Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy: Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in…

Paperback | June 1, 1989

byGregory M. Luebbert, David Collier, Seymour Martin Lipset

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This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable toa discrete set of social class alliances, the author explores the origins and outcomes of the political development in the individual nations. In Britain, France, and Switzerland, countries with a unified middle class, liberal forces established political hegemony before World War I. By cooptingconsiderable sections of the working class with reforms that weakened union movements, liberals essentially excluded the fragmented working class from the political process, remaining in power throughout the inter-war period. In countries with a strong, cohesive working class and a fractured middleclass, Luebbert points out, a liberal solution was impossible. In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia, political coalitions of social democrats and the "family peasantry" emerged as a result of the First World War, leading to social democratic governments. In Italy, Spain, and Germany, onthe other hand, the urban middle class united with a peasantry hostile to socialism to facilitate the rise of fascism.

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This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable toa discrete set of social class alliances, th...

American political theorist and sociologist, Seymour Lipset, was born in New York City and educated at City College of New York and Columbia University. Lipset has taught at a number of universities, including the University of Toronto, Columbia University, the University of California at Berkeley, Harvard University, and Stanford Univ...
Format:PaperbackDimensions:432 pages, 9.25 × 5.98 × 1.1 inPublished:June 1, 1989Publisher:Oxford University Press

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195066111

ISBN - 13:9780195066111

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"Comprehensive, original, beautifully argued."--Mary Anderson, Holy Names College