Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology

Paperback | July 29, 2013

byJeffrey S. Levinton

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Widely regarded as the most captivating, accessible, and comprehensive text for undergraduate marine biology courses, Jeffrey S. Levinton's Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology, Fourth Edition, examines marine biology from a unique global and evolutionary perspective. Written in aclear, conversational style, this highly acclaimed volume emphasizes the principles and processes that underlie - and unify - vastly different marine communities.

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Widely regarded as the most captivating, accessible, and comprehensive text for undergraduate marine biology courses, Jeffrey S. Levinton's Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology, Fourth Edition, examines marine biology from a unique global and evolutionary perspective. Written in aclear, conversational style, this highly accl...

Jeffrey S. Levinton is Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:576 pages, 11 × 8.5 × 0.98 inPublished:July 29, 2013Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199857121

ISBN - 13:9780199857128


Extra Content

Table of Contents

Part I: Principles of Oceanography and Marine Ecology1. Sounding the DeepMarine Biology as a DisciplineHistorical Background of Marine BiologyObservation and Hypothesis TestingHabitats and Life Habits: Some DefinitionsChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions2. The Oceanic EnvironmentThe Open Oceans and Marginal SeasTopography and Structure of the Ocean FloorThe Ocean Above the SeabedCirculation in the Open Sea: Patterns and CausesSeawater Density and Deep CirculationThe Greenhouse Effect and Changing Ocean ClimateHypothesized Effects of Climate Change on Sea Level, Circulation, and Ocean ChemistryThe Edge of the SeaChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions3. Ecological and Evolutionary Principles of Marine Biology Ecological InteractionsThe Ecological HierarchyInteractions on the Scale of IndividualsThe Population LevelThe Community Level: Structure and Interspecies InteractionsThe Ecosystem LevelSpecies, Genetic Variation, Evolution, and BiogeographyChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview QuestionsPart II: Marine Organisms: Function and Environment4. The Chemical and Physical EnvironmentMeasures of Physiological PerformanceTemperatureHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 4.1 Global Warming: How Can We Tell If We Are at the Edge?SalinityOxygenLightChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions5. Life in a Fluid MediumIntroduction: Density, Viscosity, and Reynolds NumberGOING DEEPER 5.1 Is Seawater Always Seawater? A Tale from the Regions of Intermediate Reynolds NMoving WaterWater Moving over Surfaces and Obstructions, Such as OrganismsUsing Water Motion for Biological AdvantageHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 5.2 Flow Is a Drag, but It Sure Can Smell GoodChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions6. Reproduction, Dispersal, and MigrationEcological and Evolutionary Factors in SexHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 6.1 A Lover and a FighterReproduction, Demography, and Life CyclesMigrationHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 6.2 Great Oceanic Migrations that Dwarf the SerengetiLarval Dispersal: The Long and the Short HaulThe Microscale: Larval Settlement, Metamorphosis, and Early Juvenile SurvivalThe Mesoscale: Transport by Currents, Loss of Larvae, and Retention MechanismsHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 6.3 How to Get a Free Ride Out to SeaPlanktonic Larvae: Getting Through Major Obstacles to the Final DestinationThe Macroscale: Major Separations Lead to Biogeographic StructurePlanktonic Dispersal: Why Do They Do It?Chapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview QuestionsPart III: Organisms of the Open Sea7. PlanktonIntroduction and DefinitionsMarine Bactgeria and ArchaeaEukaryotic PhytoplanktonZooplanktonLife in the Open SeaDefense Against PredationHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 7.1 Bioluminescence, Night Vision, and Death in the DeepDiurnal Vertical Migration of the ZooplanktonMolecular Techniques to Identify Planktonic Microorganismal DiversityGOING DEEPER 7.1 DNA: The BasicsChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions8. Marine Vertebrates and Other NektonCephalopodsFishMammalsHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 8.1 Whales and Wonder DogsMarine Birds and ReptilesHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 8.2 Last March of the Penguins? Climate Change and a Bottom-Up Trophic CascadeChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview QuestionsPart IV: Patterns and Processes in the Water Column9. Processes in the Open SeaCritical Factors in Plankton AbundancePatchiness of the PlanktonThe Seasonal Pattern of Plankton AbundanceWater Column Parameters and the Spring Diatom IncreaseLightGOING DEEPER 9.1 The Basics of PhotosynthesisNutrients Required by PhytoplanktonRate of Nutrient UptakeHarmful Algal BloomsHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 9.1 Angry Birds and Lost Seals: Solution of the Effects of a Mysterious PoisonPhytoplankton Succession and the Paradox of Phytoplankton CoexistenceThe Microbial Loop: Nutrient Cycling by Viruses, Heterotrophs and ChemoautotrophsZooplankton Grazing in the SeaGOING DEEPER 9.2 Quantification of the Effect of GrazingChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions10. Productivity, Food Webs, and Global Climate ChangeProductivity and BiomassFood Chains and Food WebsMeasuring Primary ProductivityGOING DEEPER 10.1 How to Calculate Productivity, Using the Oxygen TechniqueGOING DEEPER 10.2 Using the Radiocarbon Technique to Estimate ProductivityGeographic Distribution of Primary ProductivityGlobal Climate Change and the Global Carbon PumpClimate Change: Some Records and Effects on Oceanic ProcessesChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview QuestionsPart V: Organisms of the Seabed11. Benthic Microorganisms, Seaweeds, and Sea GrassesThe Big Picture: Domains of LifeBacteriaEkaryaMarine Protists, Fungi, and Multicellular algaeSingle-Celled Forms of EukaryaDiatomsFungiSeaweedsSea GrassesChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions12. The Diversity of Benthic Marine InvertebratesHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 12.1 From Where Did All This Invertebrate Diversity Come?Kingdom Protista: Single-Celled OrganismsPhylum Porifera: Sponges, Simplest of AnimalsPhylum Cnidaria: Hydrozoans, Jellyfish, Anemones, and CoralsPhylum Platyhelminthes: FlatwormsPhylum Nemertea: Ribbon WormsPhylum Nematoda: The RoundwormsPhylum Annelida: Segmented WormsPhylum Sipuncula: Peanut WormsPhylum Ponogonophora: Gutless WondersPhylum Mollusca: Shelled Invertebrates (Mostly)Phylum Arthropoda: Jointed AppendagesThe Lophophorate PhylaPhylum Bryozoa: Moss AnimalsPhylum Brachiopoda: Lingulas and LampshellsPhylum Phoronida: Wormlike Animals With a LophophorePhylum Echinodermata: Animals with Fivefold SymmetryPhylum Chordata: The Sea SquirtsChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions13. Benthic Life HabitsLife Habit ClassificationLife in Mud and SandGOING DEEPER 13.1 Measuring Grain Size of SedimentsSoft Sediments and The Role of Burrowers in Sedimentary StructureDeposit Feeding in Soft SedimentsSuspension FeedingLife Habits on Hard Surfaces and in Moving WatersBenthic CarnivoresHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 13.1 Diary of a Stinging SnaiBenthic HerbivoresChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview QuestionsPart VI: Coastal Benthic Environments14. The Tidelands Rocky Shores, Soft-Substratum Shores, Marshes, Mangroves, Estuaries, and Oyster ReefsRocky Shores and Exposed BeachesSoft-Sediment Interactions in Protected Intertidal AreasHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 14.1 The Powerful Interaction of Invasion and Climate ChangeSpartina Salt MarshesHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 14.2 The Molecular Sleuth, Part I: Invasion of a Very Aggressive GenotypeMangrove ForestsEstuariesOyster ReefsChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions15. Sea Grass Beds, Rocky Reefs, Kelp Forests, and Coral ReefsSea Grass BedsThe Rocky Reef-Kelp Forest SystemHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 15.1 Reorganization of a Rocky Subtidal Ecosystem: A Cod and Lobster TaleSubtidal Rocky ReefsKelp ForestsCoral ReefsChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview QuestionsPart VII: From the Shelf to the Deep Sea16. From the Continental Shelf to the Deep SeaThe Subtidal LandscapeSampling the Subtidal Soft-Bottom BenthosSediment Type and Benthic DistributionThe Deep-Sea GradientThe Shelf-Deep-Sea GradientDeep-Sea BiodiversityDeep-Sea Island Hotspots of High DiversityCold-Water Deep Coral MoundsSeamountsHot-Vent Environments, Cold Seeps, and Whale-Fish FallsPressure ChangePolar EnvironmentsArctic Subtidal Polar EnvironmentsThe Antarctic Shelf Benthos - A Special Case of IsolationChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions17. Biodiversity and Conservation of the OceanDiversity, Speciation, Extinction, and Biogeographic FactorsMajor Gradients of Species DiversityExplanations of Regional Diversity DifferencesConserving Marine BiodiversityMarine InvasionsChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview QuestionsPart VIII: Human Impact on the Sea18. Fisheries and Food from the SeaThe Fishery Stock and Its VariabilityStocks and MarkersLife History and Stock SizeStock Health ProductionGOING DEEPER 18.1 A Simple Model to Explain the Maximum Sustainable YieldFishing Techniques and Their EffectsFisheries Impact and ManagementHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 18.1 Is Fisheries Policy at Odds with Managing Marine Ecosystems?Causes and Cures of Stock ReductionGOING DEEPER 18.2 Age-Based or Life-History Stage-Based Population ModelsOverexploitation of Whales: A Case HistoryOther Types of DegradationDisease as a Major Danger to Coastal FisheriesMaricultureDrugs from the Sea: Marine Natural ProductsChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview Questions19. Environmental Impacts of Industrial Activities and Human PopulatioHuman Effects on the Marine EnvironmentMeasuring the Impact of Pollutants on Populations and CommunitiesToxic SubstancesHOT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOLOGY 19.1 Is the Gulf of Mexico Adapted to Oil?Nutrient Input and EutrophicationThermal Pollution and Power Station Fish MortalityGlobal Environmental Change and the OceanChapter SummaryFurther ReadingReview QuestionsGlossaryMarine Biology JournalsIndex