This book provides comprehensive coverage of European energy law in practice, evaluating the effectiveness of the expansion of the European Union (EU) from an energy perspective, the rise and importance of the low-carbon energy sector, and the challenge of the financial crisis and continuedeconomic recession. The national reports take into account the legal and institutional diversity among the Member States, drawing on the experience of prominent energy lawyers and national regulators to provide analysis of their own national experiences. The book includes an overview of how EU-neighbouring countries,such as the Norway, Russia and the Energy Community countries, have increasingly influenced EU energy policy and consequently EU energy regulation. It also considers the commercial response to the EU electricity directives, the case law of the European Court of Justice, and an overview of what thefuture might hold. The interface between EU energy law and investment law and treaties is also considered. This new volume is an invaluable guide to energy law in practice, and will be essential reading for practitioners and academics alike in a complex and rapidly evolving area of EU law.