One of the most important developments in the modern history of the Middle East, the so-called Arab Spring began in Tunisia in December 2010, and has since surpassed anything imagined. It has brought down dictators, sparked a civil war in Libya, and ignited a bloody uprising in Syria; itsrepercussions in Egypt and elsewhere remain unclear. Now one of the world's leading Islamic thinkers examines and explains it, in a searching, provocative, and necessary book.Time magazine named Tariq Ramadan one of the most important innovators of the twenty-first century. A Muslim intellectual and prolific author, he has won global renown for his reflections on Islam and the contemporary challenges in both the Muslim majority societies and the West. In Islam and theArab Awakening, he explores the uprisings - their origin, significance, and possible futures. As early as 2003, he writes, there had been talk of democratization in the Middle East and North Africa. The U.S. government and private organizations set up networks and provided training for youngleaders, especially in the use of the Internet and social media. And the West abandoned its unconditional support of authoritarian governments. But the West did not create the uprisings. Indeed, one lesson Ramadan draws is that these mass movements, and their future, cannot be totally controlled.Something irreversible has taken place: dictators have been overthrown without weapons. But, he writes, democratic processes are only beginning to emerge, and unanswered questions remain. What role will religion play? How should Islamic principles and goals be rethought? Can a sterile, polarizingdebate between Islamism and secularism be avoided? Avoiding both naive optimism and conspiratorial paranoia, Ramadan voices tentative optimism. If a true civil society can be established, he argues, this moment's fragile hope will live.