,)]TJ -26.0963 -1.2381 TD [(www)120(.r)20(edher)-40(r)-45(ing.com/Pr)-45(intAr)-25(ticle)30(.aspx?a=20912§or=Br)-45(iengs.)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(22.)-474.3(Aptuit,)-442.6(Inc)30(.)-442.6(and)-442.6(Laur)-25(us)-442.6(Labs,)-442.6(?Aptuit)-442.6(to)-442.6(In)40(v)40(est)-442.6(Mor)20(e)-442.6(than)-442.6($100)-442.6(Million)-442.6(in)-442.6(Lau-)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(r)-25(u)0(s)-442.6(Labs)-442.6(\(India\);)-442.6(Dr)40(.)-442.6(Saty)30(anara)30(y)30(ana)-442.6(Cha)30(v)30(a)-442.6(Named)-442.6(Aptuit)-442.6(Laur)-25(us)-442.6(CEO)100(,)-442.6(J)30(oins)-442.6(Ap-)]TJ T* [(tuit)-319.3(Boar)20(d,)125(?)-319.3(joint)-319.3(pr)20(ess)-319.3(r)20(elease)30(,)-319.3(vie)20(w)40(e)0(d)-319.3(o)0(n)-319.3(Phar)-45(maLi)20(v)40(e)30(,www)120(.phar)-45(mali)20(v)40(e)30(.com/Ne)20(ws/)]TJ T* [(index.cfm?ar)-25(ticleid=451980&categor)-30(yid=54#.)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(23.)-474.3(Da)30(vid)-289.6(W)125(a)0(r)-20(sh,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 7.3654 0 TD [(Knowledge)-289.6(and)-289.6(the)-289.6(W)100(ealth)-289.6(of)-289.6(Nations:)-289.6(A)-289.6(Stor)-15(y)-289.6(o)0(f)-289.6(Economic)-289.6(Discov)15(er)-15(y)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 25.7903 0 TD [(\(Ne)20(w)]TJ -31.4415 -1.2381 TD [(Y)160(ork:)-278(Nor)-25(ton,)-278(2007\),)-278(xvii.)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(24.)-474.3(Richar)20(d)-250.8(Flor)-45(ida)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 8.0101 0 TD [(,)-250.8(The)-250.8(Rise)-250.8(of)-250.8(the)-250.8(Creativ)15(e)-250.8(Class:)-250.8(And)-250.8(How)-250.8(It?)125(s)-250.8(T)120(r)20(ansfor)-25(ming)-250.8(W)100(ork,)-250.8(Leisure)40(,)]TJ -6.2958 -1.2381 TD [(Comm)15(unity)-278(and)-278(Ev)15(er)-15(yda)30(y)-278(Life)]TJ /F1 1 Tf 11.497 0 TD [(\(Ne)20(w)-278(Y)160(ork:)-278(P)50(e)0(r)-20(seus)-278(Books)-278(Gr)30(oup)60(,)-278(2002\).)]TJ -13.2113 -1.4286 TD [(25.)-474.3(Richar)20(d)-284.7(Flor)-45(ida,)]TJ /F4 1 Tf 8.5887 0 TD [(The)-284.7(Flight)-284.7(of)-284.7(the)-284.7(Creativ)15(e)-284.7(Class:)-284.7(The)-284.7(New)-284.7(Global)-284.7(Competition)-284.7(for)-284.7(T)140(alent)]TJ /F1 1 Tf -6.8745 -1.2381 TD [(\(Ne)20(w)-278(Y)160(ork:)-278(Har)-40(perCollins,)-278(2005\),)-278(95.)]TJ -1.7143 -1.4286 TD [(26.)-474.3(Vi)20(v)40(e)0(k)-257.5(W)125(adhw)30(a,)-257.5(Guiller)-45(mina)-257.5(J)30(asso)50(,)-257.5(Ben)-257.5(Rissing,)-257.5(Gar)-30(y)-257.5(Ger)20(ef,)-257.5(Richar)20(d)-257.5(F)0(r)20(eeman,)-257.5(?In-)]TJ 1.7143 -1.2381 TD [(tellectual)-336(Pr)30(oper)-25(ty)120(,)-336(the)-336(Immig)-30(ration)-336(Backlo)20(g,)-336(and)-336(a)-336(R)0(e)20(v)40(er)-20(se)-336(Brain-Drain:)-336(Amer)-45(ica?)100(s)]TJ ET endstream endobj 61 0 obj > endobj 62 0 obj > stream 0 G 0 J 0 j 0.1 w 10 M []0 d /GS1 gs 1 i 46.944 804.46 m 46.944 828.371 l 5.1506 786.577 m 29.061 786.577 l 568.115 786.577 m 592.026 786.577 l 550.844 804.46 m 550.844 828.371 l 5.051 66.677 m 28.961 66.677 l 46.944 24.784 m 46.944 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Table of Contents

iProperty: Rethinking Intellectual Property.

Competing for the Future.

What is iProperty?

iProperty is not Evil.

Shifting Global Sands.

  Innovation Happens…Everywhere.

We're All Global Now.

Think for a Moment.

Part I. Introducing the Global Context.

1. Innovating World: Welcome to the Global Innovation Factory.

Why the World is Innovating.

Innovation Drives Economic Globalization.

The Urgency of Innovation The Globalization of Innovation.

  iProperty Risks and Opportunities.

Lagging Legal Standardization.

Increasing Global Economic Output.

Fueling the Global Spread of Innovation

  The “Creative Class”.

  Outsourcing Cost of Innovation.

  Growing Infrastructure.

Improving Education.

Governmental and Non-profit Initiatives.

Playing the Global iProperty Game.

2. iProperty World: Assessing Risk in a Changing Global Environment.

Institutional Risks.

India's New Patent Law.

China, The World's Biggest Pirate.

The Good News.

Infringement Risks.

Risks in Developing Countries.

Risks in Developed Countries.

Management Risks.

Technology Risks.

Minimizing Global Risks.

Part II . Strategies for a Flat World.

3. Global Strategy: Protecting, Strengthening, Expanding Business Opportunities.

The Strategic Context.

A Plethora of Decisions.

Spending Money and Getting Nowhere.

Patent Attorney as Guru.

Management Misunderstandings.

The Worst Possible Timing.

Changing Course.

iProperty Order from Idea Chaos.

Precipitating Strategic Decisions.

Strategy Inputs.

  Internal Analyses.

Business Strategy.

Existing Portfolio.

Innovative Capabilities.

External Analyses.

iProperty Intelligence and Freedom-to-Operate.

Legal Environment.

iProperty Planning.

Documentation, Communication, Efficiency.

Creating a Vision.

Detailing a Plan.

Tactical Considerations.

Measurable Results.

A Strategic iProperty Mindset.

4. Global Business: Integrating iProperty Strategy and Business Strategy.

Defining the Value Chain.

  Value Chain Strategies.

Protect High-Profit Stages of the Value Chain.

Expanding Downstream.

Expanding Upstream.

Suppliers Taking Hostages.

Competitive Value Chain Analysis

Dow Chemical's Value Chain Approach.

Mastering the Value Chain

5. Global Navigation: Mapping the iProperty of Competitors.

iProperty Intelligence.

Assessing the Patent Landscape.

Timing is Critical.

Feedback to Product Development.

The Vonage Story.

Mapping the Patent Space.

Visualizing the Landscape.

Collecting and Storing Data.

Preprocessing the Data.

Creating a Visual Representation.

Interpreting the Visual Representation.

Freedom-to-Operate.

Screen out Clearly Non-Infringed Patents.

Analyze Potentially Infringed Patents.

Analyze Clearly Infringed Patents.

Mastering the Patent Landscape.

6. Global Protection: Selecting the Fields of Engagement.

Global Patent Strategy Challenges.

Staggering Costs.

Beware Unexpected Cost Spikes.

Cost-Benefit Analysis.

What is the Patent Worth?

Developing a Global Strategy.

Evaluating Competitor Strategies.

Evaluating the Existing Portfolio.

A Decision Making Paradigm.

Assigning a Relative Value.

Aligning Investment with Value.

Timing and Re-evaluation.

Maximizing Global Portfolio Value.

7. Global Matrix: Maximizing Return on Investment.

Developing a Global Patent Strategy Matrix.

Evaluating Patent Costs.

Appraising the Market Protected.

Assessing the Enforcement Probability.

Tailoring Patent Strategy to Product Strategy.

Protection-Driven Strategy.

Market-Focused Strategy.

Balanced Strategy.

Conducting a Reality Check.

Mastering the Matrix.

Part III. Tactics for Maximum Impact.

8. iProperty Culture: Creating a Culture that Values iProperty.

Culture Matters.

Establishing a Sense of Urgency.

Creating the Guiding Coalition.

Developing a Vision/Strategy.

Communicating the Vision/Strategy.

Empowering Broad-Based Action.

Generating Short-term Wins.

Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change.

Anchoring New Approaches.

Valuing iProperty Culture.

9. iProperty Team: Building a Team for Strategy Execution.

Bouncing Ideas and Strategy Failures.

Ambiguous Threats.

Mental Models for iProperty Decisions.

Enriching the Mental Model.

Enhancing the Inputs.

Systematizing the Analysis.

Biased Mental Models = Ineffective Decisions.

Overzealous Advocacy Produces Misconceptions.

Biased Subcultures.

Patents as Economic Monopolies.

Patents and Freedom of Action.

The War Chest Myth.

Enforcing Patents in Developing Economies

Solving Complex Problems.

Challenging Biases.

Mastering the Decision Making Process.

10. iProperty Pipeline, Part I: Amassing a Wellspring of Ideas.

Introducing the iProperty Pipeline.

Leaky Pipelines.

Integrated Pipelines.

A Trickle of New Ideas.

Providing a Creative Environment.

Different Employees = Different Challenges.

From Mind to Idea.

Whales, Seagulls, Ideas.

Capturing those Pesky Ideas. 

Incentivizing Disclosure.

Getting in the Trenches.

Capture Facilitates Evaluation.

AUniversity Perspective Priming the Pipeline.

11. iProperty Pipeline, Part II: Producing a Strategically Targeted Portfolio.

Evaluating Ideas for Protection.

Strategically Guided Decisions.

Creating a Strategy Grid.

Managing Information Flow.

  Formalizing the Information Content.

Legalizing the Information Content.

Feedback Loops.

Managing the Pipeline.

Idea Screening.

Technology Evaluation.

Business Evaluation.

Idea Ranking.

Feedback.

Maximizing Output Value.

12. iProperty Options: Protecting Ideas in the Global Economy.

Keeping Secrets.

Secrets are Hard to Keep.

Secrets May be the Only Option.

Coke, the Master of Trade Secrets.

The Preemption Strategy.

The Patent Option.

What is a Patent?

Patents and Economics.

Why do Companies Patent?

Speed Matters.

Protecting Ideas by Giving Them Away.

Publishing and Perishing.

What are Defensive Publications?

Writing a Defensive Publication.

Where to Publish.

Shoot First, Aim Later.