Living Philosophy: A Historical Introduction to Philosophical Ideas

Paperback | October 3, 2014

byLewis Vaughn

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This historical introduction to philosophy guides students through the story of philosophical thought from the Pre-Socratics to the present, providing cultural and intellectual background and explaining why key issues and arguments remain important and relevant today. Featuring anexceptionally clear and accessible writing style, this unique volume brings philosophy to life with well-chosen excerpts from philosophers' works, abundant in-text learning aids, and compelling colour photos and illustrations.

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This historical introduction to philosophy guides students through the story of philosophical thought from the Pre-Socratics to the present, providing cultural and intellectual background and explaining why key issues and arguments remain important and relevant today. Featuring anexceptionally clear and accessible writing style, this u...

Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books, including Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Ninth Edition, Philosophy Here and Now, The Moral Life, Fifth Edition, and The Power of Critical Thinking, Fourth Edition, all published in 2013 by Oxford University Press.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:688 pages, 10 × 8 × 0.68 inPublished:October 3, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199985502

ISBN - 13:9780199985500

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Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with Writing and Reasoning, Review Notes, Key Terms, Notes, and For Further Reading.Preface1. WHY PHILOSOPHY1.1 Philosophy: The Quest for UnderstandingThe Good of PhilosophyDetails: Your Philosophical BeliefsPhilosophical TerrainDetails: Main Divisions of Philosophy1.2 Socrates and the Examined LifePortrait: PlatoThen and Now: Socrates Cafe1.3 Thinking PhilosophicallyReasons and ArgumentsDetails: Valid and Invalid Argument FormsReading PhilosophyPortrait: HypatiaFallacious Reasoning2. THE PRE-SOCRATICS AND THE SOPHISTS2.1 Thales and Anaximander2.2 HeraclitusThen and Now: The (Ancient) Theory of EvolutionPortrait: Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans2.3 ParmenidesDetails: Zeno's Paradoxes2.4 Democritus2.5 Protagoras and the SophistsThen and Now: Moral Relativism and ToleranceAristotle: MetaphysicsAristotle: On the HeavensHeraclitus: FragmentParmenides: On NaturePlato: "Theatetus"3. SOCRATES: AN EXAMINED LIFE3.1 The Philosophical Gadfly3.2 The Socratic MethodPortrait: Early Women Philosophers Themistoclea, Arignote, and Theano3.3 Knowledge and IgnoranceDetails: Socrates in the Clouds3.4 Socrates' Trial and DeathDetails: Socrates' Last MinutesThen and Now: Your Examined/Unexamined LifeXenophon: SymposiumPlato: SymposiumPlato: The RepublicPlato: Apology4. PLATO: THE REALLY REAL4.1 Plato's Life and TimesPortrait: Diotima of Mantinea4.2 Knowledge and RealityBelieving and KnowingReason and the FormsDetails: Critiques of the FormsPlato's RationalismThen and Now: Modern Platonism4.3 Allegory of the Cave4.4 Immortality, Morality, and the SoulThe Immortal SoulThe Three-Part SoulThe Moral SoulDetails: The Ring of Gyges4.5 The Individual and the StatePlato: MenoPlato: PhaedoPlato: The RepublicG.M.A. Grube: Plato's ThoughtJulia Annas: An Introduction to Plato's Republic5. ARISTOTLE: REASON AND NATURE5.1 The Life of AristotlePortrait: Aristotle and Alexander5.2 Logic, Knowledge, and TruthThen and Now: Aristotle and Modern Science5.3 Physics and MetaphysicsSubstanceChangeCausePurposeDetails: Aristotle's God5.4 Happiness, Virtue, and the GoodDetails: Aristotle's SoulJ.L. Ackrill, Aristotle the PhilosopherDiogenes Laertius: Lives of the PhilosophersAnthony Gottlieb: The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the RenaissanceAristotle: MetaphysicsAristotle: Posterior AnalyticsAristotle: PhysicsAristotle: Nicomachean Ethics6. EASTERN THOUGHT6.1 HinduismBeginningsThe VedasThen and Now: The Caste SystemAfter the VedasHindu PhilosophiesDetails: Hinduism and Modernity6.2 BuddhismBuddhist ComplexitiesThe Buddha's TeachingsPortrait: The BuddhaDetails: Buddhism and Violence6.3 Taoism6.4 ConfucianismDetails: The Confucian CanonKalama SutraAjahn SumedhoDhammacakapparattana SuttaWalpola Rahula: What the Buddha ThoughtThe Chuang TzuTao de jingAnalectsJohn B. Noss: A History of the World's Religions7. THE HELLENISTIC ERA7.1 Epicurus7.2 EpictetusPortrait: Lucretius7.3 Sextus EmpiricusThen and Now: Stoicism TodayDetails: The Self-Destruction of SkepticismEpicurus: Letter to MenoeceusA.A. Long: Hellenistic Philosophers: Stoics, Epicureans, and ScepticsEpictetus: EncheiridionSextus Empiricus: Outlines of Pyrrhonism8. THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD8.1 Between Ancient and Modern8.2 AugustineTruthThe Hierarchy of BeingGood and Evil8.3 Anselm and AquinasAnselmAquinasDetails: Science and the Uncaused Universe8.4 Avicenna and MaimonidesAvicennaMaimonidesPortrait: Averroees8.5 Hildegard of Bingen8.6 William of OckhamThen and Now: Modern Realism about UniversalsAugustine: ConfessionsAugustine: On Free WillAnselm: ProslogiumImmanuel Kant: Critique of Pure ReasonThomas Aquinas: Summa TheologicaHildegard: Causae et CuraeFrederick Copleston: A History of Philosophy: Volume II: Medieval Philosophy: From Augustine to Duns Scotus9. DESCARTES: DOUBT AND CERTAINTY9.1 The Pursuit of KnowledgeThen and Now: The Scientific (and Philosophical) Revolution9.2 Plato's RationalismDetails: Innate Ideas9.3 Descartes' DoubtDetails: Living in the Matrix9.4 Descartes' CertaintyPortrait: Renee DescartesRenee Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy10. FROM HOBBES TO HUME10.1 Hobbes10.2 LockeThen and Now: Cognitive Relativism10.3 Berkeley10.4 HumePortrait: David Hume10.5 SpinozaDetails: Russell on Spinoza10.6 LeibnizThomas Hobbes: LeviathanJohn Locke: An Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingGeorge Berkeley: Of the Principles of Human KnowledgeDavid Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Discourse on Metaphysics11. KANT'S REVOLUTION11.1 The Small-Town Genius11.2 The Knowledge RevolutionPortrait: CopernicusThen and Now: Conceptualizing the World11.3 The Moral LawEthics and MoralityDetails: Moral RelativismKant's TheoryImmanuel Kant: Prolegomena to Any Future MetaphysicsImmanuel Kant: Critique of Pure ReasonImmanuel Kant: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals12. JOHN STUART MILL AND UTILITARIANISM12.1 The Philosopher-Reformer12.2 Mill's UtilitarianismPortrait: Jeremy BenthamDetails: Utilitarianism and the Golden RuleThen and Now: Utilitarianism and the Death Penalty12.3 Critiques of the TheoryDetails: Mill on LibertyJohn Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism13. HEGEL AND MARX13.1 HegelPortrait: Hegel13.2 MarxDetails: Einstein on SocialismThen and Now: Is the United States a Socialist Country?Hegel: Lectures on the History of PhilosophyMarx: The Communist Manifesto14. EXISTENTIALISM14.1 The Existential Tone14.2 Kierkegaard14.3 NietzscheDetails: Nietzsche: Myths and RumorsPortrait: Schopenhauer14.4 Heidegger14.5 SartrePortrait: SartreDetails: The Stir Caused by Sartre14.6 CamusPatrick Gardiner: Kierkegaard: A Very Short IntroductionSoren Kierkegaard: Either/OrSoren Kierkegaard: The Point of ViewSoren Kierkegaard: JournalSoren Kierkegaard: Concluding Unscientific PostscriptFriedrich Nietzsche: Thus Spake ZarathustraFriedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and EvilFriedrich Nietzsche: Thus Spake ZarathustraFriedrich Nietzsche: The Gay ScienceMartin Heidegger: The Basic Problems of PhenomenologyThomas R. Flynn: Existentialism: A Very Short IntroductionJean-Paul Sartre: Existentialism and HumanismAlbert Camus: The Myth of Sisyphus15. THE PRAGMATISTS: PEIRCE AND JAMES15.1 The Pragmatist Way15.2 PeirceDetails: Four Ways to Fix Belief15.3 JamesPortrait: William JamesThen and Now: James and IndeterminismWilliam James: "Pragmatism"Charles Sanders Peirce: "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"William James: "The Will to Believe"Michael Martin: Atheism: A Philosophical Introduction16. FEMINIST PHILOSOPHERS16.1 Mary WollstonecraftPortrait: Wollstonecraft16.2 Simone de BeauvoirThen and Now: Innate Gender Differences?16.3 Feminist EthicsDetails: "Ethics Terminology"16.4 Feminist Perspectives on KnowledgeAlison Ainley: "Feminist Philosophy"Louis M. Antony: "Embodiment and Epistemology"Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of WomenJudith Thurman: Introduction to The Second Sex by Simone de BeauvoirSimone de Beauvoir: The Second SexAlison Jaggar: "Feminist Ethics"Jan Crosthwaite: "Gender and Bioethics"Virginia Held: The Ethics of CareAnnette C. Baier: "The Need for More Than Justice"Elizabeth Anderson: "Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science"Eve Browning Cole: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism17. THE CONTEMPORARY PERIOD17.1 WittgensteinPortrait: Wittgenstein17.2 Derrida and CixousDetails: The Telling Gesture17.3 RawlsThen and Now: Political Terminology17.4 Appiah17.5 Nussbaum17.6 Martin Luther King, Jr.Ludwig Wittgenstein: Tractatus Logico-PhilosophicusLudwig Wittgenstein: Philosophical InvestigationsSusan Sellers: The Helene Cixous ReaderJohn Rawls: A Theory of JusticeKwame Anthony Appiah: Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of StrangersMartha Nussbaum: The New Religious IntoleranceMartin Luther King, Jr., in: A Testament of HopeMartin Luther King, Jr.: "Nonviolence and Racial Justice"Martin Luther King, Jr.: "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"APPENDIX: How to Write a Philosophy PaperGlossaryIndex of Marginal QuotationsGeneral Index

Editorial Reviews

"Vaughn presents a clear vision for a historical introduction to philosophy that doesn't distract from the major philosophical issues." -Matthew Johnson, Michigan State University