Male Reproductive Function and Semen: Themes and Trends in Physiology, Biochemistry and Investigative Andrology by T. MannMale Reproductive Function and Semen: Themes and Trends in Physiology, Biochemistry and Investigative Andrology by T. Mann

Male Reproductive Function and Semen: Themes and Trends in Physiology, Biochemistry and…

byT. Mann, C. Lutwak-Mann

Paperback | November 6, 2011

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To present a coherent and meaningful survey of scientific research endeavour in an area that has expanded as fast as physiology and biochemistry of reproduction in the male is no mean task these days. No less prodigious than the growth of knowledge of male reproductive function has been the rate at which the outpouring of publications on this subject has continued since the appearance of 'The Biochemistry of Semen and of the Male Reproductive Tract' in 1964. Since cyclopaedic treatment of this vast literature did not appeal to us, we have made no attempt either to rehash the material contained in that book or to enlarge the bibliography beyond the nearly 3500 references included in the present treatise. At the same time, whilst writing, we felt strongly that to advance, it is necessary to understand the past, and for this reason we have not hesitated to refer (especially in the introductory chapter) to a number of those fundamental early discoveries in which today's knowledge is deeply and firmly rooted.
Title:Male Reproductive Function and Semen: Themes and Trends in Physiology, Biochemistry and…Format:PaperbackPublished:November 6, 2011Publisher:Springer LondonLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1447113020

ISBN - 13:9781447113027

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Table of Contents

I Male Reproductive Function and the Composition of Semen: General Considerations.- 1. Functional Dualism of the Testis.- The beginnings: conceptual formulation of testicular function.- Exocrine and endocrine activity.- 2. Male Reproductive Tract: Main Characteristics.- Representative accessory organs in mammals.- Prostate gland.- Seminal vesicle.- Bulbo-urethral (Cowper's) gland.- Preputial and urethral (Littré's) glands.- Accessory organs in marsupials.- Accessory organs in birds, frogs, reptiles, fishes and invertebrate animals.- 3. Coordination of Male Reproductive Function by Extragonadal Hormones and Environmental Factors.- Control of male reproductive function by gonadotrophins (FSH and LH) and the hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH).- Sexual dimorphism of the hypothalamus and other parts of the brain.- Prolactin and the pineal antigonadotrophic factor.- Regulatory hormonal mechanisms in invertebrate animals.- Influence of nutrition on male fertility.- 4. Cardinal Properties of Spermatozoa.- Exploratory observations on sperm structure, physiology and chemistry.- Sperm passage in the male and female genital tracts.- Correlations between motility and fertilizing ability.- 5. General Features of the Seminal Plasma.- Species differences.- Peculiarities of chemical composition.- Role in male reproductive performance.- Pheromonal properties.- Effects on spermatozoa.- 6. Spermatophores and Spermatophoric Reaction.- Delivery of semen by spermatophores.- Spermatophore of the Giant North-Pacific Octopus.- Spermatophoric reaction.- II Methodological Guidelines in the Study of Male Reproductive Organs.- 1. Andrological Examination of the Testis and Androgen Assays.- Gross inspection of the male gonad.- Testicular biopsy.- Quantifiable techniques for the analysis of biopsy specimens.- Evaluation of testicular function by hormone assays.- Evaluation of the potency of androgens.- 2. Cannulation, Micropuncture, Perfusion and Transplantation Techniques.- Sampling of testicular lymph.- Withdrawal of testicular and epididymal semen.- Perfusion of the testis and epididymis.- Perfusion of the prostate and superfusion of prostatic tissue slices.- Transplantation of testicular and accessory gland tissues.- 3. Isolation of Seminiferous Tubules and Disaggregation of Germinal Cells and Sertoli Cells.- Separation of seminiferous tubules from testicular interstitium.- Functional characteristics of isolated seminiferous tubules.- Disaggregation of different types of germinal cells.- Sertoli-cellenriched preparations.- 4. Cell and Organ Cultures.- Androgen secretion in fetal testis culture.- Culture techniques in the study of spermatogenesis.- Biochemical events in Sertoli cell cultures.- Maturation of spermatozoa in cultured epididymal tubules.- Prostate explants.- III Collection, Examination, Quality Rating and Storage of Ejaculated Semen.- 1. Collection of Whole and Split Ejaculates, and Separation of Spermatozoa from Seminal Plasma.- Methods for collecting whole and split ejaculates.- Separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma in ejaculated semen.- Removal of seminal débris and seminal gel.- 2. Separation of Motile from Immotile, and Male-determining from Female-determining Spermatozoa.- Methods for separating motile from immotile spermatozoa.- Separation of male- and female-determining spermatozoa and manipulation of sex ratio.- The fluorochrome test in human chromosomal aberrations.- 3. Examination of Spermatozoa and Isolated Structural Components.- Dissection of spermatozoa.- Spatial relationships between sperm head, cytoplasmic droplet, axial filament complex, mitochondrial sheath, dense fibres and fibrous sheath.- Mechanical and chemical separation of sperm structure components.- 4. Quality Rating of Semen in Andrological Practice.- Criteria used in semen evaluation.- Devices for the appraisal of sperm density and motility, and differentiation between live and dead spermatozoa.- Sperm abnormalities and polymorphism.- Microbiological inspection of semen.- The cervical mucus penetration and postcoital tests.- Other methods for quality rating of semen.- 5. Storage of Semen for Artificial Insemination.- Prolongation of sperm viability by storage of semen.- Storage techniques.- Species-linked and individual differences in the keeping quality of semen.- Assessment of damage in stored spermatozoa.- IV Testis and Testicular Semen.- 1. Spermatogenesis.- General characteristics of seminiferous tubules.- Normal and abnormal spermatogenesis.- Sertoli cells and the hormonal control of spermatogenesis.- Inhibin.- Biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins in the germinal epithelium.- Enzymes as biochemical markers of differentiating germ cells.- 2. Steroidogenesis.- Leydig cells as providers of testicular androgen.- Biosynthesis of testosterone in the testis.- Pattern of testosterone release; episodic, circadian and seasonal fluctuations; effect of sexual arousal.- Testosterone binding to target cells and reduction to dihydrotestosterone.- Male gonad, skin and brain as androgen-sensitive organs.- Male oestrogens.- 16-Androstenes as olfactory sex stimulants.- 3. Testicular Semen.- General characteristics of testicular semen.- Production of spermatozoa by the testes in relation to the sperm output in ejaculated semen.- Testicular plasma as a secretory product of the testis.- Entry of substances into testicular semen.- Metabolic properties of testicular spermatozoa.- Pathological accumulation of fluid in the testis; spermatocele and hydrocele.- V Epididymis and Epididymal Semen.- 1. Functional Characteristics of the Epididymis.- Epididymal duct as conduit for spermatozoa.- Resorptive properties of the epididymal epithelium.- Role of the epididymis in relation to spermatozoa.- Effect of androgen withdrawal on epididymal function.- Androgen transport in the epididymis.- 2. Epididymal Spermatozoa.- Functional and structural changes in spermatozoa undergoing epididymal maturation.- Physicochemical and biochemical events associated with the passage of spermatozoa in the epididymis.- Other aspects of sperm maturation.- 3. Epididymal Plasma.- Main biochemical features of the epididymal plasma.- Characteristic constituents of the epididymal plasma: glycerylphosphorylcholine,carnitine, certain mucoproteins and enzymes.- 4. Metabolism of the Epididymis and Epididymal Semen.- Oxidative metabolism of lipids.- Glycolysis.- Role of nucleotide coenzymes.- VI Vas Deferens and Vasectomy.- 1. Structural and Functional Features of the Deferent Duct.- The human vas.- Varicocele and spermatocele.- The vas in animals.- The vas as a conduit for spermatozoa.- Response to noradrenaline and enkephalin.- Secretory and absorptive function.- Aplasia attributable to agenesis and cystic fibrosis.- 2. Vasectomy and Vasoligation.- Andrological hazards and consequences of vasectomy, vasoligation and vasocclusion.- Sperm granuloma and the appearance of spermagglutinating and -immobilizing antibodies.- Postvasectomy reconstruction of the deferent duct.- VII Secretory Function of the Prostate, Seminal Vesicle, Cowper's Gland and Other Accessory Organs of Reproduction.- 1. Secretory Mechanisms.- 2. Androgen-dependent Maintenance of Growth, Metabolism and Secretory Activity in Male Accessory Organs.- Androgen indicator tests.- Accessory organs as targets for longlasting testosterone action.- Relationship between androgen levels and the functional state of the normal, hypertrophied and cancerous prostate in man.- 3. Overall Pattern and Mechanism of Hormonal Regulation.- Activation of target cells by testosterone and formation of the dihydrotestosterone-receptor complex.- Interaction of the androgenreceptor complex with chromatin and the ensuing synthesis of RNA, protein and enzymes.- Metabolic events triggered by androgen-evoked enzymatic activity.- Relative efficiency of androgenic steroids.- Effects of hormones other than testicular androgens on accessory organs.- 4. Comparative Andrological Aspects.- Man.- Bull.- Ram and billygoat.- Boar.- Stallion and jackass.- Dog and cat.- Laboratory animals.- Wildlife.- VIII Biochemistry of Spermatozoa: Chemical and Functional Correlations in Ejaculated Semen, Andrological Aspect.- 1. Chemical and Metabolic Characteristics of Ejaculated Spermatozoa; Comparative Viewpoint.- Fructolysis and respiration.- Pyruvate dismutation and carbon dioxide fixation.- Sperm lipid chemistry and metabolism.- Lipid peroxidation.- 2. Sperm Plasma Membrane; Permeability and Binding Properties.- Role of sulphydryl groups.- Regional differentiation of plasmalemma.- Ionic gradients and electric charge.- Membrane-bound enzymes and substance-specific binding sites.- Carboglutelin.- 3. Acrosome and Lysosomal Enzymes.- Constituent structures of the acrosome.- Acrosome reaction.- Acrosome as a specialized lysosome.- Acrosin and its proteolytic activity.- Acrosin inhibitors in seminal plasma.- The kinin-kallikrein system.- Glycosidases, hyaluronidase, neuraminidase, arylsulphatase, phosphatases and other acrosomal enzymes.- Bindin.- Lysosomal features of the cytoplasmic droplet.- 4. Sperm Nucleus: Nucleic Acid and Nuclear Proteins.- Haploid nucleus.- Deoxyribonucleic acid, protamines and histones in normal and defective spermatozoa.- Structure of mammalian sperm chromatin.- The question of DNA-polymerizing activity in the sperm nucleus.- Nucleoproteins of non-mammalian spermatozoa.- Questionable occurrence of ribonucleic acid in the nuclei of mature spermatozoa.- 5. Mitochondria and their Role in Sperm Metabolism and Energetics.- Mitochondrial sheath of the middle piece.- Sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase.- Other mitochondrial enzymes and the cytochromecytochrome oxidase system.- Use of isolated sperm mitochondria in metabolic studies.- Energy-rich phosphorus compounds and the adenylate energy charge.- Link-up between the redox state of NAD and energy-yielding dehydrogenase-dependent oxidoreductions.- Energy derived from fructolysis.- Superiority of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation over glycolysis as a potential source of energy to spermatozoa.- 6. Flagellum and the Mechanochemical Basis of Motility.- Motility as the major energy-requiring process in spermatozoa.- The ATP-controlled movement-generating mechanism of the flagellum.- Tubulin, dynein and other axonemal proteins.- Deficiency of dynein and protein carboxyl-methylase in immotile spermatozoa.- 7. Cyclic Nucleotides and Other Promoters of Sperm Activity.- Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP.- Adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase.- Protein kinase and phosphodiesterase.- Cyclic AMP, caffeine and theophylline as promoters of sperm motility and metabolism.- Other sperm activity enhancing agents.- IX Biochemistry of Seminal Plasma and Male Accessory Fluids; Application to Andrological Problems.- 1. Chemical Analysis of Seminal Plasma and Interpretation of Results.- General observations on analytical methods.- Post-ejaculatory changes in the seminal plasma in vitro.- Other factors influencing the composition of seminal plasma.- The importance of genotype.- 2. Ions, Free and Bound.- Electrolytes in seminal plasma.- Electrolytes in spermatophoric plasma.- 3. Proteins and Enzymes.- Electrophoretic pattern of proteins in seminal plasma and accessory fluids.- Calcium-binding proteins.- Zinc-binding proteins.- Lactoferrin and transferrin.- Protein hormones.- Proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes.- Nucleases, nucleotidases and other nucleolytic enzymes.- Seminal phosphatases.- Glycosidases and glycoprotein-glycosyltransferases.- Sulphydryl oxidase.- 4. Peptides, Amino Acids and Nitrogenous Bases.- Peptides.- Free amino acids.- Preponderance of glutamic acid.- Hypotaurine.- Spermine, spermidine and putrescine.- Choline, phosphorylcholine and glycerylphosphorylcholine.- Carnitine and acetylcarnitine.- Ergothioneine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, adrenaline and other nitrogenous bases.- 5. Fructose, Other Sugars, Polyols and Bound Carbohydrate.- Fructose as the principal sugar of seminal plasma.- Glucose, other saccharides and free acetylaminosugars.- Sorbitol, inositol and other polyols.- Glycerylphosphorylinositol.- Bound sugar, amino sugar and sialic acid.- 6. Lipids, Cholesterol and Steroid Hormones.- Comparison of the lipid composition and distribution in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa.- Cholesterol.- Patterns of steroid hormones in the seminal plasma.- Metabolic conversions and effects of seminal steroids.- 7. Prostaglandins and Other Organic acids.- Biosynthesis of prostaglandins in the seminal vesicle.- Prostaglandins in the seminal plasma and their relation to male fertility.- Citric acid.- Ascorbic acid.- Uric acid.- Lactic acid and pyruvic acid.- 8. Biochemical Basis of Interactions between the Male Accessory Secretions, and between the Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa.- Coagulation and liquefaction of human semen.- Copulatory plug formation in rodents.- Gelation of boar semen.- Coating and decoating of spermatozoa by seminal plasma constituents.- Spermcoating antigens and sperm-inactivating antibodies in seminal plasma.- Ionic and metabolic exchange reactions between seminal plasma and spermatozoa.- 9. Examination of Whole Seminal Plasma and Split Ejaculatory Fractions as a Diagnostic Aid in Reproductive Disorders.- Anatomical defects in the male reproductive tract.- Inflammatory conditions.- Appraisal of the male's androgenic state, and hormonal effects.- Diabetes.- Nutritionally conditioned changes in the composition of seminal plasma.- Disturbances in the ejaculatory process.- Absorption of seminal constituents from the female reproductive tract.- Release of enzymes by damaged spermatozoa; correlations between quality of semen and the activity of transaminases and certain other enzymes in the seminal plasma.- X Effects of Pharmacological Agents: Andrological Aspects. Drug Abuse, Therapeutic Agents, Male Contraceptives, Occupational Hazards.- 1. Psycbomimetic and Psycbotberapeutic Drugs.- Narcotics and hallucinogens.- Antipsychotic, antianxiety and antidepressant drugs.- 2. Ampbetamines, Cocaine and Alcobol.- 3. Passage of Drugs and Otber Substances into Semen.- 4. Control of tbe Ejaculatory Process by Sympatbomimetic, Parasympatbomimetic and Autonomic-blocking Agents.- Contractile responses of the male reproductive tract during ejaculation.- Use of accessory organs for monitoring pharmacological effects in vitro.- 5. Chemosterilants as Potential Male Contraceptives.- 6. Dietary Factors, Food Additives and Antimetabolites.- Detrimental effects of certain dietary factors and food additives.- Metabolic analogues as potential antifertility agents.- 7. Cadmium-induced Damage in tbe Testis and Countereffect of Zinc and Selenium.- 8. Steroids and Otber Suppressors of Spermatogenesis Acting via tbe Pituitary Gland.- Rebound phenomenon.- Testosterone enanthate and danazol.- Other steroidal and nonsteroidal suppressors of gonadotrophic activity.- 9. Antiandrogens.- Cyproterone acetate, methylnortestosterone and flutamide.- Spironolactone.- 10. Antimitotic and Antimeiotic Cbemicals; Colcbicine, Alkylating Agents, Heterocyclic Compounds.- Colchicine.- Nitrogen mustards (haloalkylamines), ethyleneimines and sulphonoxyalkanes.- Nitrofuranes, nitropyrroles, nitroimidazoles and indazole derivatives.- 11. Chemotherapeutic Drugs, Industrial Chemicals and Pesticides.- Win.- 13,099.- Niridazole.- Cyclophosphamide and other cystostatic drugs.- Cimetidine.- Organochlorine compounds.- Dibromochloropropane.- Dibromopropanol, Tris-BP and dibromoethane.- Ethylene oxide cyclic tetramer.- Organophosphates.- Carbamates.- Paraquat.- 12. ?-Chlorohydrin.- 13. Biochemical Basis of Spermiostatic and Spermicidal Activity.- Enzyme inhibitors.- Sulphydryl-binding substances.- Surface-acting agents.- References.