Kants Anatomy of the Intelligent Mind

Hardcover | December 4, 2013

byWayne Waxman

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In a 2005 editorial in the British newspaper The Guardian, Kant was declared "the undefeated heavyweight philosophy champion of the world" because he had the "insight ... to remove psychology from epistemology, arguing that knowledge is inevitably mediated by space, time and forms within ourminds." This is an accurate reflection of the consensus view of philosophers and scientists that Kant's accounts of space, time, nature, mathematics, and logic on the Critique of Pure Reason are rationalist, normativist, and nativist.Here, Wayne Waxman argues that this is untrue. Kant neither asserted nor implied that Euclid and Newton are the final word in their respective sciences. Rather than supposing that the psyche derives its fundamental forms from epistemology, he traced the first principles of ordinary, scientific,mathematical, and even logical knowledge to the psyche. Aristotelean logic, in particular, exhausts the sphere of the logical for Kant precisely because he deduced it entirely from psychological principles of the unity of consciousness, resulting in a demarcation of logic from mathematics that wouldset virtually everything regarded as logic today on the mathematical side of the ledger. Although Kant derived his conception of the unity of consciousness from Descartes, he gave it new life by eliminating its epistemological and metaphysical baggage, reducing it to its logical essence, andgrounding what remained on a wholly original conception of the a priori unity of sensibility. Thus, far from departing from the course charted by British Empiricism, Kant's anatomy of the understanding is continuous with, indeed the culmination of, the psychologization of philosophy initiated byLocke, advanced by Berkeley, and developed to its empirical outrance by Hume.

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In a 2005 editorial in the British newspaper The Guardian, Kant was declared "the undefeated heavyweight philosophy champion of the world" because he had the "insight ... to remove psychology from epistemology, arguing that knowledge is inevitably mediated by space, time and forms within ourminds." This is an accurate reflection of the...

Wayne Waxman is the author of numerous books and articles on topics in early modern philosophy and has taught philosophy at New School University and the University of Colorado at Boulder. He currently lives and writes in New Zealand.

other books by Wayne Waxman

Format:HardcoverDimensions:576 pages, 9.25 × 6.12 × 0.98 inPublished:December 4, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199328315

ISBN - 13:9780199328314

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Table of Contents

AcknowledgementsReference scheme and abbreviationsMEMO TO READERS: Overview and SynopsisPART I: TRANSCENDENTAL PHILOSOPHY PSYCHOLOGIZED1. The Psychological a priori2. Kant's debt to British EmpiricismA. Kant's debt to Locke: sensibilism and subjectivismB. The psychological nature of the Kantian synthetic a prioriC. Kant's debt to Berkeley: the separability principleD. Kant's first debt to Hume: the problem of the possibility of synthetic a priori judgmentsE. Kant's second debt to Hume: the psychologistic key to solving "Hume's problem"F. Postscript on knowing Hume so as to be able to know KantPART II: KANT'S PSYCHOLOGISTIC EXPLICATION OF THE POSSIBILITY AND FORMS OF SENSIBILITY3. Unity of sensibility (1): sensation, intuition, and appearanceA. The place of sensations in transcendental philosophy: a priori synopsisB. The matter of appearancesC. The metaphysical exposition of pure intuitionD. The problem of unity of sensibility and its general solutionE. Appearances and the imagination's synthesis of apprehension in intuition4. Unity of sensibility (2): space and timeA. Why unity of sensibility requires space and time rather than space aloneB. Space as the ground of unity of sensibility with respect to sensations (the manifold of the outer senses)C. Time out of mind: completing the unity of sensibilityD. The psychology of appearance and the appearance of the psychological5. A new understanding of understandingA. Apperception without the categoriesB. The individuality of space and time as a prediscursive expression of original apperceptionC. Formal intuition and the need for prediscursive understandingD. The objective unity of space and timeE. Formal intuitions and forms of intuitionF. Conceptualist construals of formal intuitionG. Synoptic overview of the evidence for prediscursive, precategorial apperception6. Mathematics and the unity of sensibilityA. Isolating pure intuition from sensation and understandingB. The role of pure intuition in geometryC. The role of pure intuition in arithmeticD. The role of pure intuition in algebraE. Is mathematical logic mathematics or logic?7. Idealism and realismA. Outline of the development of idealism up to KantB. Appearance vs. illusionC. Appearance and reality8. Things in themselves: a Kantian refutation of Berkeley's idealismA. Berkeley's esse is percipi idealismB. Perception as product of imagination: the thin edge of the wedge of a Kantian refutation of esse is percipi idealismC. Kant's ground for denying the second component of esse is percipi idealismD. Kant's ground for denying the first component of esse is percipi idealismE. Does Kant's affirmation of things in themselves pass critical muster?F. The representing subjectG. Representation vs. thing and in itself: Kant's fundamental ontological dividePART III: KANT'S PSYCHOLOGISTIC EXPLICATION OF THE POSSIBILITY AND FORMS OF THOUGHT9. Concepts in mindA. Language and mind: pre-Kantian perspectivesB. The synthetic and analytic unity of apperceptionC. How the analytic unity of the I think converts ordinary representations into universalsD. The logical underpinnings of Kant's response to Hume's skeptical challenge10. A defense of Kant's table of judgmentsA. Kant's psychological approach to the logic of judgmentB. The logical quality and quantity of the logical relation of categorical judgmentC. Is the truth-functional propositional calculus logic or mathematics?D. The logical forms of modality and relationE. Kant's psychologization of logical form11. The Metaphysical Deduction of the CategoriesA. Logical functions utilized as concepts: the derivation of the categories of substance and accident, quantity, and qualityB. Logical functions utilized as concepts: the derivation of the categories of cause and effect, community, and modalityC. The categories as pure concepts of objectsC. The categories as pure concepts of objects12. Interpreting the Transcendental Deduction of the CategoriesA. How the Transcendental Deduction of the categories constitutes a quid jurisB. The subjective and objective transcendental deductions of the categoriesC. The MFPNS Preface footnoteD. Why a subjective transcendental deduction is necessary13. The A edition transcendental deduction: objects as concepts of the necessary synthetic unity of the manifoldA. Synthesis before analysisB. The three-fold synthesis: Kant's psychology of experienceC. Synthesis of recognition in a conceptD. The objectivity problem: why association presupposes affinityE. How the subject of intuition becomes the subject of experienceF. The objectivity of the categories and Kant's self-created problemG. Objects explicated as conceptsH. The objective unity of apperceptionI. Summary recapitulation of Kant's reasoning in the Transcendental Deduction14. The B edition transcendental deduction: objective unity of apperception and transcendental synthesisA. Judgment and the objective unity of apperceptionB. Synthesis intellectualis as ground of the objective unity of apperceptionC. Categorial necessity and its limitsD. The relation of transcendental synthesis speciosa to formal intuitionE. Appendix: General logic revisited15. A category by category elucidation of the transcendental synthesis speciosa of pure formal intuitionA. The reasons a category-by-category elucidation is neededB. Space as permanent substratum of temporal succession: the synthesis speciosa of the categories of substance-accident and actualityC. From causal nexus to spatio-temporal nexus: the synthesis speciosa of the categories of cause and effect and possibilityD. All conditions met: the synthesis speciosa of the categories of community and necessityE. Number and the synthesis speciosa of the categories of quantityF. Limited and unlimited pure space and time: the synthesis speciosa of the categories of qualityG. ResultsPART V: KANT'S PSYCHOLOGISTIC EXPLICATION OF THE POSSIBILITY AND FORMS OF NATURE16. Subsuming reality: schematism and transcendental judgmentA. Transcendental judgmentB. Why a transcendental schematism is necessaryC. The transcendental schemataD. From transcendental schemata to principles of pure understanding17. Time out of mind: Kant's system of principles of pure understandingA. Constitutive mathematical and regulative dynamical principlesB. The unity of experience in Kant and HumeC. Hume's quandary revisited: the problem of existence in timeD. Permanent substancesE. Causality and the time seriesF. How the Second Analogy overcomes the limits of induction: Kant's refutation of Hume's empiricist account of causationG. Causality and the possibility of continuantsH. The causal nexus of continuants and permanentsI. Kant's principle of community: translating pure space and time into the field of appearance18. Our place in nature and its place in usA. The embodied empirical subjectB. Community of substances, community of apperceptionC. Ontology as immanent thinkingD. Objectivity and subjectivity: the Postulates of Empirical ThoughtCONCLUSION: Reversing the frameA. Kant and the philosophy of mindB. Kant and the sciences of mindBibliographyIndex

Editorial Reviews

"This is a superb and very important book. It is certainly one of the best books written on Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason." --Klaus Steigleder, Professor of Applied Ethics, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum