Literature: Craft and Voice

Paperback | January 21, 2012

byNicholas Delbanco, Alan Cheuse

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Bringing writers to readers brings readers to writing.
Today’s students do read—we know that they read a significant amount of email, text messages, web pages, and even magazines. What many do not do is read in a sustained way. Many do not come to college prepared to read long texts, nor do they come with the tools necessary to analyze and synthesize what they read. Nick Delbanco and Alan Cheuse have proven in their own teaching that when you improve students’ ability and interest in reading, you will help them improve their writing. A new part 1 in this edition frontloads information for students on both the writing process and the critical use of sources.

Bringing writers to students, brings students to writing.
Literature: Craft and Voice is an innovative Introductory Literature program designed to engage students in the reading of Literature, all with a view to developing their reading, analytical, and written skills. Accompanied by, and integrated with, video interviews of dozens of living authors who are featured in the text, conducted by authors Nick Delbanco and Alan Cheuse specifically for use with their textbook, the book provides a living voice for the literature on the page and creates a link between the student and the authors of great works of literature. The first text of its kind, Literature: Craft and Voice offers a more enjoyable and effective reading experience through its fresh, inviting design and accompanying rich video program. Digital support is provided through CONNECT Literature which will be totally integrated with the Blackboard CMS.

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From the Publisher

Bringing writers to readers brings readers to writing. Today’s students do read—we know that they read a significant amount of email, text messages, web pages, and even magazines. What many do not do is read in a sustained way. Many do not come to college prepared to read long texts, nor do they come with the tools necessary to analyze...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:8 × 7.4 × 1.8 inPublished:January 21, 2012Publisher:McGraw-Hill EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0073384925

ISBN - 13:9780073384924

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Literature: Craft & Voice, 2e

*Material marked with is an asterisk is new to this edition

* New Part:

PART 1: Writing from Reading

* New Chapter:

*1 Reading and Writing Analytically

* The Role of Literature in a Visual Age

Gareth Hinds: Beowulf, Graphic Novel

Two Film Adaptations of Beowulf

*The Rewards of Close Reading

*Reading Prepares You for Writing

*Writing from Reading and College Success

*Connect Writing in College to Writing Beyond College

*The Literacy Narrative and Conversations on Writing

Questions for Creating Your Own Literacy Narrative

A Conversation on Writing with Amy Hempel

Amy Hempel, San Francisco (1985)

2 Writing from Reading

A Student's Initial Reaction to "Rapture"

An Interactive Reading of Anton Chekhov's "Rapture"

Using Critical Reading Strategies That Support Writing

Moving from Summary to Interpretation

A Student Paper: A Response to Anton Chekhov's "Rapture"

Reading from Writing

* New Chapter:

*3Developing an Argument

Source-Based Evidence: Summary vs. Paraphrase vs. Quotation

*A Conversation with Robert Pinsky

Robert Pinsky, Shirt (1990)

Ten Tips for Refining Your Ideas

*Making a Claim: A Defensible Thesis

*Using Logic to Organize Your Argument

*Source-Based Evidence: Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing, and Avoiding Plagiarism

Using Quotations and Avoiding Plagiarism

Using Paraphrase and Avoiding Plagiarism

Using Summary and Avoiding Plagiarism

*A Student Paper: A Response to Robert Pinsky's "Shirt"

4 Writing across the Curriculum

*Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (1923)

Write to Learn Across the Curriculum

Use Summary to Distill a Text

A Student Paper: A Summary of Herman Melville's "Bartleby, The Scrivener"

Use Analysis to Examie How the Parts Contribute to the Whole Explication

William Blake: "The Garden of Love" (1794)

Student Paper: An Explication of William Blake's "The Garden of Love"

Card Report

Student Card Report on Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Hard To Find"

Use a Synthesis to Show Relationships


Comparison and Contrast

Student Comparison-Contrast Paper on Beowulf

Use Critique to Bring in Your Own Evaluation Review

Find a Effective Approach to the Essay Exam

Sample Notes for a Student Essay Exam
A Student Essay Exam on Robert Frost's "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening"

5 Writing the Research Paper, Avoiding Plagiarism, and Documenting Sources

Langston Hughes, The Dream Keeper (1932)

Research Today

Elements in a Works Cited Entry: Books

Elements in a Works Cited Entry: Periodicals

Elements in a Works Cited Entry: Online Resources

What Information Requires Documentation?

Samples of Types of Information Requiring Documentation

Common Knowledge (Documentation Not Required)

Working with Sources to Avoid Plagiarism

Take Notes on Your Sources

Do Not Copy and Paste Directly into Your Paper Keep Bibliographical Information in a Running List of Your Sources
Tip: Avoiding Plagiarism and the Web

Choosing a Topic

Langston Hughes (1902-1967)

The Dream Keeper (1932)

Harlem (Dream Deferred) (1951)

Finding Reliable and Relevant Sources

Recognizing Signs of Unreliable Web Sites

Tip: Evaluating Web Sources

Using Visual Sources

Developing a Thesis

Creating a Plan

Drafting Your Paper

Drafting Body Paragraphs

Revising Your Draft

Draft Introductory Paragraph

Revised Introductory Paragraph

Draft Supporting Paragraph (Body)

Revised Supporting Paragraph (Body)

Draft Concluding Paragraph

Revised Concluding Paragraph

Editing and Formatting Your Paper

Box: Questions to Guide Editing

A Student Paper: A Research Paper on Langston Hughes

*New: Online Casebook: Writing from Reading

*Aesop, The Tortoise and the Hare (fable)

*Aesop, The Boy Who Cried Wolf (fable)

*The Gospel of St. Luke (parable)

*William Blake, "Holy Thursday" (poem)

*William Blake, "The Clod and the Pebble" (poem)

Herman Melville, "Bartleby the Scrivener" (short story

PART 2: Fiction

6 Reading a Story for Its Elements

A First Reading

A Critical Reading

A Conversation on Writing with John Updike

John Updike, A&P (1961)

Story and History

What Reading Fiction Gives Us

Kate Chopin (1851-1904)

The Story of an Hour (1894)

Alice Munro (B. 1931)

An Ounce of Cure (1968)

Suggestions for Writing

7 Writing about Fiction

A Conversation on Writing with Jamaica Kincaid

Jamaica Kincaid, Girl (1983)

From Reading to Writing

Checklist for Writing

A Sample Student Essay in Progress

An Interactive Reading

Initial Response

Explore Your Ideas

Develop a Working Thesis

Create a Plan

Generate a First Draft

First Draft of a Student Paper

Writer's Block

Revise Your Draft

Edit Your Sentences; Proofread and Format Your Paper

* Crafting Your Own Voice: Summary

Final Draft

A Student Paper: An Analysis of Jamaica

Kincaid's "Girl"

Compiling a Writing Portfolio

8 Plot

A Conversation on Writing with T. Coraghessan Boyle

T. Coraghessan Boyle, Greasy Lake (1985)

An Artful Arrangement of Incidents

Crafting Plot

James Joyce (1882-1941)

Araby (1914)

A Conversation on Writing with Joyce Carol Oates

*Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? (1970)

Richard Wright (1908-1960)*The Man Who Was Almost a Man (1940) Reading for PlotSuggestions for Writing about Plot

9 Character

A Conversation on Writing with Gish Jen

Gish Jen, Who's Irish? (1999)

The Craft of Characterization

What You See Is What You Get

What's in a Name?

The Clothes Make the Man (or Woman)

We Are What We (Repeatedly) Do

Can You Hear Me Now?

Round and Flat Characters

A History of Character

James Baldwin (1924-1987)

*Sonny's Blues (1957)

Katherine Mans ?eld (1888-1923)

*Miss Brill (1920)

Katherine Anne Porter (1890-1980)

The Jilting of Granny Weatherall (1930)

Reading for Character

Suggestions for Writing about Character

10 Setting

Setting as Physical Environment

A Conversation on Writing with Barry Lopez

Barry Lopez, The Location of the River (1986)

Setting as Social Environment

Setting and Mood

Setting and Character

Regional Writers

Kate Chopin (1851-1904)

The Storm (c. 1899)

Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960)

*The Gilded Six-Bits (1933)?

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)

*The Cask of Amontillado (1846)

Reading for Setting

Suggestions for Writing about Setting

11 Point of View

Narrator and Point of View

A Conversation on Writing with ZZ Packer

ZZ Packer, Brownies (1999)

A Participant, or First-Person, Narrator

A Nonparticipant, or Third-Person, Narrator

A Brief History of Point of View

The Second-Person Narrator

Junot Diaz (b. 1968)

How to Date a Browngirl, Blackgirl, Whitegirl, or Hal?e (1995)

William Faulkner (1897-1962)

*A Rose for Emily (1932)

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)

*Hills Like White Elephants (1927)

Reading for Point of View

Suggestions for Writing about Point of View

12 Language, Tone, and Style

A Conversation on Writing with Aimee Bender

Aimee Bender, The Rememberer (1997)

Crafting Style and Tone

Style and Diction

Tone and Irony

A Brief History of Irony

Sherman Alexie (b. 1966)

*Indian Education (1993)

Flannery O'Connor (1925-1964)

*Good Country People (1955)

Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935)

The Yellow Wallpaper (1892)

Reading for Language, Tone, and Style

Suggestions for Writing about Language, Tone, and Style

13 Theme

A Conversation on Writing with Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Cell One (2007)

Craft and Theme

What Theme Is Not

What Theme Is

Themes Through Time

Identifying Themes

Stephen Crane (1871-1900)

The Open Boat: A Tale Intended to Be after the Fact: Being the Experience of Four Men from the Sunk Steamer Commodore (1897)

Jhumpa Lahiri (b. 1967)

Interpreter of Maladies (1999)

A Conversation on Writing with Amy Tan

*Two Kinds (1989)

Reading for Theme

Suggestions for Writing about Theme


A Conversation on Writing with Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried (1986)

Symbols in Everyday Life and Literature

Symbol and Allegory

The History of Symbolism

Recognizing and Appreciating Symbols

Louise Erdrich (b. 1954)

*The Red Convertible (1974)

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)

Young Goodman Brown (1835)

Eudora Welty (1909-2001)

*A Worn Path (1940)

Reading for Symbols

Suggestions for Writing about Symbolism

15American Regionalism and Sense of Place

The American West

A Conversation on Writing with Dagoberto Gilb

*Dagoberto Gilb, Love in L.A. (1993)

John Steinbeck (1902-1968)

The Chrysanthemums (1938)

Leslie Marmon Silko (b. 1948)

The Man to Send Rain Clouds (1969)

The American South

William Faulkner (1897-1962)

Barn Burning (1939)

Flannery O'Connor (1925-1964)

A Good Man Is Hard to Find (1955)

Ralph Ellison (1914-1994)

Battle Royal (1952)

Getting Started: A Research Project

Further Suggestions for Writing and Research

Some Sources for Research

16An Anthology of Stories for Further Reading

Margaret Atwood (b. 1939)

Happy Endings (1983)

Toni Cade Bambara (1939-1995)

*The Lesson (1972)

Raymond Carver (1938-1988)

Cathedral (1984)

Anton Chekhov (1860-1904)

The Lady With The Pet Dog (1899)

Gabriel García Márquez (b. 1928)

*A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings: A Tale For Children (1972)

Shirley Jackson (1916-1965)

*The Lottery (1948)

D. H. Lawrence (1855-1930)

*The Rocking-Horse Winner (1933)

Ursula K. Le Guin (b. 1929)

The Kerastion (1994)

Alice Walker (b. 1944)

Everyday Use

*New: Online Casebooks: Fiction

*Interactive Casebook: Fiction into Film

*Excerpts from Anonymous, Beowulf

*Excerpt from the screenplay "Beowulf"

*Clips from the film (video)

Kevin J. Wanner, "Warriors, Wyrms, and Wyrd: The Paradoxical Fate of the Germanic Hero/King in Beowulf " (criticism)

Ty Burr, "Behold 'Beowulf'" (movie review)

Roger Avary and Neil Gaiman, Adapting Beowulf for the Movie (interview)

*Excerpt from Swift, Gulliver's Travels

*Excerpt from the screenplay, "Gulliver's Travels"

*Clips from the film (video)

*Ian Johnston, Lecture on Swift's Gulliver's Travels (criticism)

*Anders Wotzke, Gulliver's Travels [2010] (review)

*F Scott Fitzgerald, "Curious Case of Benjamin Button"

*Excerpt from the screenplay, "Curious Case of Benjamin Button"

*Clips from the film (video)

*Todd McCarthy, "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" (review)

*Bob Seery, "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" by F. Scott Fitzgerald

*Masters of Craft: Fiction

*Ambrose Bearce, An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge

*Willa Cather, Paul's Case

*Colette, The Hand

*Stephen Crane, The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky

*Charles Dickens, Hard Times, an excerpt

*Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Minister's Black Veil

*Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Birthmark

*O. Henry, Gift of the Magi

*Sara Orne Jewett, White Herons

*Jack London, To Build a Fire

*Edgar Allen Poe, The Tell-Tale Heart

Edgar Allen Poe, The Fall of the House of Usher

*Leo Tolstoy, Death of Ivan Ilyich

*Mark Twain, Jumping Frogs of Calaveras County

*New: Contemporary Voices: Fiction

*Danielle Evans, "before you suffocate your own fool self"

*Lauren Groff, "Delicate, Edible Birds"

*Tayari Jones, "Best Cousin"

*Michael Knight, "Dogfight"

*Valerie Laken, "Family Planning"

*Rattawut Lapcharoensap, "Draft Day"

*William Lychack, "Stolpestad"

*Anna Menendez, "Travelling Madness"

*Nami Mun, "Nothing About Love or Pity"

*Benjamin Percy, "The Roof People"

PART 3: Poetry

17Reading a Poem in Its Elements

A First Reading: "Duffing into It"

A Conversation on Writing with Carolyn Forché

Carolyn Forché, The Museum of Stones (2007)

A Critical Reading

An Interactive Reading of "The Museum of Stones"

A Contextual Reading

An Interactive Reading of William Shakespeare's "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun"

The Craft of Poetry

Robert Burns (1759-1796)

O my luve's like a red, red rose (1794)

Robert Hayden (1913-1980)

Those Winter Sundays (1962)

Sappho (c. 630-570 B.C.E.)

A Fragment (c. 600 B.C.E.)

William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

I Wandered Lonely As a Cloud (1804)

Elizabeth Alexander (b. 1962)

Emancipation (2005)

William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)

Sailing to Byzantium (1927)

Billy Collins (b. 1941)

*Introduction to Poetry (1996)

18Writing about Poetry

A Conversation on Writing with Li-Young Lee

Two Poems by Li-Young Lee

Eating Alone (1986)

Eating Together (1986)

A Guide to Writing from Reading

A Sample Student Essay in Progress

Interact with the Reading

Initial Response

An Interactive Reading of "Eating Alone"

Explore Your Ideas




Develop a Thesis

Create a Plan for Your Paper


Generate a First Draft

First Draft

Revise Your Draft

Second Draft

Edit and Format Your Paper

*Crafting Your Own Voice: Quotation

Final Draft

19Types of Poetry

A Conversation on Writing with Stephen Mitchell[The Secret of Life] -from the Bhagavad Gita ("Love Song to God") (c. 500-200 B.C.E.)



Song of Solomon 4:1-7 [Behold, thou art fair, my love] -from the King James translation of the Bible

D. H. Lawrence (1885-1930)

Piano (1918)

William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)

Leda and the Swan (1924)


George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824)

[Bob Southey! You're a poet] -from the Dedication to Don Juan (1819)

[I want a hero] -from Don Juan, Canto the First (1819)


Robert Browning (1812-1889)

My Last Duchess (1842)


Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861)

*When Our Two Souls

Robert Browning (1812-1889)

Love Among the Ruins (1855)

Pablo Neruda (1904-1973)

I Do Not Love You Except Because I Love You (1959)

Adrienne Rich (b. 1929)

Living in Sin (1955)

Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926)

Archaic Torso of Apollo (1908)

Rumi (c. 1207-1273)

Some Kiss We Want (c. mid-thirteenth century)


A Conversation on Writing with Marie Howe

Marie Howe, What the Living Do(1997)


A Brief History of Poetic Diction

John Keats (1795-1821)

Ode on a Grecian Urn (1819)

W. H. Auden (1907-1973)

Funeral Blues (1940)

Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-2000)

We Real Cool(1960)


William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? (1609)

Matthew Arnold (1822-1888)

Dover Beach (1867)


Anthony Hecht (1923-2004)

The Dover Bitch (1967)

Philip Larkin (1922-1985)

Aubade (1980)


Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979)

The Fish (1946)

James Wright (1927-1980)

A Blessing (1963)


Robert Frost (1874-1963)

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (1923)

Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)

The Emperor of Ice-Cream (1923)

Lucille Clifton (1936-2010)

*Praise Song (2000)

Walt Whitman (1819-1892)

*I Hear America Singing (1860)

Reading for Words

Writing about Words


Billy Collins (b. 1941)

The Names (2002)

e. e. cummings (1894-1962)

in Just- (1920)

John Donne (1572-1631)

A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning (1633)

Martin Espada (b. 1957)

*Why I Went to College (2001)

Naomi Shihab Nye (b. 1952)

The World in Translation (1995)

Leslie Marmon Silko (b. 1948)

*Love Poem (1970)

Kevin Young (b. 1970)

*Langston Hughes (2001)

21Voice: Tone, Persona, and Irony

A Conversation on Writing with Stephen Dunn

Stephen Dunn, After (2002)


Randall Jarrell (1914-1965)

The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner (1945)

Theodore Roethke (1908-1963)

My Papa's Waltz (1948)

Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)

Sunday Morning (1915)

Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)

The Author to Her Book (1678)


Joy Harjo (b. 1951)

Morning Song (2001)

Gary Soto (b. 1952)

Mexicans Begin Jogging (1981)

William Sta?ord (1914-1993)

Traveling through the Dark (1962)

William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)

This Is Just to Say (1934)


Ben Jonson (1573-1637)

On My First Son (1616)


Sylvia Plath (1932-1963)

Daddy (1966)

Rita Dove (b. 1952)

Flash Cards(1989)

Walt Whitman (1819 -1892)

*O Captain! My Captain! (1865)

Ai (b. 1947)

Riot Act, April 29, 1992 (1993)

William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)

Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop (1932)


Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)

The Passionate Shepherd to His Love (c. 1599)

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)

*The Raven (1845)

Anne Sexton (1928-1974)

*Cinderella (1971)

Natasha Trethewey (b. 1966)

Letter Home (2002)


Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906)

To a Captious Critic (1901)

Wilfred Owen (1893-1918)

Dulce et Decorum Est(1920)

Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935)

Richard Cory(1897)

Thomas Hardy (1840-1928)

The Convergence of the Twain (1912)


Stephen Crane (1871-1900)

*War Is Kind (1899)

e. e. cummings (1894-1962)

next to of course god america i (1926)

John Donne (1572-1631)

Song (1633)

Marge Piercy (b. 1949)

*Barbie Doll (1973)

Gil Scott-Heron (1949-2011)

The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (1970)

Reading for Voice

Writing about Voice

22 Imagery & Symbol

A Conversation on Writing with Jane Hirsh?eld

Two Poems by Jane Hirsh?eld

Tree (2000)

Button (2000)

Kobayashi Issa (1763-1827)

On a branch (c. 1800)

Matsuo Basho (1644-1694)

*Heat Lightning Streak

Ezra Pound (1885-1972)

In a Station of the Metro (1916)

H.D. (Hilda Doolittle; 1886-1961)

Sea Poppies (1916)

William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)

The Red Wheelbarrow(1923)

Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)

Anecdote of the Jar (1923)

Allegory and Parable

Jane Kenyon (1947-1995)

The Blue Bowl (1990)

W. H. Auden (1907-1973)

Musée des Beaux Arts (1940)

Anne Carson (b. 1950)

Automat (2000)

Cathy Song (b. 1950)

Girl Powdering Her Neck (1983)

Rita Dove (b. 1952)

*Sonnet in Primary Colors

William Blake (1757-1827)

Songs of Innocence(1794): The Chimney Sweeper

Songs of Experience (1794): The Chimney Sweeper


William Blake (1757-1827)

The Sick Rose

Robert Bly (b. 1926)

Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter (1962)

George Herbert (1593-1633)

*The Altar

John Keats (1795-1821)

Ode to a Nightingale (1819)

Amy Lowell (1874-1925)

Patterns (1914)

Pablo Neruda (1904-1973)

*[Under the Net of Our Kisses] (1958)

Octavio Paz (1914-1998)

*Touch (1994)

Sylvia Plath (1932-1963)

*Lady Lazarus (1965)

Reading for Images and Symbols

Writing about Images and Symbols

23Figures of Speech

A Conversation on Writing with Al Young

Al Young, Doo-Wop: The Moves (2006)


Michael Ondaatje (b. 1943)

Sweet Like a Crow(1989)



Margaret Atwood (b. 1939)

you ?t into me (1971)

N. Scott Momaday (b. 1934)

*Simile (1974)

Sylvia Plath (1932-1963)

Metaphors (1960)

Linda Pastan (b. 1932)

Jump Cabling (1984)


Robert Frost (1874-1963)

Fire and Ice (1923)


Henry Reed (1914-1986)

Naming of Parts (1946)


William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802 (1807)

William Blake (1757-1827)

Ah! Sun-flower (1793)

Gabriella Mistral (1889-1957)

Fugitive Woman (1954)


Matsuo Basho (1644-1694)

Kyoto (c. 1680)


A. R. Ammons (1926-2001)

Their Sex Life (1991)


Lucille Clifton (1936-2010)

Homage to my hips (1991)

Dorothy Parker (1893-1967)

*One Perfect Rose (1923)


John Ciardi (1916-1986)

Most Like an Arch This Marriage (1958)

e. e. cummings (1894-1962)

*she being Brand (1926)

John Keats (1795-1821)

To Autumn (1819)

Theodore Roethke (1908-1963)

Root Cellar (1948)

Sonia Sanchez (b. 1934)

*Rite On: White America (1970)

Carl Sandburg (1878-1967)

*Chicago (1916)

Walt Whitman (1819-1892)

A Noiseless Patient Spider (1891)

Reading for Figures of Speech

Writing about Figures of Speech

24Sound, Rhyme, & Rhythm

A Conversation on Writing with Thomas Lynch

Thomas Lynch, Iambs for the Day of Burial (1998)


Western Wind (c. 1500)


Old English Alliterative Verse

Seamus Heaney (b. 1939)



Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)

Jabberwocky (1871)

John Keats (1795-1821)

Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art (1838)

Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950)

Only until this cigarette is ended (1921)

Christina Rossetti (1830-1894)

A Birthday (1861)

Dylan Thomas (1914-1953)

*Fern Hill (1946)

William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)

*The Lake Isle of Innisfree (1892)



Sir Patrick Spence (1765)

Alexander Pope (1688-1744)

[True ease in writing comes from art, not chance] -from "An Essay on Criticism" (1711)

Marianne Moore (1887-1972)

The Fish (1921)

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

The difference between Despair(c. 1862)


Julia Alvarez (b. 1950)

Woman's Work (1994)

William Blake (1757-1827)

The Tyger (1794)

George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824)

She Walks in Beauty (1815)

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906)

*We Wear the Mask (1895)

A. E. Housman (1859-1936)

When I was one-and-twenty (1896)

Marilyn Nelson (b. 1946)

Chopin (1989)


Stresses and Pauses

Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-2000)

Sadie and Maud (1945)

*The Southeast Corner (1945)

*A Song in the Front Yard



Common Metrical Feet

Number of Feet per Line

Common Metric Patterns

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

Trochee trips from long to short (1806)


Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889)

Pied Beauty(1877)


Anonymous Scottish Ballad

Bonnie Barbara Allan (1750)

John Donne (1572-1631)

Hymn to God, My God, In My Sickness (1633)

Bob Dylan (b. 1941)

*The Times They Are a'Changing (1963)

John Keats (1795-1821)

La Belle Dame sans Merci (1819)

Audre Lorde (1934-1992)

The Electric Slide Boogie (1993)

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)

Annabel Lee (1849)

Reading for Sound, Rhyme, and Rhythm

Writing about Sound, Rhyme, and Rhythm

25 Fixed Poetic Forms

Conversation on Writing with Edward Hirsch

Edward Hirsch, My First Theology Lesson (2003)

Form, Fixed Form, Open Form

The Building Blocks of Form



Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861)

How do I love thee? Let me count the ways (1850)

John Keats (1795-1821)

On First Looking into Chapman's Homer (1816)


William Shakespeare (1565-1616)

When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes (1609)

Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950)

*What lips these lips have kissed (1923)

The Sonnet's World Tour


Dylan Thomas (1914-1953)

Do not go gentle into that good night (1952)

Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979)

One Art (1976)


Elizabeth Bishop (1911-1979)

Sestina (1956)


Erica Funkhouser (b. 1949)

First Pantoum of Summer(2003)


Matsuo Basho(1644-1694)

Deep autumn (c. 1600)


Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

What Is an Epigram?(1802)

Langston Hughes (1902-1967)


J. V. Cunningham (1911-1985)

Two Epigrams(1942)

A.R. Ammons (1926-2001)

Small Song (1970)


Edward Lear (1812-1888)

There was an Old Man with a gong(1846)

J. D. Landis (b. 1942)

Starvation Diet (2008)

Laurence Perrine (b. 1915)

The limerick's never averse(1982)


A.E. Housman (1859-1936)

To an Athlete Dying Young (1896)

W. H. Auden (1907-1973)

In Memory of W. B. Yeats (1940)

Theodore Roethke (1907-1973)

Elegy for Jane (1953)


Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)

Ode to the West Wind (1820)


Robert Browning (1812-1889)

*Porphyria's Lover (1836)

Chaucer (1342-1400)

*The Canterbury Tales (c. 1369-1372): General Prologue

John Donne (1572-1631)

*Batter My Heart, Three-Personed God, for You (c. 1610)

H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) (1886-1961)

*Helen (1924)

Seamus Heaney (b. 1939)

Mid-Term Break (1966)

Andrew Hudgins (b.1951)

Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead (1991)

Dorianne Laux (b. 1952)

The Ship?tter's Wife (1999)

John Milton (1608-1674)

When I consider how my light is spent (1655?)

Robert Pinsky (b. 1940)

Sonnet (1983)

William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

*Lines Written A Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey, On Revisiting The Banks Of The Wye During A Tour, July 13, 1798.

William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)

The Second Coming (1921)

Reading for Fixed Forms

Writing about Fixed Forms

26 Open Form

A Conversation on Writing with Robert Hass

Robert Hass, Meditation at Lagunitas (1979)

Open Form Poetry


Walt Whitman (1819-1892)

Song of Myself (1855)

Sherman Alexie (b. 1966)

Defending Walt Whitman (1996)

e. e. cummings (1894 -1962)

since feeling is ?rst (1926)

Galway Kinnell (b. 1927)

After Making Love We Hear Footsteps (1980)

C. K. Williams (b. 1936)


Sharon Olds (b. 1942)

Sex without Love (1984)


George Herbert (1593-1633)

Easter Wings(1633)

John Hollander (b. 1929)

Swan and Shadow(1969)

Chen Li (b. 1954)

War Symphony (1995)

Dylan Thomas (1914-1953)

Vision and Prayer(1945)


Carolyn Forché (b. 1950)

The Colonel (1982)

Garth Risk Halberg (b. 1978)

Divorce (2007)


Jimmy Santiago Baca (b. 1952)

Choices (1986)

Marilyn Chin (b. 1955)

Turtle Soup (1987)

Sandra Cisneros (b. 1954)

Pumpkin Eater (1994)

Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997)

A Supermarket in California (1955)

Lorna Goodison (b. 1947)

On Becoming a Tiger (2000)

D. H. Lawrence (1885-1930)

Snake (1921)

Denise Levertov (1923-1997)

The Ache of Marriage (1964)

Robert Lowell (1917-1977)

*For the Union Dead (1959)

Pat Mora (b. 1942)

*Immigrants (1986)

Alberto Álvaro Ríos (b. 1952)

Nani (1982)

Ezra Pound (1885-1972)

The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter (1915)

Gary Soto (b. 1952)

*Behind Grandma's House (1985)

May Swenson (1919-1989)

*Women (1968)

Walt Whitman (1819-1892)

*When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer (1865)

James Wright (1927-1980)

Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio (1959)

Reading for Open Form

Writing about Open Form

27Langston Hughes: A Case Study on Langston Hughes and His Contemporaries

The Harlem Renaissance

The New Culture of Harlem

"Negro Vogue"

Langston Hughes (1902-1967)

The Poetry of Langston Hughes

The Negro Speaks of Rivers (1921)

Mother to Son (1922)

Negro (1922)

I, Too (1925)

The Weary Blues (1925)

Po' Boy Blues (1926)

Song for a Dark Girl (1927)

Let America Be America Again (1936)

A New Song (1938)

Ballad of the Landlord (1940)

Dream Boogie (1951)

Night Funeral In Harlem (1951)

Theme for English B (1951)

The Blues (1958)

The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain (1926)

Countee Cullen (1903-1946)

Incident (1925)

*For a Lady I Know (1925)

Helene Johnson (1907-1995)

Sonnet to a Negro in Harlem (1927)

Claude McKay (1889-1948)

*If We Must Die (1919)

*America (1922)

The White City (1922)

Jessie Redmon Fauset (1884-1961)

Touché (1927)

Jean Toomer (1894-1967)


*Song of the Son

Angelina Weld Grimké (1880-1958)

Fragment (c. 1930)

Getting Started: A Research Project

Further Suggestions for Writing and Research

Some Sources for Research

Online Sources

Print Sources

28American Plain Style: A Case Study on Emily Dickinson and Robert Frost

The Roots of American Plain Style

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

Success is counted sweetest (c. 1859)

I taste a liquor never brewed- (c. 1860)

Some keep the Sabbath going to Church- (c. 1860)

Safe in their Alabaster Chambers- (1861)

I like a look of Agony (c. 1861)

Wild Nights-Wild Nights! (c. 1861)

There's a certain Slant of light (c. 1861)

I felt a Funeral, in my Brain (c. 1861)

I'm Nobody! Who are you? (c. 1861)

The Soul selects her own Society- (c. 1862)

After great pain, a formal feeling comes- (c. 1862)

Much Madness is divinest Sense- (c. 1862)

I died for Beauty-but was scarce (c. 1862)

I heard a Fly buzz-when I died- (c. 1862)

The Brain-is wider than the Sky- (c. 1862)

I started Early-Took my Dog- (1862)

Because I could not stop for Death- (1863)

*My Life had stood-a Loaded Gun- (1863)

One need not be a Chamber-to be Haunted- (c. 1863)

A narrow Fellow in the Grass (c. 1865)

The Bustle in a House (c. 1866)

Tell all the Truth but tell it slant- (c. 1868)

There is no Frigate like a Book (c. 1873)

*My life closed twice before itS close (c. 1896)

Robert Frost (1874-1963)

Mowing (1913)

After Apple-Picking (1914)

Mending Wall (1914)

Birches (1915)

"Out, Out-" (1916)

The Road Not Taken (1916)

Nothing Gold Can Stay (1923)

Acquainted with the Night (1928)

Desert Places (1936)

Design (1936)

The Gift Outright (1942)

The Silken Tent (1942)

Getting Started: A Research Project

Emily Dickinson

Critical Readings on Emily Dickinson

Exploring Biography

Exploring Historical Context

Exploring Critical Perspectives

Making Connections

Robert Frost

Critical Readings on Robert Frost

Exploring Biography

Exploring Historical Context

Exploring Critical Perspectives

Making Connections

Further Suggestions for Writing and Research

Some Sources for Research

Emily Dickinson

Online Source

Print Sources

Robert Frost

Online Source

Print Sources

29An Anthology of Poetry for Further Reading

Kim Addonizio (b. 1954)

First Poem for You (1994)

Gloria Anzaldúa (1942-2004)

To live in the Borderlands means you (1987)

W. H. Auden (1907-1973)

The Unknown Citizen (1940)

William Blake (1757-1827)

The Lamb (1794)

The Little Black Boy (1794)

London (1794)

Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)

To my Dear and Loving Husband (1678)

Robert Browning (1812-1889)

Meeting at Night (1845)

Parting at Morning (1845)

Judith Ortiz Cofer (b. 1952)

Quinceañera (1987)

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)

Kubla Khan (1797-1798)

e. e. cummings (1894-1962)

anyone lived in a pretty how town (1940)

Buffalo Bills (1923)

l(a (1923)

John Donne (1572-1631)

Death Be Not Proud (c. 1610)

The Flea (1633)

The Sun Rising (1633)

H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) (1886-1961)

Heat (1916)

T. S. Eliot (1888-1965)

The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (1915)

Louise Erdrich (b. 1954)

Dear John Wayne (1984)

Nikki Giovanni (b. 1943)

*Ego Tripping (there may be a reason why) (1973)

*Nikki-Rosa (1968)

Thomas Hardy (1840-1928)

The Darkling Thrush (1900)

George Herbert (1593-1633)

Love (1633)

Robert Herrick (1591-1674)

Delight in Disorder (1648)

To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time (1646)

Upon Julia's Clothes (1648)

Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889)

God's Grandeur (1877)

The Windhover (1877)

A. E. Housman (1859-1936)

Loveliest of trees, the cherry now (1896)

Ben Jonson (1573-1637)

To Celia (1616)

John Keats (1795-1821)

*The Eve of St. Agnes (1820)

*When I have fears that I may cease to be (1818)

Yusef Komunyakaa (b. 1947)

Facing It (1988)

Emma Lazarus (1849-1887)

The New Colossus (1883)

Audre Lorde (1934-1992)

*Hanging Fire (1978)

Richard Lovelace (1618-1658)

*To Lucasta (1649)

Archibald MacLeish (1892-1982)

Ars Poetica (1926)

Andrew Marvell (1621-1678)

To His Coy Mistress (1681)

W. S. Merwin (b. 1927)

For the Anniversary of My Death (1967)

John Milton (1608-1674)

[Of Man's ?rst disobedience]

Janice Mirikitani (b. 1942)

*Suicide Note (1987)

Wilfred Owen (1893-1918)

Anthem for Doomed Youth (1917)

Linda Pastan (b. 1932)

Ethics (1980)

Molly Peacock (b. 1947)

Desire (1984)

Sylvia Plath (1932-1963)

Mirror (1963)

Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618)

The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd (1600)

Dudley Randall (1914-2000)

The Ballad of Birmingham (1969)

Ishmael Reed (b. 1938)

beware: do not read this poem (1972)

Adrienne Rich (b. 1929)

Aunt Jennifer's Tigers (1951)

Diving into the Wreck (1973)

Christina Rossetti (1830-1894)

Echo (1862)

Carl Sandburg (1878-1967)

Fog (1916)

Anne Sexton (1928-1974)

Letter Written on a Ferry while Crossing Long Island Sound (1961)

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

Let me not to the marriage of true minds (1609)

Not marble, nor the gilded monuments (1609)

That time of the year thou mayest in me behold (1609)

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)

Ozymandias (1818)

Patricia Smith (b. 1955)

*What It's Like to Be a Black Girl (for Those of You Who Aren't) (1991)

Gary Soto (b. 1952)

Saturday at the Canal (1991)

Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)

Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock (1923)

Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird (1917)

Adrienne Su (1967- )

*The English Canon (2000)

Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1892)

Ulysses (1842)

Quincy Troupe (b. 1943)

*Poem Reaching towards Something (1997)

Phyllis Wheatley (1753-1784)

On Being Brought from Africa to America (1773)

William Carlos Williams (1883-1963)

Spring and All (1923)

William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

London, 1802 (1802)

The Solitary Reaper (1807)

The World Is Too Much with Us (1807)

William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)

When You Are Old (1893)

*New: Online Casebooks for Poetry

*New: Interactive Casebook: Poetry as Song and Performance

William Shakespeare, "Fear no more the heat o' the sun"

*The Last Poets, "Made in Amerikkka" (video)

*Marc Smith, "Dusty Blues" (video)

*Leonard Cohen, "Bird on a Wire" (video)

*Kenneth Carroll "So What! (for the white dude who said dis ain't poetry)" (video)

*Lawson Fusao Inada, "Grandmother"

Emily XYZ, "Ship of State of Fools"

*New: Masters of Craft: Poetry

*Basho, "Dusk"

*Basho, "On a Leafless Branch"

*William Blake, "The Little Boy Lost"

*William Blake, "The Little Boy Found"

*Anne Bradstreet, "Before the Birth of One of Her Children"

*Thomas Hardy, "The Man He Killed"

*Thomas Hardy, "The Ruined Main"

*Langston Hughes, "Ballad of Booker T."

*Langston Hughes, "Blues and Jazz"

*Langston Hughes, "Mother to Son"

*Christina Rossetti, "Echo"

*Sappho, "Immortal Aphrodite"

*Stevie Smith, "Not Waving But Drowning"

*Alfred, Lord Tennyson, "Crossing the Bar"

*Alfred, Lord Tennyson, "Break, Break, Break"

*Alfred, Lord Tennyson, "Charge of the Light Brigade"

*Alfred, Lord Tennyson, "The Eagle"

*New: Contemporary Voices: Poetry

*Samiya Bashir, "Gospel"

*Samiya Bashir, "Where the Apple Falls"

*Ken Chen, "Juvenilia"

*Christina Davis, "Advertisement for the Mountain"

*Camille Dungy, "Ark"

*Camille Dungy, "Soldier's Girl"

*Vivee Francis, "Blue-Tail Fly"

*Matthew Hittinger, "Pear Slip"

*Tung-Hui Hu, "Mine"

*Tung-Hui Hu, "The Book of Motion"

*Christine Hume, "Musca Domestica"

*Christine Hume, "Alaskaphrenia"

*Christine Hume, "Shot"

*Zilka Joseph, "Lands I Live In"

*Raymond McDaniel, "Murder (a violet)"

*Raymond McDaniel, "Saltwater Empire"

*Karyna McGlynn, "Alabama Steve"

*Kate Middleton, "Fire Season"

PART 4: Drama

30Reading & Viewing a Play in its Elements

The Elements of Drama

A Conversation on Reading Drama with Marian Seldes

Susan Glaspell (1876-1948)

Trifles (1916)

Reading for the Stage

The Origins of Drama

Types of Drama


David Ives (b. 1951)

Moby Dude, OR: The Three-Minute Whale (2004)

Suggestions for Writing

31 Writing about Drama

From Reading to Writing

A Conversation on Writing with Edward Albee

Edward Albee, The Zoo Story(1958)

Analysis vs. Review

Advice from the Critics

A Critic's Review

A Sample Student Essay in Progress

Interact with the Reading

An Interactive Reading from Edward Albee's The Zoo Story

One Student Begins

How do di?erent elements a?ect the audience?
Does the play's historical context help provide insight into the play?
What genre of play is it?

A History of Comedy in Tragedy

Write an Initial Response

Explore Your Ideas




Develop a Working Thesis

First-draft thesis

Second-draft thesis

Final thesis

Create a Plan

Generate a First Draft

First Draft

Revise Your Draft

Second Draft

Edit Your Sentences, Proofread, and Format Your Paper

Final Draft

*Crafting Your Own Voice: Paraphrase

Suggestions for Writing

32Greek Drama: A Case Study on Sophocles

A Conversation on Sophocles with Gregory Nagy

The Oedipus Story

Sophocles (496?-406/5 B.C.)

The Oedipus Myth

Sophocles, Oedipus the King (c. 430 B.C.)

Ancient Greek Drama

War and Oedipus The King

Conventions of Greek Drama

The prologue in Oedipus the King
The párados in Oedipus the King
The episodia in Oedipus the King
The éxodos in Oedipus the King
Greek Tragedy

Reading Greek Tragedy

Getting Started: A Research Project

Further Suggestions for Writing and Research

Some Sources for Research

33William Shakespeare: A Case Study

A Conversation on Shakespeare with Ralph Williams

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

Tips for Reading Shakespeare

William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (c. 1600)

The Origins of the Hamlet Story

The Elizabethan Theater

Language Onstage

The Origins of Drama in the Christian Church

Shakespeare's Confounding Diversity

Exploring A Midsummer Night's Dream

William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream (c. 1595)

Exploring OTHELLO

Reconstructing Shakespeare

William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice (c. 1601)

Getting Started: A Research Project

Further Suggestions for Writing and Research

Some Sources for Research

Online Sources

Print Sources

34Modern Drama

A Conversation on Writing with Arthur Miller

Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman (1949)

From the Palace to the Living Room, or, the Origins of

Modern Theater

Method Acting: Realism Onstage

Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)

A Doll's House (1879)

Tennessee Williams (1911-1983)

The Glass Menagerie (1945)

*Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965)

*A Raisin in the Sun (1958)

The Bard of Pittsburgh

August Wilson (1945-2005)

Fences (1986)

An Actor's Perspective on Modern Theater and August Wilson

A Glimpse at the Work of Ruben Santiago-Hudson

A Conversation on Writing with Ruben Santiago-Hudson

Photos from Lackawanna Blues (2005)

Reading Modern Drama

Suggestions for Writing about Modern Drama

35Contemporary Theater

Experimental Theater

Joan Ackermann (b. 1950)

The Second Beam (2004)

David Henry Hwang (b. 1957)

The Dance and the Railroad (1982)

Denise Chavez (b. 1948)

Guadalupe × 3 (2009)

Suggestions for Writing about Contemporary Theater

*New: Online Casebooks for Drama

*New: Today's Shakespeare

*King Lear

*Video of King Lear

*Robert Lloyd, 'King Lear' on PBS' 'Great Performances' (review)

*Joyce Carol Oates, "Is this the Promised End?": The Tragedy of King Lear (criticism)


*Video of Macbeth

*Jon Sobel, 'Macbeth with Patrick Stewart' (review)

*John Boe, "The Tragedy of Macbeth: Modern Criticism and Critical Controversies" (criticism)

*New: Masters of Craft: Drama

*Anonymous, Everyman

*Christopher Marlow, Dr. Faustus

*Ben Johnson, Volpone

*Aphra Behn, The Rover

*John Webster, The White Devil

*Richard Sheridan, School for Scandal

*Oscar Wilde, The Importance of Being Earnest

*George Bernard Shaw, Pygmalion

*New: Contemporary Voices: Drama

Arthur Kopit, Conversation with the Author (video interview)

Arthur Kopit, Wings

*Sarah Ruhl, Eurydice

*August Schulenberg, The Lesser Seductions of History

Appendix 1: Critical Approaches to Literature

Appendix 2: MLA Documentation Style Guide



Photo Credits

Index of First Lines of Poetry