Marijuana and the Cannabinoids by Mahmoud A. ElSohlyMarijuana and the Cannabinoids by Mahmoud A. ElSohly

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids

EditorMahmoud A. ElSohly

Paperback | November 19, 2010

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Marijuana and the Cannabinoids presents a compendium of research into the botany, chemistry, and pharmacology of cannabis and the medicinal aspects of the cannabinoids. While medicinal use of Cannabis sativa L. has been reported for over 5000 years, interest in its medicinal potential and controversy surrounding its illicit use have grown exponentially since the identification of the chemical structure of the plant's active constituent (D9-THC) in 1964. This volume presents the findings of researchers on the forefront of this emerging and controversial field of study. Chapter 1 is an overview of Cannabis and natural Cannabis medicines, while Chapter 2 focuses on the chemistry and analysis of phytocannabinoids and other Cannabis constituents. Chapter 3 discusses the potential of chemical fingerprinting of Cannabis as a means for source identification, and Chapters 4 and 5 outline the chemistry and pharmacology of cannabinoids and marijuana smoke condensate. In Chapter 6, the endocannabinoid system and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids is presented. Chapter 7 provides technologies, development strategies, and multilevel applications for immunoassays for the detection of Cannabis abuse. In Chapter 8, mass spectrometric methods for the analysis of cannabinoids in physiological specimens are described. Chapters 9-12 discuss various consequences and adverse effects of prolonged marijuana use, including medical and health concerns and driving impairments. Chapters 13 and 14 examine postmortem considerations and the effects of cannabinoids on biopsychological, neuropsychiatric, and neurological processes.

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Title:Marijuana and the CannabinoidsFormat:PaperbackDimensions:332 pages, 10 × 7.01 × 0.07 inPublished:November 19, 2010Publisher:Humana PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1617375810

ISBN - 13:9781617375811

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Cannabis and Natural Cannabis MedicinesDavid P. Watson and Robert C. ClarkeIntroductionLife Cycle and EcologyField Crop ProductionGlasshouse and Grow Room ProductionResin Gland Anatomy and DevelopmentCannabinoid and Terpenoid BiosynthesisMedical Values of TerpenesCannabis' Origin, Domestication and DispersalThe Cannabis Species DebateDrug Cannabis BreedingThe Introduction of "Indica"Advances in Medical Cannabis ResearchThe Future of Medical CannabisConclusionReferencesChapter 2. Chemistry and Analysis of Phytocannabinoids and Other Cannabis ConstituentsRudolf BrenneisenChemistry of Phytocannabinoids and Non-Cannabinoid-Type ConstituentsPhytocannabinoidsIntroductionChemistry THC Potency TrendsTHC in Hemp Seed ProductsNon-cannabinoid-type ConstituentsTerpenoids HydrocarbonsNitrogen-containing CompoundsCarbohydratesFlavonoidsFatty AcidsNon-cannabinoid PhenolsSimple Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Acids, Esters, LactonesOtherPharmacological Characteristics of Cannabinoids and Other CannabisConstituentsAnalysis of PhytocannabinoidsMicroscopyColor ReactionsChromatographic TechniquesThin-layer ChromatographyGas Chromatography, Gas Chromatography-Mass SpectrometryHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)Other TechniquesDNA testingReferencesChapter 3. Chemical Fingerprinting as a Means of Source IdentificationMahmoud A. ElSohly, Donald F. Stanford, and Timothy P. MurphyIntroductionChemometricsChemical Constituents of CannabisExperimental DesignMethodologyExtractionGC/MS AnalysisMultivariate Data AnalysisResults of Phase II StudySimilarities Within the ModelIdentification of UnknownsIndoor Vs. OutdoorDaughter Plants Grown in a Different RegionAge and SexStorage ConditionsHashish"Silver Bullet" TheoryConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesChapter 4. Marijuana Smoke Condensate: Chemistry and PharmacologyHala N. ElSohly and Mahmoud A. ElSohlyIntroductionPreparationProduction of Smoke CondensateFractionation and Analysis of Marijuana Smoke CondensatePharmacological and Toxicological ActivitiesBehavioral ActivityMutagenicityPulmonary HazardsInteraction with Estrogen ReceptorInhibition of Dihydrotestosterone Binding to the Androgen ReceptorReferencesChapter 5. Pharmacology of CannabinoidsLionel P. Raymon and H. Chip WallsIntroductionEndogenous LigandsCannabinoid ReceptorsEffects of Cannabinoids on Motor CoordinationCortical AreasBasal Ganglia and CerebellumEffects of Cannabinoids on the Limbic SystemHippocampus and Memory ImpairmentAmygdala and Behavioral EffectsHypothalamus and Neuroendocrine EffectsCannabinoids and AnalgesiaCannabinoids and AddictionCannabinoids and Cardiovascular EffectsCannabinoids and ImmunomodulationConclusionsReferencesChapter 6. The Endocannabinoid System and the Therapeutic Potential of CannabinoidsBilly R. MartinIntroductionEndocannabinoid SystemAppetiteEmesisPainDrug DependenceSummaryReferencesChapter 7. Immunoassays for the Detection of Cannabis Abuse: Technologies, Development Strategies, and Multi-Level ApplicationsJane TsaiIntroductionCommonly-Used Immunoassays for Drugs of Abuse ScreeningHomogeneous Competitive ImmunoassaysHeterogeneous Competitive ImmunoassaysPoint-of-Collection Drug ImmunoassaysCannabinoids ImmunoassaysCannabinoid Test SystemCannabinoids: Pharmacokinetics of and Drug AnalysisImmunogen Strategies for Antibody GenerationRegulations and GuidelinesComparitive Evaluation of Cannabinoids ImmunoassaysGeneral EvaluationsCutoff Concentrations and Immunoassay EvaluationsCorrelation of Results from Cannabinoid Immunoassay and GC/MS AnalysisStability of Cannabinoids in Biological MatricesHemp Seed/Oil Products, Synthetic THC Medication, and Drug TestingCannabinoid-to-Creatinine Ratio StudiesSpecimen Validity TestingConclusionsReferencesChapter 8. Mass Spectrometric Methods for Determination of Cannabinoids Physiological SpecimensRodger L. FoltzIntroductionDetermination of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA) in UrineDetermination of Other Cannabinoids in UrineDetermination of Cannabinoids in Blood or PlasmaDetermination of Cannabinoids in Adipose Tissue and Other TissuesDetermination of Cannabinoids in MeconiumDetermination of Cannabinoids in Oral FluidsDetermination of Cannabinoids in HairReferencesChapter 9. Human Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics and Interpretation of Cannabinoid Concentrations in Biological Fluids and TissuesMarilyn A. Huestis and Michael L. SmithIntroductionCannabis PotencyAbsorptionDistributionMetabolismEliminationInterpretation of Body Fluid and Hair ConcentrationsPlasmaUrineOral FluidSweatHairFinal ThoughtsAcknowledgementReferencesChapter 10. Medical and Health Consequences of MarijuanaJag H. KhalsaIntroductionImmune System EffectsCardio-Pulmonary/Cardio-Respiratory EffectsHeptic and Renal ConsequencesEndocrine EffectsBirth and Later Developmental OutcomesEffects of the Brain: Cognitive, Psychological and Mental ConsequencesMarijuana DependenceGenetic EffectsMarijuana and HealthMarijuana and CancerMarijuana and Highway AccidentsSummaryReferencesChapter 11. Effects of Marijuana on the Lung and Immune DefensesDonald P. Tashkin and Michael D. RothIntroductionAcute Effects of Marijuana on Airway PhysiologyEffects of Habitual Marijuana Exposure on the LungAnimal StudiesHuman StudiesOlder Studies on the Effects of Cannabis on Respiratory Disorders and Lung FunctionNewer Studies on the Pulmonary Consequences of Marijuana UseRespiratory SymptomsLung FunctionEffects on Airway Injury and Bronchial Epithelial PathologyEffects on Alveolar MacrophagesPotential Effects of Marijuana on Respiratory CarcinogenesisEffects of Marijuana and THC on Immune DefensesCannabinoid Receptors on Peripheral Blood LeukocytesTHC Alters Cytokine Balance and Suppresses Host Immunity in Animal ModelsImpact of THC on Human Immune Responses and T Cell ActivationImmunologic Suppression of Alveolar Macrophages (AM) in the Lungs of Habitual Marijuana SmokersSummaryAcknowledgementsReferencesChapter 12. Marijuana and Driving ImpairmentBarry K. LoganEffects of MarijuanaGetting "High"Physiological EffectsCognitive and Psychomotor EffectsHallucinationsOther Adverse ReactionsDiscussionEvidence of Marijuana IntoxicationDiagnosis of Marijuana Use - Physiological and Psychomotor EffectsToxicological EffectsToxicological Evidence - UrineToxicological Evidence - BloodTHC and THC-COOH ConcentrationsTHC/THC-COOH RatioToxicological Evidence - Oral Fluid (Saliva)SummaryEpidemiology of Marijuana and DrivingAssessment of Relative Crash Risk Following Marijuana UseMarijuana and On-Road Driving StudiesConclusionsGeneral ReadingReferencesChapter 13. Postmortem ConsiderationsSteven B. KarchIntroductionPharmacokinetics and PharmacodnamicsCardiovascular EffectsOther Medical EffectsPostmortem MeasurementsCause of Death DeterminationReferencesChapter 14. Cannabinoid Effects on Biopsychological, Neuropsychiatric and Neurological ProcessesRichard E. MustyIntroductionHunger and AppetiteAppetite SuppressionRio-North America FindingsA Good Safety and Tolerability ProfileRimonabant and the EC SystemPainHuman StudiesVarious Potential for Natural CannabinoidsPsychological DisordersAnxiety DepressionBipolar DisorderSchizophreniaAnimal StudiesHuman StudiesAlcohol DependenceReferences

Editorial Reviews

From the reviews:"This book is an excellent reference and essential reading for all toxicologists, drug chemists, and researchers working in the field of marijuana: medical doctors who are prescribing or thinking of prescribing cannabinoids; and police officers who are giving expert testimony on marijuana in court." -Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal"This book summarizes the information available from research . on the chemical constituents of cannabis. Both physiological effects of illicit drug use and medical aspects are covered in 14 chapters by different authors. . The technical aspects are addressed to individuals pursuing research in these areas. . Each chapter is well referenced. . chapters are well written and organized and the book fulfills the purpose of bringing the reader up to date on current research on cannabis and the uses of marijuana as a drug." (Stata Norton, Doody's Review Service, March, 2007)