Two of the more important developments in world history over the past two centuries have been the expansion of Western power and the revival of Islam. South Asia has played a central role in both process, being the main focus of the imperialism of the British and an important site of theMuslim revival.These essays, which were written over the past ten years, confront some of the key issues raised by some modern developments in South Asia: the interactions between British power and Muslim revivalism in giving shape to the modern Muslim world; the role of knowledge in fashioning Muslim societiesand the rise of the `ulama, to greater influence than ever before. It also explores the great shift from an other-worldly to a this-worldly piety amongst Muslims, the energy this has given the Muslim revival, and its meaning for relations between Islam and the West. The essays are rounded off byreviews of major contributions to the field over the period. Among the themes which emerge are: the influence both of orientalism and of Hindu revivalism on the world of scholarship, and the fact that the world is a better place when we remember the humanity we share.This book offers profound insights to those wishing to understand the background to the interactions of Islam, South Asia and the West in our time.