This collection of essays revises and broadens scholarly assumptions about the history of migration in search of work. The book begins with a critique of current concepts in migration history and a general survey of European labor migration from the 1820s to the 1920s. The following section discusses important emigration and immigration countries and examines in detail the problems of internal European migration in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The author then focuses on the acculturation of labor migrants on both sides of the Atlantic. The final section of this work tackles the much neglected question of return migration. A bibliographic essay, as well as numerous graphs, maps, and illustrations, supplement this collection of essays.