Kant's Thinker by Patricia KitcherKant's Thinker by Patricia Kitcher

Kant's Thinker

byPatricia Kitcher

Paperback | February 10, 2014

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Kant's discussion of the relations between cognition and self-consciousness lie at the heart of the Critique of Pure Reason, in the celebrated transcendental deduction. Although this section of Kant's masterpiece is widely believed to contain important insights into cognition andself-consciousness, it has long been viewed as unusually obscure. Many philosophers have tried to avoid the transcendental psychology that Kant employed. By contrast, Patricia Kitcher follows Kant's careful delineation of the necessary conditions for knowledge and his intricate argument thatknowledge requires self-consciousness. She argues that far from being an exercise in armchair psychology, the thesis that thinkers must be aware of the connections among their mental states offers an astute analysis of the requirements of rational thought.The book opens by situating Kant's theories in the then contemporary debates about "apperception," personal identity and the relations between object cognition and self-consciousness. After laying out Kant's argument that the distinctive kind of knowledge that humans have requires a unifiedself-consciousness, Kitcher considers the implications of his theory for current problems in the philosophy of mind. If Kant is right that rational cognition requires acts of thought that are at least implicitly conscious, then theories of consciousness face a second "hard problem" beyond thefamiliar difficulties with the qualities of sensations. How is conscious reasoning to be understood? Kitcher shows that current accounts of the self-ascription of belief have great trouble in explaining the case where subjects know their reasons for the belief. She presents a "new" Kantian approachto handling this problem. In this way, the book reveals Kant as a thinker of great relevance to contemporary philosophy, one whose allegedly obscure achievements provide solutions to problems that are still with us.
Patricia Kitcher is Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University. She is the author of Kant's Transcendental Psychology.
Title:Kant's ThinkerFormat:PaperbackDimensions:328 pages, 9.21 × 6.14 × 0.68 inPublished:February 10, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199363722

ISBN - 13:9780199363728

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Table of Contents

1. Overview1. Introduction2. Interpretive Framework3. Preview4. Current Work on Kant's 'I-think'Part One: Background2. Locke's Internal Sense and Kant's Changing Views1. Locke's Influence2. Locke's Complex Theory of Internal Sense3. Kant's Varied Reactions4. 'Inner Sense' in relation to Kantian 'Apperception'5. Kant's Use of 'Inner Sense'3. Personal Identity and Its Problems1. Locke's Problem2. Leibniz's Criticisms and Additions3. Kant and Hume4. Tetens (and Hume)4. Rationalist Metaphysics of Mind1. The Role of Rationalism2. Leibniz's Elegant 'I-theory'3. Faculties, Powers and Substances4. Rational Psychology5. Consciousness, Self-Consciousness and Cognition1. Introduction2. Locke's 'Reflection' and Leibniz's 'Apperception'3. Self-consciousness and Object cognition4. Self-Consciousness through Self-Feeling6. Strands of Argument in the Duisburg Nachla?1. Introduction2. Kant's Objection to the Inaugural Dissertation3. Principles of Appearance and Thought in the Duisburg Nachla?4. What is the Duisburg Nachla?'s Notion of 'Apperception?5. From the Duisburg Nachla? to the CritiquePart Two: Theory7. A Transcendental Deduction for a priori Concepts1. Kant's Goal2. Clues to the Nature of the Argument3. The First Premise of the Transcendental Deduction4. Apriority and Activity5. A 'Transcendental' Deduction8. Synthesis: Why and How?1. Problems to be Solved2. Kant's Definition3. Synthesis and Objective Reference4. Five Syntheses and Their Relations9. Arguing for Apperception1. Introduction2. 'I-think' as the 'Cogito'; The One-Step Deduction from Judgment3. What Kind of Cognition is at Issue in the Transcendental Deduction?4. What is the Principle of Apperception?5. The Apperceptive Synthesis of Recognition in a Concept6. Combination and Self-Consciousness in the B Deduction7. Arguing from the Unity of Apperception to the Necessary Applicability of Categories to Intuitions8. Transcendental Apperception, Empirical Apperception and 'Mineness'9. Summary10. The Power of Apperception1. Introduction2. What is the Power/Faculty of Apperception?3. Does the Faculty of Apperception Endure? Is it the Inner Principle of a Substance?4. Does the Power of Apperception Initiate Causal Chains or Provide an Impression of Necessary Succession?5. 'Is it an experience that I think?'6. Root Powers, Scientific Ideals and the Ground of Appearances11. 'I-think' as the Destroyer of Rational Psychology1. Understanding Kant's Criticisms2. Kant's Earlier and Later Treatments of Rational Psychology3. 'I-think' as the 'Vehicle' of the Categories4. 'I-think' as Analytically Contained in the Concept of Thought5. Does the analysis of Cognition Imply the Existence of a Thinker?6. Why Can't Thinkers Know Themselves as Such?Part Three: Evaluation12. Is Kant's Theory Consistent?1. The Old Objection2. The Most Problematic Passage (A251-52)3. The Confusion about the Causes of Sensations4. A Second Look at the Most Problematic Passage5. Criticizing Rationalist Confusions6. What Kant's Epistemology and Metaphysics Imply13. The Normativity Objection1. Psychologism or Noumenalism?2. Scrutinizing Sensations and Adding 'Transcendental Content'3. Forming Concepts and Acquiring the I-Representation4. Making a priori Principles Explicit and Testing Instances5. Normativity and the I-ruleAppendix: Longuenesse on Concept Formation14. Is Kant's Thinker (as such) a Free and Responsible Agent?1. Introduction2. Texts Linking Theoretical and Practical Reason3. Autonomy and Accountability4. Intellectual Accountability15. Kant our Contemporary1. Supporting and Showing Relevance2. Transcendental Arguments3. Must Rational Cognition involve Self-Consciousness?4. A Second Hard Problem of Consciousness?5. Other I's