Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kants Humanity Formula

Hardcover | November 16, 2015

byRobert Audi

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No one wants to be treated merely as a means - "used," in a sense. But just what is this repugnant treatment? Audi's point of departure is Kant's famous principle that we must treat persons as ends in themselves and never merely as means. Treatment of these kinds is conduct, a complexthree-dimensional notion whose central elements are action, its motivation, and the manner of its performance. He shows how the notions of treating persons as ends and, by contrast, merely as means, can be anchored outside Kant and clarified in ways that enhance their usefulness both in ethicaltheory and in practical ethics, where they have much intuitive force. Audi constructs an account of treatment of persons - of what it is, how it differs from mere interpersonal action, and what ethical standards govern it. In accounting for such treatment, the book develops a wider conception of ethics than is commonly implicit in utilitarian, deontological, or virtuetheories. These results contribute to ethical theory, but in its discussion of diverse narrative examples of moral and immoral conduct, the book also contributes to normative ethics. Audi's theory of conduct takes account of motivational elements that are not traits of character and of behavioralelements that are not manifestations of virtue or vice. Here it goes beyond the leading virtue approaches. The theory also advances rule ethics by framing wider conception of moral behavior-roughly, of acting morally. The results advance both normative ethics and ethical theory. For moral philosophy, the book frames conceptions, articulates distinctions, and formulates principles; and for practicalethics, it provides a multitude of cases that illustrate both the scope of moral responsibility and the normative standards for living up to it.

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No one wants to be treated merely as a means - "used," in a sense. But just what is this repugnant treatment? Audi's point of departure is Kant's famous principle that we must treat persons as ends in themselves and never merely as means. Treatment of these kinds is conduct, a complexthree-dimensional notion whose central elements are...

Robert Audi is an internationally known contributor to ethics. He has published books and numerous papers in the field, and he lectures widely in ethics, moral psychology, philosophy of action, and related areas.

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:192 pages, 8.39 × 5.79 × 0.71 inPublished:November 16, 2015Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0190251557

ISBN - 13:9780190251550

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Table of Contents

Preface and AcknowledgmentsIntroductionPart One: The Ethics of Protecting Persons1. The Instrumental Treatment of PersonsMeans and EndsInstrumental Versus End-Regarding TreatmentTreating Solely as a Means versus Merely as a Means2. Instrumental Treatment as Human ConductThe Motivation and Controllability of Merely Instrumental ConductConstraints, Moral Character, and Self-ControlMotivation, Constraints, and the Appraisal of Character3. Action, Treatment and ConductAction, Endeavor, and ConsequenceTwo Levels of Behavioral DescriptionConduct as a Morally Important CategoryManners of Action Versus Actions as Defined by Manner4. The Wrong-Making Character of Merely Instrumental TreatmentThick and Thin Moral QuestionsSubstantive and Contrastive Views of Merely Instrumental TreatmentPersons as Ends Versus Good Ends for PersonsInternal and External Goods for PersonsPart Two: The Ethics of Respecting Persons5. Treating Others as Ends in ThemselvesCaring about the Good of OthersTwo Kinds of NormativityDescriptive Grounds of End-regarding Treatment6. End-Regarding Treatment and Respect for PersonsGood Deeds, Good Reasons, and Good ConductEnd-Regarding Treatment, Intention, and Interpersonal BehaviorThe Particularity of Persons and the Interchangeability of Means7. Autonomy and the Moral Significance of Our Self-ConceptionsPsychological Dispositions and the Basis of ConsentRespect for Persons, Point of View, and Informed Rational DesireEnd-Regarding Treatment and Respecting Moral RightsConduct Toward Persons versus Behavior Affecting Them8. Conduct, Intention, and WillMotivational Self-Control and the Scope of IntentionsThe Manner of Interpersonal ConductMoral Requirements and the Content of IntentionConduct Requirements and the Love CommandmentsConclusionIndex