Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Control by Robert Agnew

Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Control

byRobert Agnew, Timothy Brezina

Paperback | December 19, 2014

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An essential resource for exploring juvenile delinquency in the twenty-first century, Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Control, Fifth Edition, offers a clear and concise overview of the latest theories and research on the causes and control of delinquency.Instead of attempting to provide a sweeping view of the entire subject, Robert Agnew and new coauthor Timothy Brezina organize the text around three major questions: What is the nature and extent of delinquency? What are the causes of delinquency? What strategies should we employ to controldelinquency? These thought-provoking questions draw students into the text, challenging them to use major theories to explain the basic facts about delinquency, to understand the research on its causes, and to develop and evaluate programs and policies for its control.

About The Author

Robert Agnew is Professor of Sociology at Emory University and Past President of the American Society of Criminology. Timothy Brezina is Professor of Criminal Justice and Criminology at Georgia State University.

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Title:Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and ControlFormat:PaperbackDimensions:624 pages, 10 × 7 × 0.68 inPublished:December 19, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199388466

ISBN - 13:9780199388462

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Table of Contents

An Important Message for InstructorsAn Overview of This BookAcknowledgmentsPart 1 The Nature and Extent of Delinquency1. What Is Delinquency and How Does It Differ from Adult Crime?Juvenile Delinquents Are Viewed Differently than Adult CriminalsJuvenile Delinquents Are Treated Differently than Adult CriminalsSpecial Laws for Juveniles: Status OffensesA Special Court for Juveniles: Juvenile CourtSpecial Correctional Programs for JuvenilesHow Can We Explain the Invention of Juvenile Delinquency?Changing Conception of ChildrenMajor Social Changes, Especially the Growth of Urban SlumsGender, Race, and the Invention of DelinquencyOur View and Treatment of Juvenile Offenders Continues to Evolve"Getting Tough" with Juvenile Offenders (Late 1980s through the Early 2000s)Retreating from the Get-Tough Approach (Since the Early 2000s)SummaryTeaching AidsWeb-Based ExercisesControversial CaseTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes2. How Is Delinquency Measured?Official Statistics-Especially Arrest Data from the PoliceProblems with Arrest DataSummarySelf-Report DataHow Do We Know That Juveniles Are Telling the Truth?Problems with Many Self-Report SurveysSeveral Recent Self-Report Surveys Have Made Much Progress in Overcoming the Preceding ProblemsVictimization DataProblems with Victimization DataSummaryTeaching AidsA ChallengePractical Advice: Three Things to Beware of When Others Discuss the Extent of and Trends in Delinquency (and a Challenge)Web-Based Exercise: Measuring RapeTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsAnswers to the ChallengeEndnotes3. How Much Delinquency Is There and Is Delinquency Increasing?How Much Delinquency Is There?How Many Juveniles Are Arrested and What Are They Arrested For?How Much Self-Reported Delinquency Is There?How Many Juveniles Are Victimized and How Many Victimizations Are Committed by Juveniles?SummaryIs Juvenile Delinquency Increasing?Are Juvenile Arrests Increasing?Is Self-Reported Delinquency Increasing?Are Victimizations Committed by Juveniles Increasing?SummaryHow Can We Explain the Dramatic Decline in Serious Crime Since the Mid-1990s?Teaching AidsExercise: The Extent of and Trends in Campus CrimeWeb-Based Exercise: Finding the Latest Information on the Extent of and Trends in Crime and DelinquencyTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes4. Who Is Most Likely to Engage in Delinquency?Is Social Class Related to Delinquency?Early Studies Based on Arrest DataEarly Self-Report StudiesCriticisms of the Early Self-Report StudiesThe Later Self-Report StudiesSummaryAre Race and Ethnicity Related to Delinquency?Arrest DataCriticisms of Arrest DataSelf-Report DataVictimization DataIs Race Related to Delinquency?Are Race Differences in Serious Delinquency Explained by Social Class?Is Age Related to Delinquency?Is Gender Related to Delinquency?Arrest DataSelf-Report DataSummaryAre There Different Types of Delinquents?An Overview of the Research on the Different Types of DelinquentsWhat Are the Different Types of Delinquents?SummaryTeaching AidsExercise 1: Perceptions of Race and CrimeExercise 2: Why Do Asian Americans Have Lower Crime Rates?Exercise 3: Explaining the Association Between Gender and CrimeExercise 4: Girls' DelinquencyTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotesPart 2 The Causes of Delinquency: Theories5. What Is a Theory and How Do We Test Theories?What Is a Theory?What Are the Basic Parts of a Theory?Why Is It Important to Study Theories of Delinquency?How Do We Test Theories of Delinquency (or Determine Whether Some Factor Causes Delinquency)?The Scientific MethodCarefully Define Your Independent and Dependent VariablesDecide How to Gather Data to Test Your Belief or TheoryDevelop Measures of Your Independent and Dependent VariablesSelect a Sample of Juveniles to SurveyAnalyze the Data You Have CollectedSummaryTeaching AidsSome ChallengesWeb-Based Resources for Your Criminological Research ProjectTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsAnswers to the ChallengesEndnotes6. Strain TheoryWhat Are the Major Types of Strain?The Failure to Achieve Your GoalsLoss of Positive Stimuli/Presentation of Negative StimuliWhat Impact Does Strain Have on the Juvenile?Why Are Some Juveniles More Likely to Cope with Strain Through Delinquency?SummaryTeaching AidsCase StudiesWeb-Based Exercise: Applying Strain TheoryTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes7. Social Learning TheoryJuveniles Learn to Engage in Delinquency from OthersThe Differential Reinforcement of DelinquencyThe Frequency, Amount, and Relative Probability of ReinforcementPositive and Negative ReinforcementPunishmentThe Sources of Reinforcement and PunishmentSome Individuals Are More Likely to Be Reinforced for Delinquency than OthersIntermittent ReinforcementDiscriminative StimuliResearch on the Reinforcement and Punishment of DelinquencyBeliefs Favorable to DelinquencyGenerally Approve of Minor DelinquencyConditionally Approve of Delinquency, Including Some Serious DelinquencyGeneral Values Conducive to DelinquencyWhere Do the Beliefs Favorable to Delinquency Come From?The Imitation of Delinquent ModelsSummaryTeaching AidsControversial CasesWeb-Based Exercise: Learning to HateTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes8. Control TheoryWhy Do Juveniles Conform (and Sometimes Deviate)?How Is Control Theory Similar to and Different from Social Learning Theory?What Are the Major Types of Control (or Restraints to Delinquency)?Direct ControlStake in ConformityBeliefSelf-ControlSummaryTeaching AidsControversial Issue: The Nature of Human NatureControversial Methods for Increasing Direct ControlWeb-Based Exercise: Where Do Theories Come From?Test Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes9. Labeling TheoryBackground on Labeling TheoryHow Do Others React to the Juvenile's Delinquency?Harsh/Rejecting ReactionFailure to Respond to the Juvenile's Delinquency"Condemn the Delinquency but Accept the Juvenile" ReactionSummaryWhy Does the Harsh/Rejecting Reaction Lead to Further Delinquency?Reduces ControlIncreases StrainIncreases the Social Learning of DelinquencyCreates a Delinquent Self-ConceptWhat Determines Whether Juveniles Experience the Harsh/Rejecting Reaction?Are Some Juveniles More Likely than Others to Respond to the Harsh/Rejecting Reaction with Further Delinquency?The Evidence on Labeling TheorySummaryTeaching AidsControversial Issue #1: Going Too Far? Zero Tolerance Policies in the Nation's SchoolsControversial Issue #2: Is It Sometimes Best to Ignore Delinquency?Web-Based Exercise: Applying Labeling Theory (Race and Labeling)Test Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes10. The Life CourseWhy Do Most Individuals Increase Their Levels of Offending During Adolescence?The Biological and Social Changes Associated with AdolescenceA Reduction in ControlAn Increase in the Social Learning for CrimeAn Increase in StrainSummaryWhy Do a Small Percentage of Individuals Offend at High Rates over Much of Their Lives?Traits Conducive to CrimePoor ParentingHigh Rates of Offending over the Life CourseSummaryTeaching AidsWeb-Based Exercise: Comparing Adult and Juvenile OffendersControversial Issue: An Evolutionary Theory of Adolescence-Limited OffendingTest Your Knowledge of This Chapter?Thought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes11. Is Delinquency More Likely in Certain Types of Situations?What Types of Situations Are Most Conducive to Delinquency?Strain Theory: Situational StrainsStrain Theory: Situational Factors That Increase the Likelihood of Delinquent CopingSocial Learning and Control Theories: The Benefits and Costs of DelinquencyAttractive TargetsQuestion for discussionThe Absence of Capable GuardiansThe Presence of Delinquent PeersSummaryWhat Factors Influence the Likelihood That Predisposed Offenders Will Encounter Situations Conducive to Delinquency?The Nature of the Individual's Routine ActivitiesFactors Influencing Routine ActivitiesSummaryTeaching AidsApplying the Research: Examining Your Own Routine ActivitiesWeb-Based Exercise: Crime Prevention Through Environmental DesignTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes12. Group Differences in DelinquencyWhy Are Crime Rates Higher in Some Communities than in Others?What Are the Characteristics of High-Crime Neighborhoods and Cities?SummaryAre Communities with Characteristics Conducive to Crime Becoming More Common?Why Are Deprived Communities Higher in Crime?Deprived Communities Are Higher in StrainDeprived Communities Are Lower in ControlDeprived Communities Foster the Social Learning of CrimeCommunity Crime Rates Reduce Control, Foster the Social Learning of Crime, and Increase StrainOverview of the Leading Theories of DelinquencyTeaching AidsExercise: Increasing Community ControlExercise: Explaining Other Group Differences in CrimeWeb-Based Exercise: Societal Differences in Crime and DelinquencyTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotesPart 3 The Causes of Delinquency: Research13. Individual TraitsAre Juveniles with Certain Traits More Likely to Engage in Delinquency?Low Verbal IQLow Self-ControlIrritabilitySummaryWhy Are Some Individuals More Likely than Others to Possess These Traits?Biological Influences on TraitsEnvironmental Influences on TraitsIs Mental Illness Related to Violence?SummaryTeaching AidsControversial Issue: Should Delinquents Be Held Responsible for Their Behavior?Web Exercise: Programs for Mentally Ill OffendersTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes14. The FamilyThe Effect of the Family on DelinquencyFamily StructureAre Juveniles from Broken Homes More Delinquent?Does the Mother's Employment Outside the Home Increase Delinquency?Does Placing Juveniles in Child-Care Facilities Increase the Likelihood of Delinquency?Are Teenage Parents More Likely to Have Delinquent Children?Are Juveniles from Large Families More Delinquent?Parental and Sibling Crime/DevianceAre Juveniles with Criminal or Deviant Parents and Siblings More Likely to Be Delinquent?The Quality of Family RelationshipsAre Juveniles With Warm or Close Relationships with Their Parents Less Delinquent?Parental SocializationWhat Should Parents Do to Teach Their Children to Avoid Delinquency?What Should Parents Do to Teach Their Children to Engage in Conventional Behavior?SummaryWhy Do Some Parents Employ Poor Parenting Practices?A Note on Genes, Parenting, and DelinquencyTeaching AidsExercise: Putting Your Knowledge to UseWeb Exercise: An Inside Look at a Troubled FamilyTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes15. The SchoolWhat School Experiences Contribute to Delinquency?Do School Experiences Cause Delinquency?Why Do Some Juveniles Have Negative School Experiences?School Characteristics and DelinquencyHow Much Delinquency Occurs at School?How Can We Explain School Differences in Delinquency?Teaching AidsApplying Theories and ResearchWeb-Based Exercise: More Information on School Violence, Including BullyingTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes16. Delinquent Peers and GangsWhat Impact Do Delinquent Peers Have on Delinquency?Under What Conditions Are Delinquent Peers Most Likely to Cause Delinquency?What Are Delinquent Peer Groups Like?Why Are Individuals in Delinquent Groups More Likely to Engage in Delinquency?Why Are Some Juveniles More Likely than Others to Get Involved with Delinquent Peers?What Impact Do Gangs Have on Delinquency?What Is a Street Gang?How Common Are Gangs?Are Gangs Becoming More Common?What Effect Do Gangs Have on Crime and Delinquency?What Are the Characteristics of Gang Members?How Are Gangs Organized or Structured?What Are Female Gangs Like?Why Do Some Juveniles Join Gangs?Why Do Some Communities Develop Gangs?How Can We Explain Trends in Gang Activity Since the 1970s?SummaryTeaching AidsControversial Issue: What Is a Gang?Web-Based Exercise: An Examination of Two Major GangsTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes17. Other Social InfluencesDoes Religion Reduce Delinquency?The EvidenceDoes Work Reduce Delinquency Among Juveniles Attending School?The EvidenceDoes Mass Media Violence Cause Violence Among Juveniles?TV and Movie ViolenceViolent Video GamesMusic with Violent ThemesSummaryDoes Social Media Engagement Increase the Risk of Delinquent Behavior? The EvidenceSummaryDo Drugs Increase the Likelihood of Delinquency?Reasons That Drugs May Affect DelinquencyThe EvidenceDo Guns Increase the Likelihood of Delinquency?How Common Is Gun Ownership and Possession Among Juveniles?Do Guns Contribute to Delinquency?Do Guns Prevent More Crime than They Contribute To?SummaryTeaching AidsControversial Issue: Should Marijuana Be Legalized?Web-Based Exercise: Guns Across the GlobeTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsEndnotes18. Pulling It All TogetherA Brief Review of the Theories and Research on the Causes of DelinquencyTheoriesResearchA General Theory of DelinquencyThe Major Direct Causes of Individual Delinquency and the Reasons Why These Causes Affect DelinquencyHow These Clusters Are Related to One AnotherBiological Factors and the Larger Social Environment Affect the ClustersExplaining Patterns of Offending over the Life Course and Group Differences in DelinquencyUsing the General Theory to Explain Why Males Have Higher Rates of Delinquency than FemalesThe Special Role of Sexual Abuse in Explaining Serious Female OffendingAn Overview of the General Theory of DelinquencyTeaching AidsWeb-Based Exercise: Applying the General TheoryTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsEndnotesKey TermsPart 4 The Control and Prevention of Delinquency19. Policies and ProgramsThe Experimental Model for Determining Program EffectivenessThe Importance of Doing Randomized ExperimentsProblems in Doing Randomized ExperimentsWhat If One Is Not Able to Do a Randomized Experiment?Why Are Some Programs Ineffective at Reducing Delinquency?SummaryTeaching AidsWeb-Based Exercise: The Importance (and Sometimes Neglect) of Good Evaluation ResearchSome ChallengesTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsAnswers to ChallengesEndnote20. The PoliceHow Do the Police Operate?Preventive Patrol Is the Major Type of PolicingThe Police Spend Only a Small Amount of Their Time Dealing with CrimeThe Police Are Primarily Reactive in NatureWhen the Police Do Discover or Hear About a Crime, They Usually Do Not Catch the OffenderIf the Police Do Catch the Offender, They Usually Do Not Arrest the PersonHow Effective Is Preventive Patrol?How Can the Police Increase Their Effectiveness?Will Hiring More Police Reduce Delinquency?Will Hiring More Police Reduce Delinquency? 362 Will Police Crackdowns Reduce Delinquency?Will Community Policing Reduce Delinquency?SummaryTeaching AidsControversial IssueWeb-Based ExercisesTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes21. Juvenile Court and CorrectionsWhat Happens When Juveniles Are Sent to Juvenile Court?What Are the Major Goals of Juvenile Court?How Many and What Types of Cases Are Handled by Juvenile Court?What Are the Major Stages in the Juvenile Court Process?Juvenile Corrections: What Happens to Juveniles Who Receive a Disposition or Sentence from the Court?Regular ProbationIntermediate SanctionsA Renewed Focus on RehabilitationOut-of-Home PlacementsAftercare ServicesAn Overview of the Juvenile Justice ProcessTeaching AidsControversial IssueWeb-Based Resources and ActivitiesTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes22. The Juvenile Justice SystemDoes the Juvenile Justice System Discriminate Against African Americans?The Extent of Discrimination Varies Across Police Departments and Juvenile CourtsThe Extent of Discrimination May Vary by Type of CrimeSmall Amounts of Discrimination at Different Points in the Juvenile Justice Process Can Have a Large Overall EffectRacial Discrimination May Be Direct or IndirectWhat Can Be Done to Address the Over-Representation of Minorities in the Juvenile Justice System?Does the Juvenile Justice System Discriminate Against the Poor and Against Males or Females?SummaryTeaching AidsControversial IssueRace and Experiences with the PoliceWeb-Based Exercise: The Disproportionate Minority Contact InitiativeTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes23. The Strategies of Deterrence and IncapacitationAre the Juvenile Court and Correctional System Tough Enough in Dealing with Offenders, Especially Serious Offenders?Efforts to Get Tough with Serious OffendersGet-Tough EffortsHow Effective Are These Get-Tough Measures, and What Can Be Done to Increase Their Effectiveness?DeterrenceSpecific DeterrenceGeneral DeterrenceIncapacitation: Will Locking Up Delinquents Reduce Delinquency?SummaryTeaching AidsControversial Issue: Abolish the Juvenile Court?Controversial Issue: Life Without Parole for Juvenile Offenders?Web-Based Exercise: Restorative Justice in PracticeTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterKey TermsThought and Discussion QuestionsEndnotes24. The Strategies of Prevention and RehabilitationA Brief History of Prevention and RehabilitationHow Effective Are Prevention and Rehabilitation Programs?General Characteristics of Effective Prevention and Rehabilitation ProgramsWhat Are the Characteristics of Successful Prevention/Rehabilitation Programs in Different Areas?Programs Focusing on the Early Family EnvironmentParent Training ProgramsPrograms Focusing on School FactorsPrograms Focusing on Individual TraitsPrograms Focusing on Delinquent Peers and GangsSelected Other Prevention and Rehabilitation ProgramThe Critical Role of Larger Social Forces in Preventing DelinquencySummaryTeaching AidsWeb-Based Exercise: Finding the Latest Information on Programs and Practices for Reducing DelinquencyExercise: Extend Your Knowledge of Rehabilitation and Prevention ProgramsTest Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsKey TermsEndnotes25. What Should We Do to Reduce Delinquency?We Should Place More Emphasis on Prevention and RehabilitationWe Should Hold Juveniles Accountable for Their Behavior and Protect the CommunityTeaching AidsExercise: What Should We Do to Reduce Delinquency?Web-Based Exercise: Interested in a Career in Criminology/Corrections?Test Your Knowledge of This ChapterThought and Discussion QuestionsEndnotesReferencesPhoto CreditsAuthor IndexSubject Index

Editorial Reviews

"This text stands out from others that I've read in that the authors take an enormous amount of data, much of which is confusing and/or contradictory, and make sense of it." --William Mark Franks, University of Mississippi