Machinery Vibration Alignment: Alignment by Victor Wowk

Machinery Vibration Alignment: Alignment

byVictor Wowk

Hardcover | May 11, 2000

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How-to-do-it guide to eliminating machine vibrations

One of the most common causes of severe machineryvibration is the misalignment of drive shafts and othercomponents. Machinery Vibration: Alignment, by Victor Wowk, gives you a practical resource for aligning shafts, bearings, gears, pulleys and a wide variety of power transmission components in machines without further training. You get step-by-step procedures for balancing, resonance, structural vibrations, isolation, instruments, diagnostics, and trending. Many of the methods described require only simple tools, eliminating the need for a $20,000 laser alignment system.

Case studies covering everything from simple fans to high-speed turbines give you examples of real-world problem solving. You will find the extensive coverage of the FFT spectrum analyzer a valuable addition to this hands-on toolkit.

About The Author

Victor Wowk, P.E., is president of Machine Dynamics, Inc., based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which specializes in vibration analysis, balancing, alignment, and health monitoring on machinery. The company manufactures a shaft alignment system. Mr. Wowk, a practical hands-on engineer, regularly performs alignments, and teaches alignment ...
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Details & Specs

Title:Machinery Vibration Alignment: AlignmentFormat:HardcoverDimensions:384 pages, 9.1 × 6.3 × 1.2 inPublished:May 11, 2000Publisher:McGraw-Hill Education

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:007071939X

ISBN - 13:9780070719392

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Preface.

Acknowledgements.

Chapter 1-Introduction.

What is Alignment?.

Why Be Concerned?.

History.

Chapter 2-Diagnosing Misalignment.

Static Diagnosis.

Diagnosing Misalignment While Operating.

Misalignment Versus Unbalance.

Chapter 3-Measuring Misalignment.

Metrology.

Geometric Features.

Dial Indicators.

Measuring Rotating Shafts.

Graphical Calculations.

Measuring Stationary Objects.

Mechanical Distance Measurements.

Electronic Transducers.

Computers.

Offset Versus Runout.

Chapter 4-Preparing for the Task.

Strategy.

Gather Machine Information.

Prepare Measuring Instruments.

Prepare Tools.

Pre-Alignment Checks at the Machine.

Chapter 5-Rough Methods.

Chapter 6-Reverse Indicator.

Setups.

Principles.

Advantages and Limitations.

Mathematical Formulas.

Graphical Plotting.

Plotting Examples.

Variations.

Chapter 7-Face and Rim.

Setups.

Theory.

Calculations.

Example Problem.

Variations.

Comparison of Methods.

Chapter 8-Moving Machines.

Tools.

Gaining Access.
Measurement.
Calculation.
Movement.
Prepare to Operate.

Procedure.

Axial Positioning.

Vertical Moves.

Horizontal Moves.

Strategy.

Moving While Operating.

Chapter 9-Alignment Tolerances.

Metrology.

Coupling Tolerances.

How Long Should Alignment Take?.

When to Stop.

Bearing Stiffness and Vibration.

Chapter 10-Complicating Factors.

Nonrepeatable Measurements.

Poor Foundations.

Symptoms of Resonance.
Tests for Resonance.
Fixes for Resonance.

Case History of a Diesel Engine with a Base Resonance.

Bent Shaft.

Casing Distortion.

Bar Sag.

Mechanical Changes.

Piping Strain.
Thrust Forces.
Torques.
Hydraulic Forces.
Shaft Riding Up on the Oil Wedge.
Gear Reactions.

Thermal Growth.

Field Measurements of Growth.
Dial Indicator.
Proximity Probes Mounted on Water-Cooled Stands.
Benchmark Gages.
Dodd Bars.
Instrumented Coupling.
Optical Measurement.
Lasers.
Vernier-Strobe.
Hot Alignment.
Growth Compensation.

Reference List.

Chapter 11-Drive Shafts.

Straight-Line Methods.

Rim-Rim Method.

Face-Face.

Shaft Sag.

Quill Shaft.

Chapter 12-Large, Heavy, or Multiple Machines.

Initial Placement.

Natural Sag Curve.

Chapter 13-Flange-Mounted Equipment.

Chapter 14-Single-Bearing Machines.

Close-Coupled Equipment.

Chapter 15-Reciprocating Machines.

Foundation Stiffness.

Alignment Offsets and Heat.

Torsion.

Chapter 16-Component Alignment.

Bearing Alignment.

Self-Aligning Bearings.

Gear Alignment.

Pulley Alignment.

Chapter 17-Optical Tooling.

Instruments.

Methods.

Chapter 18-Laser Alignment.

Technology of Laser.

Advantages and Disadvantages.

Chapter 19-Couplings.

Purpose and Theory.

Types of Couplings.

Rigid Cylinder.
Rigid Flanges.
Rigid Compression.
Quill Shaft.
Flexible Shafts.
Spring Couplings.
Metal Bellows.
Beam Coupling.
Roller Chain.
Gear.
Steel Grid.
Link Coupling.
Flexible Disk.
Contoured Diaphragm.
Sliding Block and Sliding Disk.
Rotating Link.
Cardan Joints.
Elastomeric Compression.
Elastomeric Shear.
Fluid Couplings.
Magnetic Coupling.

Selection Criteria.

Appendix A-Alignment Tools and Supplies.

Appendix B-Drawings.

Appendix C-Formulas.

Appendix D-Alignment Standard for New and Rebuilt. Equipment.

Bibliography.

Index.