Literature For Composition: Essays, Fiction, Poetry, And Drama

Paperback | December 22, 2006

bySylvan Barnet, William E. Burto, William E. Cain

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One of the first anthologies designed specifically for writing courses, Literature for Composition continues to offer superior coverage of reading, writing, and arguing about literature and a deep anthology of readings presented in Sylvan Barnet’s signature accessible style.  Literature for Composition opens with several chapters that provide uniquely helpful strategies and models for reading, thinking, and writing critically about literature.  The first text to link argument and literature, the eighth edition provides earlier discussions of arguing about literature as part of the writing process.  A diverse anthology of selections is organized around seven engaging themes, and nine compelling case studies help launch research projects.  The text's 200 images, a 4-color insert, and special chapters on visual literacy and literature on film add another appealing dimension to the study of literature.

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One of the first anthologies designed specifically for writing courses, Literature for Composition continues to offer superior coverage of reading, writing, and arguing about literature and a deep anthology of readings presented in Sylvan Barnet’s signature accessible style.  Literature for Composition opens with several chapters that ...

From the Jacket

One of the first anthologies designed specifically for writing courses, Literature for Composition continues to offer superior coverage of reading, writing, and arguing about literature and a deep anthology of readings presented in Sylvan Barnet’s signature accessible style.                                 Literature for Compo...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:1448 pages, 9.12 × 6.14 × 1.22 inPublished:December 22, 2006Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0321450965

ISBN - 13:9780321450968

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Contents by Genre

List of Illustrations

Preface to Instructors

Letter to Students



Getting Started: From Response to Argument   


CHAPTER 1 The Writer as Reader

Reading and Responding

    Kate Chopin, Ripe Figs

    Reading as Re-creation

    Collecting Evidence, Making Reasonable Inferences

    Reading with Pen in Hand

    Recording Your First Responses

    Identifying Your Audience and Purpose

Your Turn: Arguing a Thesis in an Essay

    A Sample Essay by a Student: "Images of Ripening in Kate Chopin’s ‘Ripe Figs’”

    The Argument Analyzed

    *Behind the Scenes: Tenori’s Essay, from Early Responses to Final Version

    Other Possibilities for Writing

    *A Second Story about a Young Woman: Michele Serros, Senior Picture Day

    Two Stories about a Bitter Argument

        Raymond Carver, Mine

        Raymond Carver, Little Things

        Your Turn: Writing an Argument about Carver’s Two Stories


CHAPTER 2  The Reader as Writer 

Developing a Thesis, Drafting, and Writing an Argument

    Pre-writing: Getting Ideas

    Annotating a Text

    More about Getting Ideas: A Second Story by Kate Chopin

        Kate Chopin,  The Story of an Hour

    Brainstorming for Ideas for Writing

    Focused Free Writing


    Asking Questions

    Keeping a Journal

    Arguing with Yourself: Critical Thinking

    Arguing a Thesis

Drafting Your Argument

    √  Checklist: Thesis Sentence

    A Sample Draft: "Ironies in an Hour"

    Revising an Argument

    Outlining an Argument

    Soliciting Peer Review, Thinking about Counterarguments

    Final Version of the Sample Essay: "Ironies of Life in Kate Chopin's 'The Story of an


    A Brief Overview of the Final Version

Writing on Your Computer

    √ Checklist: Writing with a Computer

Your Turn: Two Additional Stories

    Kate Chopin, The Storm

 Kate Chopin, Désirée’s Baby

    *John Steinbeck, The Chrysanthemums

A Note about Literary Evaluations


* CHAPTER 3  Literature and Argument

Beginning with Proverbs: Proverbs as Arguments

Arguments in Lyric Poems

    *A. E. Housman, Loveliest of  Trees

    *John Donne, The Flea

Fables and Arguments

    *Aesop Three Fables: The Pine-tree and the Bramble, The Snake and the Farmer, The

        City Mouse and the Country Mouse

    *William March, Aesop’s Last Fable

Thinking Further about Messages in Literature

    *Emily Wu, The Lesson of the Master

    *Linda Pastan, Ethics


CHAPTER 4   Reading Literature Closely: Explication 

What is Literature?

    Literature and Form

    Form and Meaning

        Robert Frost, The Span of Life

Reading in Slow Motion


    A Sample Explication

        Langston Hughes, Harlem

    Working Toward an Explication

    Some Journal Entries 

    A Sample Essay by a Student (Final Version): "Langston Hughes' 'Harlem"' 

    Explication as Argument 

    √ Checklist: Drafting an Explication 

Why Write? Purpose and Audience

Your Turn: Poems for Explication

    William Shakespeare, Sonnet 73 (That time of year thou mayst in me behold)

    John Donne, Holy Sonnet XIV  (Batter my heart, three-personed God )

    Emily Brontë, Spellbound

    Li-Young Lee, I Ask My Mother to Sing

    Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner

    *Elizabeth Bishop, One Art



CHAPTER 5   Reading Literature Closely: Analysis   


Analyzing a Story from the Hebrew Bible: The Judgment of Solomon

    The Judgment of Solomon

    Analyzing the Story

    Other Possible Topics for Analysis

Analyzing a Story from the *Testament: The Parable of the Prodigal Son

    The Parable of the Prodigal Son



Comparison: An Analytic Tool

    A Sample Essay by a Student: "Two *Women"

    Looking at the Essay

    √ Checklist: Revising a Comparison

Evaluation in Explication and Analysis

Choosing a Topic and Developing a Thesis in an Analytic Paper

Analyzing a Story

    James Thurber, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty

    Working Toward a Thesis: Journal Entries 

    Developing the Thesis: List Notes 

    Sample Draft by a Student: "Walter Mitty Is No Joke”

Developing an Argument

    Introductory Paragraph

    Middle Paragraphs

    Concluding Paragraphs

    Coherence in Paragraphs: Using Transitions

    √ Checklist: Revising Paragraphs

Review: Writing an Analysis

    A Note on Technical Terminology

    A Lyric Poem and a Student's Argument

        Aphra Behn, Song  Love Armed 

    Journal Entries 

    A Sample Essay by a Student: "The Double Nature of Love" 

    √ Checklist: Editing a Draft

Your Turn: Short Stories and Poems for Analysis

    Edgar Allan Poe, The Cask of Amontillado

    Guy de Maupassant, The Necklace

    Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall

    José  Armas, El Tonto del Barrio

    Leslie Marmon Silko, The Man to Send Rain Clouds

    *Billy Collins, Introduction to Poetry

    Robert Frost, Come In

    *Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken

    Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time

    Lyn Lifshin, My Mother and the Bed

    Martín Espada, Bully


CHAPTER 6   Arguing an Interpretation

Interpretation and Meaning

    Is the Author's Intention a Guide to Meaning?

    What Characterizes a Sound Interpretation?

    An Example: Interpreting Pat Mora's "Immigrants"

        Pat Mora, Immigrants    

Thinking Critically about Responses to Literature

Two Interpretations by Students

    Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

    Sample Essay by a Student: "Stopping by Woods--and Going On"

    Sample Essay by a Student: “’Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening' as a

        Short Story”

Your Turn: Poems for Interpretation 

    John Milton, When I Consider How My Light Is Spent 

    Robert Frost, Mending Wall           

    William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal 

    T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

    John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn

    *Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed

    *Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother


CHAPTER 7  Arguing an Evaluation

Criticism and Evaluation

Are There Critical Standards?

    Morality and Truth as Standards

    Other Ways of Thinking about Truth and Realism     

Your Turn: Poems and Stories for Evaluation

    *Sarah N. Cleghorn, The Golf Link

    Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach

    Anthony Hecht, The Dover Bitch

    *Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est

    *Wilfred Owen, Anthem for Doomed Youth

    *Henry Reed, Naming of Parts

    Robert Frost, Design

    Ira Gershwin, The Man That Got Away

    Katherine Mansfield, Miss Brill

    *W. Somerset Maugham, The Appointment in Samarra

    *O. Henry, The Ransom of Red Chief

    Tobias Wolff, Powder

A Note about Literary Evaluations



CHAPTER 8  Research: Writing with Sources    

What Research Is Not, and What Research Is

Primary and Secondary Materials 

    Locating Materials: First Steps 

    Other Bibliographic Aids      

Electronic Sources

    Encyclopedias: Electronic Versions

   The Internet/World Wide Web

        Evaluating Sources on the World Wide Web

        What Does Your Own Institution Offer?

        Using the World Wide Web

Taking Notes 

    Two Mechanical Aids: The Photocopier and the Computer

    A Guide to Note-Taking

Drafting the Paper 

Focus on Primary Sources 

Avoiding Plagiarism

Literature, History, and the World Wide Web

Case Study on Literature and History: Writing Arguments about the Internment of

    Japanese Americans

Literary Texts

    Mitsuye Yamada, The Question of Loyalty

    David Mura, An Argument: On 1942

 Historical Sources

       Basic Reference Books (Short Paper)

       Getting Deeper (Medium Paper)

       √ Checklist: Researching a Literary Historical Paper 

        A Review of Researching a Literary History Paper

    Other Reference Sources (Long Paper)

    Too Much Information?


 CHAPTER 9   Reading and Writing about Visual Culture

 The Language of Pictures

 *Beginning with Advertisements

        *√ A Checklist for Analyzing the Arguments Offered in Advertisements

Writing abut Pictures

Analyzing a Picture: Navajo Dancers Entertaining a Tourist Train          

Notes and a Sample Essay by a Student

    The Analysis Analyzed

Thinking about Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California

A Sample Documented Essay by a Student      

Photographers on Photography

    Lou Jacobs Jr., What Qualities Does a Good Photograph Have?

√ Checklist for Analyzing Pictures

An American Picture Album: Ten Images




Up Close: Thinking Critically about Literary Works and Literary Forms


CHAPTER 10  Critical Thinking: Arguing with Oneself, Asking Questions and Making Comparisons   

What Is Critical Thinking?

Asking and Answering Questions

Comparing and Contrasting

Analyzing and Evaluating Evidence

Thinking Critically: Arguing with Oneself, Asking Questions and Comparing--E. E. Cummings's "Buffalo Bill 's"

    E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill's

Rewriting a Poem        

    William Butler Yeats, Annunication 

    William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan (1924)

    William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan (1925/1933)

Emily Dickinson: Three Versions of a Poem, and More

    Emily Dickinson, I felt a Funeral, in my Brain

    Emily Dickinson, I felt a Cleaving in my Mind-

    Emily Dickinson, The Dust behind I strove to join

Imaginative Play: Thinking about Four Poems

    William Butler Yeats, The Wild Swans at Coole

    Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool

    Andrew Hudgins, The Wild Swans Skip School

    Anonymous, The Silver Swan


CHAPTER 11 Reading and Writing about Essays 

Types of Essays

The Essayist's Persona



Pre-writing: Identifying the Topic and Thesis

    Brent Staples, Black Men and Public Space

Stating the Thesis of an Essay

Drafting a Summary

    √ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Essays

Your Turn: Essays for Analysis

    Langston Hughes, Salvation

    Laura Vanderkam, Hookups Starve the Soul 



CHAPTER 12 Reading and Writing about Stories  

Stories True and False

    Grace Paley, Samuel

Elements of Fiction

    Plot and Character


    Setting and Atmosphere


    Narrative Point of View

    Style and Point of View


    √ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Stories

Your Turn: Stories for Analysis

    Anton Chekhov, Misery

    * Louise Erdrich, The Red Convertible

    Oscar Casares, Yolanda



CHAPTER 13 Writing Arguments about Short Stories: Two Case Studies 

Case Study: Writing Arguments about Flannery O'Connor

Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find

Flannery O'Connor, Revelation

Remarks from Essays and Letters

    From "The Fiction Writer and His Country"

    From "Some Aspects of the Grotesque in Southern Fiction 

    From "The Nature and Aim of Fiction"

    From "Writing Short Stories"

    On Interpreting "A Good Man Is Hard to Find"

    "A Reasonable Use of the Unreasonable 


Case Study: Writing Arguments about John Updike

John Updike, A&P (with manuscript pages)

John Updike, Pygmalion (with manuscript pages)

* John Updike, Separating

John Updike, Oliver’s Evolution

John Updike on the Art of Fiction

        Thinking about an Author’s Manuscripts

        What a Short Story Is

        What Updike as a Reader Wants from a Short Story

        On His Own Early Stories

        On a Writer’s Early Years

   On the Importance of Fiction


CHAPTER 14  Fiction into Film  

Asking Questions, Thinking Critically, and Making Comparisons

Film as a Medium

Film Techniques





Comparing Filmed and Printed Stories

Getting Ready to Write

Drafting an Essay

√ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Film

Suggestions for Further Reading

    Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?

    Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? and Smooth   Talk: Short Story into Film

    Your Turn: Thinking about Filming Fiction


CHAPTER 15   Reading and Writing about Plays 

Types of Plays



Elements of Drama





    Characterization and Motivation

Organizing an Analysis of a Character

    First Draft

    Revised Draft

    √  Checklist:  Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Plays

    Reviewing a dramatic Production

    A Sample Review by a Student: “An Effective Macbeth”

    The Review Reviewed

Thinking about a Filmed Version of Play

    Getting Ready to Write

    √ Checklist: Writing about a Filmed Play

Your Turn:  Plays for Analysis

    A Note on Greek Tragedy

        Sophocles, Antigone

    *David Ives, Sure Thing


CHAPTER 16 Thinking Critically about Plays

Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie

Tennessee Williams's Production Notes

    The Screen Device

    The Music

    The Lighting

A Sample Essay by a Student

    Preliminary Notes

    Final Version of the Student's Essay: "The Solid Structure of The Glass Menagerie"


CHAPTER 17  Reading and Writing about Poems 

Elements of Poetry

    The Speaker and the Poet

        Emily Dickinson, I'm Nobody! Who are you?

        Emily Dickinson, Wild Nights--Wild Nights

    The Language of Poetry: Diction and Tone

        William Shakespeare, Sonnet 146 ( Poor soul, the center of my sinful earth )

    Writing about the Speaker

        Robert Frost, The Telephone 

    Journal Entries 

    Figurative Language

        William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130  ( My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun )

        Dana Gioia, Money

        Robert Frost, The Hardship of Accounting

        Anonymous, Thirty Days Hath September

    Imagery and Symbolism.

        Edmund Waller, Song (Go, Lovely Rose)

        William Blake, The Sick Rose

        Linda Pastan, Jump Cabling

    Verbal Irony and Paradox


        Robert Herrick, Upon Julia's Clothes 

    A Sample Essay by a Student: "Herrick's Julia, Julia's Herrick"

    The Argument Analyzed

    Christina Rossetti,  In an Artist’s Studio


    An Example

        William Butler Yeats, The Balloon of the Mind

    Annotations and Journal Entries

    A Sample Essay by a Student: "Explication of W. B. Yeats's 'The Balloon of the


    √ Checklist: Explication

Rhythm and Versification: A Glossary for Reference


    Patterns of Sound

    Stanzaic Patterns

    Billy Collins, Sonnet

    Blank Verse and Free Verse

√ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Poems

Your Turn:  Poems about People, Places, and Things


        Robert Browning,  My Last Duchess

        E. E. Cummings, anyone lived in a pretty how town

        Sylvia Plath, Daddy

        Louise Erdrich, Indian Boarding School: The Runaways

        Etheridge Knight, For Malcolm, a Year After

        * Anne Sexton,  Her Kind


        Basho, An Old Pond  

        Thomas Hardy, Neutral Tones

        William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium

        James Wright, Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm in Pine Island,


        Anonymous, Deep River


        William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow

        Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider

        Thomas Hardy, The Photograph


CHAPTER 18  Writing Arguments about Poems: Three Case Studies

Case Study: Writing Arguments about Emily Dickinson

    Emily Dickinson, I heard a Fly buzz--when I died--

    Emily Dickinson, The Soul selects her own Society

    Emily Dickinson , These are the days when Birds come back

    Emily Dickinson, Papa above!

    Emily Dickinson, There's a certain Slant of light

    Emily Dickinson, This World is not Conclusion

    Emily Dickinson, I got so I could bear his name--

    Emily Dickinson, Those--dying, then

    Emily Dickinson, Apparently with no surprise

    Emily Dickinson, Tell all the Truth but tell it slant

    A Sample Argument by a Student: "Religion and Religious Imagery in Emily Dickinson"


Case Study: Writing Arguments about Songs and Poems: America Sings the Blues

Short Views

    W. C. Handy, St. Louis Blues

    Bessie Smith, Thinking Blues

    Robert Johnson, Walkin’  Blues

    Paul Laurence Dunbar, Blue

    W. H. Auden, Funeral Blues

    Langston Hughes, Too Blue

    Johnny Cash, Folsom Prison Blues

    Merle Haggard, Working  Man Blues

    Linda Pastan, Mini Blues

    Allen Ginsberg, Father Death Blues

    Charles Wright, Laguna Blues

    Sherman Alexie, Reservation Blues


Case Study: Writing Arguments Comparing Poems and Pictures

A Sample Argument by a Student

Word and Image

    Jane Flanders, Van Gogh’s  Bed

    William Carlos Williams, The Great Figure

    Adrienne Rich, Mourning Picture

    Cathy Song, Beauty and Sadness

    Mary Jo Salter, The Rebirth of Venus

    Anne Sexton, The Starry Night

    W. H. Auden, Musée des Beaux Arts

    X. J. Kennedy, Nude Descending a Staircase

    Greg Pape, American Flamingo

    Carl Phillips, Luncheon on the Grass

    John Updike, Before the Mirror

    Wislawa Szymborska, Brueghel’s Two Monkeys



Standing Back: A Thematic Anthology



Short Views 


Joan Didion, On Going Home

Montesquieu (Charles de Secondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu), Persian Letters



Eudora Welty, A Worn Path

Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson

Bobbie Ann Mason, Shiloh



John Keats, On first looking into Chapman’s Homer

Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias

Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses 

Carl Sandburg, Limited

Countee Cullen, Incident

William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark

Robert Frost, The Pasture

Wendell Berry, Stay Home

Adrienne Rich, Diving into the Wreck

Derek Walcott, A Far Cry from Africa

Sherman Alexie, On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City

Christina Rossetti, Uphill

Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death



CHAPTER 20  Love and Hate  

Short Views


Judith Ortiz Cofer, I Fell in Love, or My Hormones Awakened



    Ernest Hemingway, Cat in the Rain

        A Student's Notes and Journal Entries on "Cat in the Rain"

        Asking Questions about a Story

        Sample Essay by a Student: "Hemingway's American Wife"

        Second Example: An Essay Drawing on Related Material in the Chapter

        Sample Essay by a Student: "Hemingway's Unhappy Lovers"

William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily

Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat

Bel Kaufman, Sunday in the Park

Raymond Carver, Cathedral



Anonymous, Western Wind

Christopher Marlowe, Come Live with Me and Be My Love

Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd

John Donne, The Bait

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 29 (When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes)

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 116 (Let me not to the marriage of true minds)

John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Morning

Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

William Blake, The Garden of Love

William Blake, A Poison Tree

Walt  Whitman, When I Heard at the Close of the Day

Edna St. Vincent Millay, Love Is Not All: It Is Not Meat nor Drink

Robert Frost, The Silken Tent

Adrienne Rich, Novella

Adrienne Rich, XI (from Twenty-One Love Poems)

Robert Pack, The Frog Prince

Joseph Brodsky, Love Song

Nikki Giovanni, Love in Place

Carol Muske, Chivalry

Kitty Tsui, A Chinese Banquet



Terrence McNally, Andre’s Mother    


CHAPTER 21  Making Men and Women

Short Views


Steven Doloff, The Opposite Sex

Gretel Ehrlich, About Men



Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper

Richard Wright, The Man Who Was Almost a Man

Gloria Naylor, The Two

Alice Munro, Boys and Girls



Anonymous Nursery Rhyme, What Are Little Boys Made Of 

Anonymous, Higamus, Hogamus

*William Shakespeare, Sigh No More, Ladies 

Dorothy Parker, General Review of the Sex Situation

* Louise Bogan, Women

Rita Dove, Daystar

Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays

Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz

Sharon Olds, Rites of Passage

Frank O'Hara, Homosexuality

Julia Alvarez, Woman's Work

Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll 



Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House


CHAPTER 22  Innocence and Experience  

Short Views


Maya Angelou, Graduation



Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown

James Joyce, Araby     

Isaac Bashevis Singer, The Son from America 



William Blake, Infant Joy

William Blake, Infant Sorrow

William Blake, The Echoing Green

William Blake, The Lamb

William Blake, the Tyger

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall

A. E. Housman, When I Was One-and-Twenty (A Shropshire Lad #13)

E. E. Cummings, in Just-     

Louise Glück, The School Children

Louise Glück, Gretel in Darkness



Case Study: Writing Arguments  about  Shakespeare's Hamlet

A Note on the Elizabethan Theater 

A Note on Hamlet on the Stage

A Note on the Text of Hamlet

William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Ernest Jones, Hamlet and the Oedipus Complex

Anne Barton, The Promulgation of Confusion

Stanley Wells, On the First Soliloquy

Elaine Showalter, Representing Ophelia

Claire Bloom, Playing Gertrude on Television

Bernice W. Kliman, The BBC Hamlet: A Television Production

Will Saretta, Branagh’s Film of Hamlet



CHAPTER 23  Identity in America 

Short Views


Anna Lisa Raya, It's Hard Enough Being Me

Andrew Lam, Who Will Light Incense When Mother’s Gone?



Amy Tan, Two Kinds

Alice Walker, Everyday Use

Katherine Min, Courting a Monk



*Emma Lazarus, The Colossus

Thomas Bailey Aldrich, The Unguarded Gates

Joseph Bruchac III, Ellis Island

Aurora Levins Morales, Child of the Americas

Gloria Anzaldúa, To Live in the Borderlands Means You

Jimmy Santiago Baca, So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans

Langston Hughes, Theme for English B

Pat Parker, For the white person who wants to know how to be my friend

Mitsuye Yamada, To the Lady  



Luis Valdez, Los Vendidos


Case Study: Writing Arguments about American Indian Identity 

Lydia Howard Huntley Sigourney, The Indian's Welcome to the Pilgrim Fathers 

Robert Frost, The Vanishing Red  

Wendy Rose, Three Thousand Dollar Death Song 

Nila northSun, Moving Camp Too Far



*CHAPTER 24 American Dreams and Nightmares

Short Views


*Chief Seattle, My People

* Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions

*Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream

 *Studs Terkel, Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Dream



*Edward Everett Hale, The Man Without a Country

 Langston Hughes, One Friday Morning

 *William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force

 *Shirley Jackson, The Lottery

*Grace Paley, A Man Told Me the Story of His Life

 Tim O’Brien, The Things They Carried



 *Ralph Waldo Emerson, Concord Hymn

 *Anonymous, Go Down, Moses

 *Anonymous, Didn’t My Lord Deliver Daniel

 *Robert Hayden, Frederick Douglass

 Walt Whitman, Reconciliation

 *Rudyard Kipling, The White Man’s Burden

*Lorna Dee Cervantes, Refugee Ship

 Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory

 *Edgar Lee Masters, Minerva Jones

*Edgar Lee Masters, Doctor Meyers

*Edgar Lee Masters, MRs. Meyers

*Edgar Lee Masters, Lucinda Matlock

 *Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California

 *Marge Piercy, To be of use

 *Marge Piercy, What’s that Smell in the Kitchen?

Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It

 Billy Collins, The Names

*Gwendolyn Brooks, The Bean Eaters

*Dorothy Parker, Résumé


Case Study: Writing Arguments about the National Anthem

*Photographs: “Marines Raising the Flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, February 23, 1945” and “What Is the Proper Way to Display a U.S, Flag”

 *Caldwell Titcomb, Star-Spangled Earache; What So Loudly We Wail

 *Hendrik Hertzberg, Star-Spangled Banter

 *Francis Scott Key, The Star-Spangled Banner

*Samuel Francis Smith, America

*Katharine Lee Bates, America the Beautiful

 *James Weldon Johnson, Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing



 *Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun

 *Janet Martin, Rodeo


CHAPTER 25 Law and Disorder 

Short Views


Zora Neale Hurston, A Conflict of Interest

Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail 



Seven Very Short Stories

    Aesop, A Lion and Other Animals Go Hunting

    John (?), The Woman Taken in Adultery

    Anonymous, Three Hasidic Tales

    Franz Kafka, Before the Law

    Elizabeth Bishop, The Hanging of the Mouse

Four Longer Stories

    Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas

    William Faulkner, Barn Burning

    James Alan McPherson, An Act of Prostitution

Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal



Anonymous, Birmingham Jail

A. E. Housman, The Carpenter's Son

A. E. Housman, Eight O'Clock

A. E. Housman, Oh who is that young sinner 

A. E. Housman, The laws of God, the laws of man

Edgar Lee Masters, Judge Selah Lively

*Edna St. Vincent Millay, Justice Denied in Massachusetts

*Countee Cullen, Not Sacco and Vanzetti

Claude McKay, If We Must Die

Jimmy Santiago Baca, Cloudy Day



Susan Glaspell, Trifles


Appendix A  Remarks about Manuscript Form  

Basic Manuscript Form

Corrections in the Final Copy

Quotations and Quotation Marks

   Quotation Marks or Underlining?

  A Note on the Possessive

Documentation: Footnotes, Internal Parenthetical Citations, and a List of Works Cited   (MLA Format)


    Internal Parenthetic Citations

    Parenthetical Citations and List of works Cited

    Forms of Citation in Works Cited

    Citing Sources on the World Wide Web 

    √ Checklist: Citing Sources on the World Wide Web

MLA General Conventions


Appendix B   Writing about Literature: An Overview of Critical Strategies 

The Nature of Critical Writing

Criticism as Argument: Assumptions and Evidence

Some Critical Strategies

    Formalist Criticism (*Criticism)


    Reader-Response Criticism

    Archetypal Criticism (Myth Criticism)

    Historical Criticism

    Psychological or Psychoanalytic Criticism

    Gender Criticism (Feminist, and Lesbian and Gay Criticism

    Your Turn: Putting Critical Strategies to Work

    Suggestions for Further Reading


*Appendix C Writing Essay Examinations

Why Do Instructors Give Examinations?

Getting Ready

Writing Arguments Under Pressure


Literary Credits

Photo Credits

Index of Authors, Titles, and First Lines of Poems

Index of Terms