This unique volume examines in detail two recent periods in military manpower history that have had a profound and lasting effect on military recruitment and selection policy. Project 100,000 and the ASVAB Misnorming brought hundreds of thousands of low-aptitude men into the military. While military officials recall these times with anything but affection, some social activists praise these periods as exemplary military social welfare ventures that could be resurrected today. Janice Laurence and Peter Ramsberger examine the history behind Project 100,000 and the ASVAB Misnorming as well as their outcomes--both for the military and for the men brought into the service. The data do not support the claim that a tour of duty will ultimately lead to civilian success for the low-aptitude veterans. While some have fond feelings for the military and may have profited from the experience, many were found to be less well off economically and socially than their nonveteran counterparts.