Language: The Cultural Tool

Paperback | December 11, 2012

byDaniel L. Everett

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For years, the prevailing opinion among academics has been that language is embedded in our genes, existing as an innate and instinctual part of us. In this bold and provocative study, linguist Daniel Everett argues that, like other tools, language was invented by humans and can be reinvented or lost. He shows how the evolution of different language forms—that is, different grammar—reflects how language is influenced by human societies and experiences, and how it expresses their great variety. Combining anthropology, primatology, computer science, philosophy, linguistics, psychology, and his own pioneering research with the Amazonian Pirahã, and using insights from many different languages and cultures, Everett presents an unprecedented elucidation of this society-defined nature of language. In doing so, he also gives us a new understanding of how we think and who we are.


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For years, the prevailing opinion among academics has been that language is embedded in our genes, existing as an innate and instinctual part of us. In this bold and provocative study, linguist Daniel Everett argues that, like other tools, language was invented by humans and can be reinvented or lost. He shows how the evolution of diff...

Daniel L. Everett is dean of arts and sciences at Bentley University. He has held appointments in linguistics and/or anthropology at the University of Campinas, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Manchester, and Illinois State

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:368 pages, 7.99 × 5.16 × 0.8 inPublished:December 11, 2012Publisher:Knopf Doubleday Publishing GroupLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0307473805

ISBN - 13:9780307473806


Rated 4 out of 5 by from Amazing insights from the Amazon In this very accessible book Dan Everett defends the hypothesis that “language is an instrument for solving the general problem of communication in conformity with the values and the rankings between values of special cultural groups” (p. 301). Much of the book focuses on the language of the Pirahãs, a small tribe living isolated from western civilization in the Amazonian jungle. Their language has often been described as exotic because it differs dramatically from many known languages: it has no words for colours or numbers, no recursive sentences, it is not only spoken but also hummed, sung, and whistled. Everett explains convincingly how these different modes of “speech” fit different communicative functions. The lack of numbers, colour terms, and recursion is explained invoking “an ‘immediacy of experience principle’, which values talk of concrete, immediate experience over abstract, unwitnessed and hence non-immediate topics” (p. 262). Importantly, Everett does not claim that Pirahãs are incapable of perceiving colour differences or expressing recursive thought. But, given the demands of their culture, they have shaped a specific language tool that works well for their purposes. This means that not all sentences of English are translatable into Pirahã. But if Everett’s tool hypothesis is correct, we should expect this because language is a tool created by the members of one community, shaped by their specific cultural needs. For isolated tribes translatability into exotic languages like English has no practical value. The proposal that language is a cultural innovation designed to accommodate communication is not new. It was discussed by the protagonists of Plato’s Cratylus, and more recently, Lev Vitgotsky reintroduced it. Critics have focused on two challenges. First, they argue that language cannot be a tool for communication because it is so poorly designed for this purpose. For example, ambiguity and vagueness often prevent an intended message from being conveyed. In extreme cases such unintentional miscommunication can lead to dire consequences (divorce, litigation, or war). Everett addresses this problem by arguing that it had to be expected that a tool shaped by culture and natural selection would not be ‘perfectly designed’ but merely good enough to do the job better than any other available tool. A second group of critics grants that the tool approach is plausible for a language like Pirahã because there seems to be a very good fit between what the tool needs to do and what the tool is capable of doing. But when we look at a language like English it seems there are many ‘features’ that are never or only extremely rarely needed by the vast majority of speakers and we can easily see that it would take a lot less grammar to communicate all needs that possibly could arise. We should expect frequent attempts to restrict languages artificially to make them better suitable for the communication task they need to accommodate. But the few such attempts that have been made failed and we continue to miscommunicate frequently. Last not least, even though his linguistic work on Pirahã is an important focus of Language the Cultural Tool, it would be misleading to imply it is the only interesting part. Everett covers a wide range of language related cultural topics, ranging from Greek mythology to a detailed discussion of differences in the current Hawaiian, Iroquoian, and Pirahã kinship systems. He compares human cognition to the cognitive abilities of other species and discusses similarities and important differences. This survey leads him to reject the Cartesian divide between human and non-human intelligence. Additionally, he discusses evolutionary, anatomical, genetic, and neurophysiological evidence. This leads him to accept the Cartesian proposal that intelligence is a general-purpose instrument that underwrites all human cognitive abilities including language and to reject Chomsky’s domain specific language faculty. This broad scope makes the volume an important contribution to current debates in linguistics, cognitive science, and philosophy of mind. Anyone who wishes to defend the Chomskyan paradigm needs to do much more than challenge the legitimacy of his claim about Pirahã. A fill review can be found at
Date published: 2013-01-05

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IntroductionThe Gift of Prometueus The Greeks told a myth about one of mankind’s greatest tools, fire. The story’s hero was Prometheus, whose name means foreseer. Prometheus grew fond of the creatures that Zeus had asked him to help create, man and woman. He watched them with pity as they huddled cold and fearful of the dark, stumbling blindly after every setting of the sun. He knew the solution to their problem—fire. But Zeus did not want humans to have fire. Fire would give humans more power than Zeus intended. They might even rival the gods themselves. So Zeus forbad it.  Prometheus knew the risks of disobeying the king of the gods. Yet for pity and for love he smuggled a charcoal lit by Apollo’s fiery chariot out of Olympus in a fennel stalk. No matter how pure his motives, Prometheus paid a horrible price for his charity. Zeus condemned him to an eternity of pain chained to a rock in the Caucasus, where each day his liver was consumed by a large vulture, regenerating every night in order to fuel his pain on the morrow. Only when the mighty Hercules slew the vulture and broke the chains was Prometheus freed.  The myth of Prometheus, like all good myths, encapsulates cultural values and offers answers to keep a group of Homo curious satisfied until a better answer comes along. In this myth we can take away the belief that fire originated once in the human story. We are given a glimpse of the problems that fire was meant to solve. And we are taught that the coming of fire was a momentous event in human history. The Hebrews’ myths also include a narrative about their gods coming to fear the growth of human power. But the Hebrew story differs dramatically from the Greeks’. The Hebrews’ scriptures recognize that the power of language is greater than that of fire. The Hebrew god is not threatened by humans’ control of fire, but rather by their ability to talk to one another. From this appreciation for the power of language emerges the Hebrew myth of the Tower of Babel—the tower that was raised to threaten the gates (Bab) of god (El). In this myth God is not worried about the physical technology of his creation, whether picks, axes, fire, or the like. He is instead infuriated by humans’ ability to work together. This threatens his power. And their cooperation rests upon on their communication. So God scatters his people across the face of the earth. Or as the Bible puts it: And the LORD said, ‘Behold, they are one people, and they all have the same language. And this is what they began to do, and now nothing which they purpose to do will be impossible for them.’ ‘Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’ So the LORD scattered them abroad from there over the face of the whole earth; and they stopped building the city. Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the LORD confused the language of the whole earth; and from there the LORD scattered them abroad over the face of the whole earth. —Genesis 11: 6–9 New American Standard Bible  Ironically, the Hebrew god was not a linguist. He did not seem to realize that diversity strengthens Homo sapiens, and diversity in language and culture strengthens us the most. According to the Bible, God created one man, Adam, and gave him the charge of learning about and naming the flora and fauna of creation. By spreading Adam’s descendants around the globe God in effect created a thousand Adams, learning about and naming not just the Garden of Eden, but the entire world—wherever the children of Prometheus have gone, they have taken fire and language to master and learn about their world. This means that no one of us speaks the ‘right’ language. We all speak the language(s) that helps us and these languages are formed to meet the needs of our culture and social situation.  The Hebrews were right about one thing, though. The uttering of the first noun or verb, as non-momentous as that sounds, was arguably of greater importance than the stealing of fire from the gods of Olympus. Nouns and verbs are the basis of human civilization. Without these and other words, we could not utter history and life-changing phrases like ‘I now pronounce you man and wife,’ ‘This must be the place,’ or ‘I name this ship the Titanic.’ If it were not for words, Founding Father Patrick Henry could never have uttered his famous sequence of two nouns, one pronoun, one disjunctive particle, and one verb, ‘Give me Liberty, or give me Death!’ With nouns and verbs society was founded. With nouns and verbs the growth of human knowledge began.  Naturally, therefore, a research question that captivates many modern thinkers is precisely the origin of nouns, verbs, sentences, stories, and other elements of human language. Did language and its parts come about suddenly or did they emerge gradually as cultural adaptations?  This book is about the development of this great linguistic tool of our brains and communities, the cognitive fire that illuminates the lonely space between us far more brightly than the light of flames ever could. Here we look at the story of mankind’s greatest tool, its purposes, and how it might have come to be.  Unlike physical fire, the cognitive fire of language did not exist before humans called it into being. And every individual and culture in the history of our race places its own mark upon this tool. It is an invention that envelops all humans. It unites. It divides. It warms our hearts. It chills our souls. It invigorates our bodies and steels young men for battle. It gives us the greatest pleasure of all—focused and ordered thoughts. We have become Homo loquax, as author Tom Wolfe calls us, or ‘speaking man’. We are the masters of this raging cognitive fire.  Language’s contribution to our mastery of the world is one way in which it serves as a tool. It is our greatest display of cognitive technology. It is the basis for an arsenal that includes mathematics, science, philosophy, art, and music. Language enables our brains to do things they could not do without it, like solving arithmetical problems, following recipes, and thinking about where our children are going after school.  No linguist, psychologist, anthropologist, or philosopher would disagree that language is useful. But there is enormous disagreement about where this tool came from. Some say that language was discovered by chance, like fire. Others believe that one brilliant Homo sapiens might have invented it 75,000 years or so ago, as the Cherokee chief Sequoya invented writing for his people. Still others claim that language is genetically encoded in the human mind, the fortuitous by-product of packing our skulls full of an unprecedented number of neurons.  Easily the most famous answer to this question, though, is that language is part of our genetic endowment and that, because of this, all human languages share an almost identical grammar—which includes sound systems and meanings. Under this view, the only significant differences between languages are their vocabularies. But this is not the only available explanation for the growth and presence of language in all humans. As I have said, I do not even think it is the best answer.  This is not a book about why one view of language is wrong and why another view is correct—although it does not shy away from stating its conclusions. Rather, this is a story about the joy of language, a joy that has filled my soul during more than thirty years of field research among indigenous societies of the Americas and life among my fellow Homo loquaces. From each of the nearly two dozen languages I have studied in the Amazon, Mexico, and the United States over the past decades, I have learned things about the nature of our species and our ability to communicate that I never would have learned by living a different life. I have learned about humans’ relation to nature and about perspectives on living and speaking in a world delineated by the ancient cultures of the jungle. I have learned how words reach into my heart and change my life, from the poetry of e.e. cummings and the prose of William James to the fireside stories of the human family. Language gives humans their humanity.  But how did this marvelous artifact originate? How is it that all humans possess it? Why are there so many similarities between languages if each one is a tool for a specific culture? And what does it mean, finally, to say that language is a tool? Is this just a way of speaking?  The last question answers them all.

Editorial Reviews

“Full of intellectually omnivorous insights and reminiscences about Everett’s years with the Pirahã . . . [Language] is that rare thing: a warm linguistics book.” —The New York Times Book Review“The most important—and provocative—anthropological fieldwork ever undertaken.” —Tom Wolfe“Revelatory. There is nothing about humans that is quite as astonishing as language.”—The Guardian “A book whose importance is almost impossible to overstate. This is an intellectual cri de coeur and a profound celebration of human diversity. . . . Very rich but also very readable.”—The Sunday Times (London)“[Language] is that rare thing: a warm linguistics book . . . A useful study of a burgeoning theory compatible with Darwinism, anthropology, psychology and philosophy—an interdisciplinary orientation the Chomskyans have largely spurned.”—The New York Times Book Review  “[Language] deserves a serious reading.” —The Economist “Readers’ eyes will . . . sparkle with new insight.” —Kirkus Reviews “Everett’s stories of the Pirahã . . . bring to life the culture that fosters the language. The stories also anchor his linguistic proposals in anthropology. Most linguists might take this as an insult; Everett would accept it as a compliment.” —The Globe and Mail (Canada) “[Everett lobs] a scientific grenade . . . into the spot where anthropology, linguistics and psychology meet: he asserts that the Piraha language exhibits traits that call into question aspects of linguistic theories that have been widely accepted for decades.” —Chicago Tribune “Everett writes simply and persuasively about language. . . . His courage and conviction should give linguists pause for thought.” —The Observer (London)