Marine Geochemistry by Roy ChesterMarine Geochemistry by Roy Chester

Marine Geochemistry

byRoy Chester

Paperback | April 13, 2012

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The past two or three decades have seen many important advances in our knowledge of the chemistry, physics, geology and biology of the oceans. It has also become apparent that in order to understand the manner in which the oceans work as a 'chemical system', it is necessary to use a framework which takes account of these interdisciplinary advances. Marine geochemistry has been written in response to the need for a single state-of-the-art text that addresses the subject of treating the sea water, sediment and rock reservoirs as a unified system. In taking this approach, a process-orientated framework has been adopted in which the emphasis is placed on identifying key processes operating within the 'unified ocean'. In doing this, particular attention has been paid to making the text accessible to students from all disciplines in such a way that future advances can readily be understood. I would like to express my thanks to those people who have helped with the writing of this volume. In particular, I wish to put on record my sincere appreciation of extremely helpful suggestions made by Professor John Edmond, FRS. In addition, I thank Dr S. Rowlatt for his comments on the sections covering the geochemistry of oceanic sediments, and Dr G. Wolff for his invaluable advice on the organic geochemistry of biota, water and sediments. It is a great pleasure to acknowledge the help of Dr K. J. T.
Title:Marine GeochemistryFormat:PaperbackDimensions:702 pagesPublished:April 13, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:940109490X

ISBN - 13:9789401094900

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 Setting the background: a unified 'process-orientated' approach to marine geochemistry.- References.- I The Global Journey: Material Sources.- 2 The input of material to the ocean reservoir.- 2.1 The background.- References.- 3 The transport of material to the oceans: the river pathway.- 3.1 Chemical signals transported by rivers.- 3.2 The modification of river-transported signals at the land/sea interface: estuaries.- References.- 4 The transport of material to the oceans: the atmospheric pathway.- 4.1 Material transported via the atmosphere: the marine aerosol.- 4.2 The chemistry of the marine aerosol.- 4.3 Material transported via the atmosphere: the air/sea interface and the sea surface microlayer.- 4.4 The atmospheric pathway: summary.- References.- 5 The transport of material to the oceans: the hydrothermal pathway.- 5.1 Hydrothermal activity: high-temperature sea water-basalt reactions.- 5.2 Hydrothermal activity: low-temperature sea water-basalt reactions.- 5.3 The hydrothermal pathway: summary.- References.- 6 The transport of material to the oceans: relative flux magnitudes.- 6.1 River fluxes to the oceans.- 6.2 Atmospheric fluxes to the oceans.- 6.3 Hydrothermal fluxes to the oceans.- 6.4 Relative magnitudes of the primary fluxes to the oceans.- 6.5 Relative magnitudes of the primary fluxes to the oceans: summary.- References.- II The Global Journey: The Ocean Reservoir.- 7 Descriptive oceanography: water column parameters.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Some fundamental properties of sea water.- 7.3 Oceanic circulation.- 7.4 Tracers.- 7.5 An ocean model.- 7.6 Characterizing oceanic water column sections.- 7.7 Water column parameters: summary.- References.- 8 Dissolved gases in sea water.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 The exchange of gases across the air/sea interface.- 8.3 Dissolved oxygen in sea water.- 8.4 Dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water: the dissolved CO2 cycle.- 8.5 Dissolved gases in sea water: summary.- References.- 9 Nutrients, organic carbon and the carbon cycle in sea water.- 9.1 The nutrients in sea water.- 9.2 Organic matter in the sea.- 9.3 The marine organic carbon cycle.- 9.4 Organic matter in the oceans: summary.- References.- 10 Particulate material in the oceans.- 10.1 The measurement and collection of oceanic total suspended matter.- 10.2 The distribution of total suspended matter in the oceans.- 10.3 The composition of oceanic total suspended matter.- 10.4 Total suspended matter fluxes in the oceans.- 10.5 Down-column changes in the composition of oceanic total suspended matter.- 10.6 Particulate material in the oceans: summary.- References.- 11 Trace elements in the oceans.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Oceanic residence times.- 11.3 An oceanic trace metal framework.- 11.4 Geographical variations in the distributions of trace elements in surface ocean waters.- 11.5 The vertical distribution of trace elements in the water column.- 11.6 Processes controlling the removal of trace elements from sea water.- 11.7 Trace elements in sea water: summary.- References.- 12 Down-column fluxes and the benthic boundary layer.- 12.1 Down-column fluxes.- 12.2 The benthic boundary layer: the sediment/water interface.- 12.3 The benthic boundary layer.- 12.4 Down-column fluxes and the benthic boundary layer: summary.- References.- III The Global Journey: Material Sinks.- 13 Marine sediments.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 The formation of deep-sea sediments.- 13.3 A general scheme for the classification of marine sediments.- 13.4 The distribution of marine sediments.- 13.5 The chemical composition of marine sediments.- 13.6 Chemical signals to marine sediments.- 13.7 Marine sediments: summary.- References.- 14 Sediment interstitial waters and diagenesis.- 14.1 The long-term fate of organic matter in marine sediments.- 14.2 Early diagenesis in marine sediments.- 14.3 Organic matter in sediments.- 14.4 Redox environments and diagenesis in marine sediments.- 14.5 Diagenesis: summary.- 14.6 Interstitial-water inputs to the oceans.- 14.7 Interstitial-water inputs to the oceans: summary.- References.- 15 The components of marine sediments.- 15.1 Lithogenous components.- 15.2 Biogenous components.- 15.3 'Hydrogenous' components: halmyrolysates and precipitates.- 15.4 Cosmogenous components.- References.- 16 Unscrambling the sediment-forming signals.- 16.1 Definition of terminology.- 16.2 The biogenous signal.- 16.3 The detrital signal.- 16.4 The authigenic signal.- 16.5 Unscrambling the detrital and authigenic signals.- 16.6 Signal spikes.- 16.7 The ocean-wide operation of the sediment-forming signals.- 16.8 Unscrambling the sediment-forming chemical signals: summary.- References.- IV The Global Journey: Synthesis.- 17 Marine geochemistry: an overview.- 17.1 How the system works.- 17.2 Balancing the books.- 17.3 Conclusions.- References.