In the mid-1970s, the Italian Communist Party (PCI) almost succeeded in entering the national government; however, by the end of the decade its popularity had dramatically declined. Providing a first-hand view of the turbulent period from 1975 to 1980, this book explains the roots of theparty's crisis. First looking at local conditions, the author studies a number of major developments in the city of Turin, from Red Brigade terrorism to the historic defeat of the unions at Fiat in 1980, and then sets these local events within the broader national strategy. Hellman, who has beenstudying the PCI since the late 1960s, systematically interviewed the entire full-time leadership of the Turinese Federation of the party, and attended regular meetings and activities from the grass roots to the summit of local organization. An unprecedented eyewitness account, Italian Communism inTransition is a complete history of the PCI's response to the crises and challenges of the 1970s.