Karst Geomorphology And Hydrology by D.c. FordKarst Geomorphology And Hydrology by D.c. Ford

Karst Geomorphology And Hydrology

byD.c. Ford, P.w. Williams

Paperback | June 22, 2012

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components dissolve. The alumino silicate minerals are the great example of the incongruent class, releasing Na+, K+, HCO-, etc. ions in reaction with J water but retaining most of their atoms in re-ordered solids such as kaolinite. The karst minerals are all congruent in normal conditions. Incongruent solution of dolomite and precipitation of calcite may occur in some exceptional conditions mentioned later. The sample of congruent minerals in Table 3. 1 contains all the common elements of crustal rocks except Fe, and furnishes a majority of the common dissolved inorganic species. The range of solubility is enormou<_.20_gibbsite20_is20_an20_example20_that20_is20_insoluble20_to20_all20_intents20_and20_purposes3b_20_even20_in20_the20_most20_favourable20_circumstances20_encountered20_on20_the20_surface20_of20_this20_planet20_physical20_processes20_will20_disaggregate20_it20_and20_remove20_it20_as20_colloids20_or20_larger20_grains20_before20_there20_is20_significant20_solution20_damage.20_rock20_salt20_28_halite29_20_is20_so20_soluble20_that20_it20_is20_rapidly20_destroyed20_in20_outcrop20_except20_in20_the20_driest20_places3b_20_it20_is20_principally20_important20_for20_its20_role20_in20_interstratal20_karstification.20_sylvite20_and20_mirabilite20_are20_rarely20_encountered20_and20_never20_in20_great20_bulk.20_they20_occur20_as20_minor20_secondary20_cave20_minerals20_28_see20_section20_8.20_429_.20_gypsum20_and20_anhydrite20_are20_quite20_common20_in20_outcrop.20_karst20_features20_develop20_upon20_them20_rapidly20_because20_of20_their20_comparatively20_high20_solubility.20_limestone20_and20_dolomite20_are20_common20_in20_outcrop.20_their20_maximum20_solubility20_varies20_with20_environmental20_conditions20_but20_never20_approaches20_that20_of20_gypsum.20_quartzite20_and20_siliceous20_sandstones20_are20_equally20_common20_in20_outcrop. gibbsite="" is="" an="" example="" that="" insoluble="" to="" all="" intents="" and="" _purposes3b_="" even="" in="" the="" most="" favourable="" circumstances="" encountered="" on="" surface="" of="" this="" planet="" physical="" processes="" will="" disaggregate="" it="" remove="" as="" colloids="" or="" larger="" grains="" before="" there="" significant="" solution="" damage.="" rock="" salt="" _28_halite29_="" so="" soluble="" rapidly="" destroyed="" outcrop="" except="" driest="" _places3b_="" principally="" important="" for="" its="" role="" interstratal="" karstification.="" sylvite="" mirabilite="" are="" rarely="" never="" great="" bulk.="" they="" occur="" minor="" secondary="" cave="" minerals="" _28_see="" section="" 8.="" _429_.="" gypsum="" anhydrite="" quite="" common="" outcrop.="" karst="" features="" develop="" upon="" them="" because="" their="" comparatively="" high="" solubility.="" limestone="" dolomite="" maximum="" solubility="" varies="" with="" environmental="" conditions="" but="" approaches="" gypsum.="" quartzite="" siliceous="" sandstones="" equally="">
Title:Karst Geomorphology And HydrologyFormat:PaperbackDimensions:601 pagesPublished:June 22, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:9401177805

ISBN - 13:9789401177801

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction to karst.- 1.1 Definitions.- 1.2 The global distribution of karst.- 1.3 The growth of ideas.- 2 The karst rocks.- 2.1 Carbonate rocks and minerals.- 2.2 Limestone compositions and depositional facies.- 2.3 Diagenesis and metamorphism of limestones; formation of dolomite.- 2.4 The evaporite rocks.- 2.5 Quartzites and siliceous sandstones.- 2.6 Effects of lithologic properties upon karst development.- 2.7 Interbedded clastic rocks.- 2.8 Bedding planes, joints, faults and fracture traces.- 2.9 Fold topography.- 3 Dissolution chemical and kinetic behaviour of the karst rocks.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Aqueous solutions and chemical equilibria.- 3.3 The dissolution of anhydrite, gypsum and salt.- 3.4 Bicarbonate equilibria and the solution of carbonate rocks.- 3.5 Measurements in the field and lab; computer programs.- 3.6 Chemical complications in carbonate solution.- 3.7 Two examples of the chemical evolution of simple calcium carbonate solutions.- 3.8 Dissolution and precipitation kinetics of the karst rocks.- 4 Distribution and rate of karst denudation.- 4.1 Global variations in the solution of carbonate terrains.- 4.2 Measurement and calculation of solution rates.- 4.3 Solution rates in non-carbonate rocks.- 4.4 Interpretation of measurements.- 5 Karst hydrology.- 5.1 Basic hydrological concepts, terms and definitions.- 5.2 Applicability of Darcy's law to karst.- 5.3 Controls on the development of karst aquifers.- 5.4 Energy supply for karst aquifer development.- 5.5 The rate of development of flow paths.- 5.6 Classification and characteristics of karst aquifers.- 6 Analysis of karst drainage systems.- 6.1 The 'grey box' nature of karst.- 6.2 Exploration and survey techniques.- 6.3 Aquifer zonation and thickness.- 6.4 Borehole analysis.- 6.5 Spring hydrograph analysis.- 6.6 Spring chemograph interpretation.- 6.7 Interpretation of the degree of organization of a karst aquifer.- 6.8 Polje hydrograph analysis.- 6.9 Water balance estimation.- 6.10 Water tracing techniques.- 7 Cave systems.- 7.1 Classifying cave systems.- 7.2 Formation of plan patterns of common caves.- 7.3 The common cave systems in depth.- 7.4 System modifications occurring within a single phase.- 7.5 Multi-phase cave systems.- 7.6 Meteoric water caves developed where there is confined circulation or basal injection of water.- 7.7 Hypogene caves A. Hydrothermal caves associated with CO2.- 7.8 Hypogene caves B. Caves formed by waters containing H2S.- 7.9 Sea coast mixing zone cavities.- 7.10 Massive sulphide deposits in karst cavities.- 7.11 Passage cross-sections and smaller features of erosional morphology.- 7.12 Breakdown in caves.- 8 Cave interior deposits.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Clastic sediments.- 8.3 Calcite, aragonite and other carbonate precipitates.- 8.4 Other cave minerals.- 8.5 Ice in caves.- 8.6 Dating and paleo-environmental analysis of calcite speleothems and other interior deposits.- 8.7 Mass flux through a cave system; the example of Friars Hole, W. Virginia.- 9 Karst landform development in humid regions.- 9.1 Coupled hydrological and geochemical systems.- 9.2 Small scale solution sculpture.- 9.3 Dolines - the 'diagnostic' karst landform?.- 9.4 The origin and development of solution dolines.- 9.5 The origin of collapse and subsidence depressions.- 9.6 Morphometric analysis of dolines.- 9.7 Landforms associated with allogenic inputs.- 9.8 Karst poljes.- 9.9 Corrosional plains and shifts in baselevel.- 9.10 Residual hills on karst plains.- 9.11 Depositional and constructional karst features.- 9.12 Sequences of carbonate karst evolution in humid terrains.- 9.13 Special features of evaporite terrains.- 10 The influence of climate, climatic change and other environmental factors on karst development.- 10.1 The precepts of climatic geomorphology.- 10.2 The hot arid extreme.- 10.3 The cold extreme: 1 karst development in glaciated terrains.- 10.4 The cold extreme: 2 karst development in permafrozen terrains.- 10.5 Sea level changes, tectonic movement and implications for the development of coastal karst.- 10.6 Polycyclic and polygenetic karsts.- 10.7 Relict karsts and paleokarsts.- 11 Karst resources, their exploitation and management.- 11.1 Karst hydrogeological mapping and water resources assessment.- 11.2 Pollution of karst aquifers.- 11.3 Problems of construction on and in karst rocks - expect the unexpected!.- 11.4 Urban hydrology of karst.- 11.5 Industrial exploitation of karst rocks and minerals.- 11.6 Recreational and scientific values of karstlands.- References.