Kashmir by Sir Francis Younghusband,


bySir Francis Younghusband,

Kobo ebook | August 18, 2012

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When Major Molyneux asked me to combine with him in the production of a book on Kashmir I could not resist the temptation to describe what he had so faithfully depicted, though my official duties naturally leave me insufficient time to do real justice to the theme. I have not been able to write with the completeness that I should have wished; and I am aware of many sins of omission. I can only hope that when the description fails the reader will be fortunate to have his attention irresistibly diverted to one or other of my collaborator's beautiful pictures.

The Residency, Srinagar,
September 1908.



Scenery and Seasons

Bernier's impression of Kashmir in 1665—Comparison of Kashmir and Switzerland—The road in—First signs of spring—Srinagar in March—A start for Shikar—Shikaris—Forest-clad hill-sides—Signs of stag—View over the valley—Rosy mountains—Unrealised beauties—A duck-shoot—The view from Hokrar—Harwan in spring—Varying beauties of Kashmir—Harwan in May—Clouds on the mountains—A Kashmir village—Irises and roses—Trout-culture—A trout stream—Srinagar in April—The view from Gupkar—A spring scene—Unusual rain—The Nishat Bagh—Pandrathan—Srinagar in summer—The valley in September—The end of the monsoon—The gorgeous autumn—A Hokrar duck-shoot—The valley in winter—Shikaris—Shooting in winter 1


Travel in Kashmir

Travel in old times—My first entrance—My old retainer—Present modes of travel—Stages from the railway—Srinagar house-boats—Srinagar shops—Expeditions from Srinagar—The descent from the Tragbal 47


Srinagar and Neighbourhood

An old capital—The Maharaja's arrival—Procession through the city—The European quarter—The Jama Masjid—Shah Hamadan—Dr. x Neve's Hospital—The Takht-i-Suliman—Pandrathan—The Dal Lake—The Nasim Bagh—The Shalimar Bagh—The Nishat Bagh—Parihasapura 63


The Residency Garden

The first week in March—Fruit trees in bloom—Kashmir tulips—Golden orioles—Roses in May—Strawberries—Burbank's Delphiniums—The height of summer—The garden in autumn—Autumnal colours 87



The "Meadow of Flowers"—Its numerous attractions—Views over the valley—Flowers—Nanga Parbat 98


The Valleys and Places of Interest

The Sind Valley—Gangabal Lake—The Lolab—The Lidar Valley—Martand—Achibal 108



Game Preservation—The year's bag—Duck-shooting—Fishing 118


The People

Kashmir beauties—The Pundits—Mohamedans—The Quadiani sect—Kashmiri villagers—Boatmen 125 xi


The History of Kashmir

Possible effect of natural beauty—Ancient ruins—Martand—Greek influence—Buddhist influence—Kanishka—Lalitaditya—Avantivarman—Short reigns—Internal struggles—Perpetual intrigue—Advent of Mohamedans—Zain-ul-ab-ul-din—Akbar—The Moghals—Afghan oppressors—Sikhs—Rise of Gulab Singh—Break-up of Sikhs—Gulab Singh and the British—Treaty of 1846—Gulab Singh acquires Kashmir—Its deplorable state—Ranbir Singh—Country still depressed—Famine of 1877—Improvements during present reign133


System of rule—Personal—Sources of revenue—Land revenue assessment183


Products and Manufactures

Wool—Silk—Fruit—Rice—Other grains—Experimental farm—Soil—Implements—Forests—Mineral products—Shawls—Carpets—Silk—Papier-mâché—Puttoo—Boat-building—Trade194


The Electrical Scheme

Water-power turned to electric power—The Jhelum River harnessed—The flume—The power-house—Difficulties encountered—The dredging scheme222


The Peaks and Mountain Ranges

The Peak K2—Errors in observation—Nanga Parbat—Rocks of great peaks—The Himalayan range234 xii


The Story of the Mountains

Interest of study—Kashmir under the sea—100,000,000 years ago—Kashmir an archipelago—Finally upheaved—Cause of upheaval—History of life—At first no land life—Ferns—The Coal Measures—Great reptiles—Mammals—Kashmir valley a lake—Appearance of man—Reflections on the story—Need to look forward—Creating higher man



1. Wild Rhododendrons Frontispiece
2. Approach to Srinagar
3. The Land of Roses
4. Mouth of the Sind Valley
5. Sunset on the Wular Lake
6. Dawn in the Nulla
7. Kotwal from the Forest above Kangan, Sind Valley
8. Above the Camping-Ground, Sonamarg, Sind Valley
9. The Kajnag from Sopur, Early Spring
10. Kotwal from near the Dal Darwaza
11. The Lull before the Storm, Dal Lake
12. Above Lidarwat, Lidar Valley
13. Sunset on the Jhelum, above Srinagar
14. Spring in Kashmir
15. On the Dal Lake in Spring
16. Entrance to the Mar Canal
17. The Temple, Chenar Bagh
18. Ruins of Lalla Rookh's Gardens, Lake Manasbal
19. A Ladaki in Summer Costume
20. The Valley of Gurais
21. Market Boats on the Mar Canal, Srinagar
22. Above the Fifth Bridge, Srinagar
23. Shawl Merchants' Shops, Third Bridge, Srinagar
24. Mosque of Shah Hamadan, Srinagar
25. A Hindu Temple, Srinagar
26. In the Mar Canal, Srinagar
27. Guggribal Pointe on the Dal Lake
28. Lotus Lilies on the Dal Lake
29. Shalimar Gardens
30. The Nishat Bagh
31. A Terrace of the Nishat Bagh
32. The Residency and Club, Srinagar
33. The Takht-i-Suliman, from the Residency Garden
34. On the Circular Road, Gulmarg
35. In the Forest
36. From the Circular Road, Gulmarg
37. Gorge of the Sind Valley at Guggangir
38. The Frozen Lake, Gangabal
39. Early Morning near Pahlgam, Lidar Valley
40. The Ruins of Martand
41. A Srinagar Bazaar
42. A Corner of the Village of Pahlgam, Lidar Valley
43. A Mountain Farm-House
44. A Boatman and his Family
45. Ruins of Temples, Wangat, Sind Valley
46. Ruined Gateway of Martand
47. Ruined Temples of Avantipur
48. Gate of the Outer Wall, Hari Parbat Fort, Srinagar
49. At the River's Edge, Srinagar
50. Lalla Rookh's Tomb, Hassan Abdal
51. Bridge of Burbur Shah, Chenar Bagh, Srinagar
52. Spring Floods in the Kutical Canal, Srinagar
53. Looking down the Gurais Valley, from Dudhgai Village
54. Akbar's Bridge, Karallayar
55. The Camping-Ground at Lidarwat
56. A Wayside Shrine
57. Evening on the Dal Lake
58. Mount Haramokh, from the Erin Nullah
59. A Mountain Glen, before the Melting of the Snows
60. Lake Shisha Nag, Lidar Valley
61. Distant View of Nanga Parbat, from the Kamri Pass
62. Mount Kolahoi, Lidar Valley
63. Rampur, Jhelum Valley Road
64. In the Sind Valley
65. Lake Shisha Nag at Sunset
66. The Tannin Glen, Lidar Valley
67. Going to the Wedding, Upper Indus Valley
68. Mountain Mists
69. Near the Kolahoi Glacier, Lidar Valley
70. Lake Sinsa Nag, Lidar Valley
Sketch Map of Kashmir at end of Volume.

Title:KashmirFormat:Kobo ebookPublished:August 18, 2012Publisher:Zhingoora BooksLanguage:English

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