This book presents a comprehensive account of the post-Independence history and politics of Gujarat, one of India's most important federal units. Gujarat is known both for its leading position in economic development, and as the home of ethno-religious political divisiveness. Adopting a macro,long-term perspective, the author examines the co-existence of economic liberalism and political illiberalism in the state. Placing the state at the heart of the exploration, she demonstrates the nuances of what is often portrayed as a clear-cut decline of the developmental state in India. Instead,the author highlights the recent reorientation of the state both as the enabler of the market and as the vehicle of Hindu cultural nationalism. This work also analyses the ongoing relevance of the state to India's spectacular growth story, and the complexities of neo-liberal transformation.