Medically Important Fungi: A Guide To Identifi Cation by Davise H. LaroneMedically Important Fungi: A Guide To Identifi Cation by Davise H. Larone

Medically Important Fungi: A Guide To Identifi Cation

byDavise H. Larone

Hardcover | September 7, 2011

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Like its predecessors, the completely revised and updated fifth edition of Medically Important Fungi helps laboratory workers readily identify fungi by following a step-by-step procedure that incorporates consideration of macroscopic, microscopic, and other identifiable features. A fully updated edition that creates the preeminent bench-side guide and teaching aid for the identification of clinically encountered fungi.
Title:Medically Important Fungi: A Guide To Identifi CationFormat:HardcoverDimensions:485 pages, 9.41 × 7.24 × 0.98 inPublished:September 7, 2011Publisher:AMERICAN SOCIETY MICRLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1555816606

ISBN - 13:9781555816605

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents Preface to the Fifth Edition Preface to the First Edition Acknowledgements How to Use the Guide Use of Reference Laboratories Safety Precautions PART I: DIRECT MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL SPECIMENS Written with the assistance of Joan Barenfanger, M.D., Ph.D., and Sara B. Peters, Ph.D., M.D. Introduction Histological Terminology Tissue Reactions to Fungal Infection Stains Table 1: Stains for direct microscopic examination of fungi and filamentous bacteria in tissue Guide to Interpretation of Direct Microscopic Examination Detailed Descriptions Actinomycosis Mycetoma, Actinomycotic or Eumycotic Nocardiosis Zygomycosis Aspergillosis Hyalohyphomycoses Dermatophytoses Tinea versicolor Tinea nigra Phaeohyphomycosis Chromoblastomycosis Sporotrichosis Histoplasmosis Penicilliosis marneffei Blastomycosis Paracoccidioidomycosis Candidiasis (Candidosis) Trichosporonosis Cryptococcosis Pneumocystosis Protothecosis Coccidioidomycosis Rhinosporidiosis Adiaspiromycosis Special References PART II: IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI IN CULTURE Guide to Identification of Fungi in Culture Detailed Descriptions Filamentous Bacteria Introduction Table 2: Differentiation of filamentous aerobic actinomycetes encountered in clinical specimens Nocardia spp. Table 3: Phenotypic characteristics of most common clinically encountered Nocardia spp. Streptomyces spp. Actinomadura spp. Nocardiopsis dassonvillei Yeasts and Yeastlike Organisms Introduction Candida albicans Table 4: Characteristics of the genera of clinically encountered yeasts and yeastlike organisms Candida dubliniensis Table 5: Characteristics of Candida spp. most commonly encountered in the clinical laboratory Table 6: Characteristics that assist in differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans Candida tropicalis Candida parapsilosis complex Candida lusitaniae Candida krusei Table 7: Differentiating characteristics of Blastoschizomyces capitatus versus Candida krusei Table 8: Differentiating characteristics of Candida krusei, Candida inconspicua, and C. norvegensis Candida kefyr (formerly Candida pseudotropicalis) Candida rugosa Candida guilliermondii complex Table 9: Differentiating characteristics of Candida guilliermondii versus Candida famata Candida lipolytica Candida zeylanoides Candida glabrata Cryptococcus neoformans Table 10: Characteristics of Cryptococcus spp. Table 11: Characteristics of yeasts and yeastlike organisms other than Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Cryptococcus gattii Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces salmonicolor Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala and Hansenula anomala) (sexual state); Candida pelliculosa (asexual state) Malassezia spp. Malassezia pachydermatis Ustilago sp. Prototheca spp. Trichosporon spp. Table 12: Key characteristics of clinically encountered Trichosporon spp. Blastoschizomyces capitatus Geotrichum candidum Thermally Dimorphic Fungi Introduction Sporothrix schenckii complex Table 13: Characteristics for differentiating species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex Histoplasma capsulatum Blastomyces dermatitidis Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Penicillium marneffei Thermally Monomorphic Moulds Zygomycetes Introduction Table 14: Differential characteristics of similar organisms in the class Zygomycetes Table 15: Differential characteristics of the clinically encountered Rhizopus spp. Rhizopus spp. Mucor spp. Rhizomucor spp. Lichtheimia corymbifera complex (formerly Absidia corymbifera) Apophysomyces elegans Saksenaea vasiformis Cokeromyces recurvatus Cunninghamella bertholletiae Syncephalastrum racemosum Basidiobolus sp. Conidiobolus coronatus Dematiaceous Fungi Introduction Fonsecaea pedrosoi Fonsecaea compacta Rhinocladiella spp. Phialophora verrucosa Table 16: Characteristics of Phialophora, Pleurostomophora, Phaeoacremonium, Acremonium, Phialemonium, and Lecythophora Pleurostomophora richardsiae (formerly Phialophora richardsiae) Phaeoacremonium parasiticum (formerly Phialophora parasitica) Phialemonium spp. Cladosporium spp. Table 17: Characteristics of Cladosporium and Cladophialophora spp. Cladophialophora carrionii Cladophialophora bantiana Cladophialophora boppii (formerly Taeniolella boppii) Pseudallescheria boydii (sexual state) / Scedosporium apiospermum (asexual state) complex Table 18: Differentiating phenotypic characteristics of the clinically encountered members of the P. boydii complex and S. prolificansa Scedosporium prolificans (formerly Scedosporium inflatum) Ochroconis gallopava (formerly Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava) Table 19: Differentiation of the clinically encountered Ochroconis species Table 20: Characteristics of some of the "black yeasts" Exophiala jeanselmei complex Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) Hortaea werneckii (Phaeoannellomyces werneckii) Madurella mycetomatis Madurella grisea Piedraia hortae Aureobasidium pullulans Table 21: Differential characteristics of Aureobasidium pullulans versus Hormonema dematioides Hormonema dematioides Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (formerly Scytalidium dimidiatum) Botrytis sp. Stachybotrys chartarum (S. alternans, S. atra) Graphium eumorphum Curvularia spp. Bipolaris spp. Table 22: Characteristics of Bipolaris, Drechslera, and Exserohilum spp. Exserohilum spp. Helminthosporium sp. Alternaria sp. Ulocladium sp. Stemphylium sp. Pithomyces sp. Epicoccum sp. Nigrospora sp. Chaetomium sp. Phoma spp. Dermatophytes Introduction Microsporum audouinii Microsporum canis var. canis Microsporum canis var. distortum Microsporum cookei Microsporum gypseum complex Microsporum gallinae Microsporum nanum Microsporum vanbreuseghemii Microsporum ferrugineum Trichophyton mentagrophytes Table 23: Differentiation of similar conidia-producing Trichophyton spp. Trichophyton rubrum Trichophyton tonsurans Trichophyton terrestre Trichophyton megninii Trichophyton soudanense Table 24: Growth patterns of Trichophyton species on nutritional test media Trichophyton schoenleini Trichophyton verrucosum Trichophyton violaceum Trichophyton ajelloi Epidermophyton floccosum Hyaline Hyphomycetes Introduction Coccidioides immitis/posadasii complex Table 25: Differential characteristics of fungi in which arthroconidia predominate Malbranchea spp. Geomyces pannorum Arthrographis kalrae Hormographiella aspergillata Emmonsia spp. Table 26: Identification of the most common species of Aspergillus The Genus Aspergillus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus niger Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus calidoustus Aspergillus nidulans (asexual state); Emericella nidulans (sexual state) Aspergillus glaucus (asexual state); Eurotium herbariorum (sexual state) Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus clavatus Penicillium spp. Paecilomyces spp. Scopulariopsis spp. Table 27: Differential characteristics of Paecilomyces variottii versus P. lilacinus Table 28: Differential characteristics of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis versus S. brumptii Gliocladium sp. Trichoderma sp. Beauveria bassiana Verticillium sp. Acremonium (formerly Cephalosporium) spp. Fusarium spp. Lecythophora spp. Trichothecium roseum Chrysosporium spp. Table 29: Differential characteristics of Chrysosporium versus Sporotrichum Sporotrichum sp. Sepedonium sp. Chrysonilia sitophila (formerly Monilia sitophila) PART III: BASICS OF MOLECULAR METHODS FOR FUNGAL IDENTIFICATION Written with Sanchita Das, M.D., Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY Introduction Molecular Terminology Overview of Classic Molecular Identification Methods Fungal Targets Amplification and Non-Sequence Identification Methods PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Nested PCR Real-time PCR Melting curve analysis Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) TaqMan 5¢nuclease Molecular beacons Microarray Repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) Sequence-Based Identification Methods Sanger sequencing Pyrosequencing DNA barcoding Applications of DNA Sequencing Accurate method identification Phylogenetic analysis Organism typing Commercial Platforms and Recently Developed Techniques AccuProbe test PNA FISH Luminex xMAP MALDI-TOF Selected References for Further Information PART IV: LABORATORY TECHNIQUE Laboratory Procedures Collection and Preparation of Specimens Methods for Direct Microscopic Examination of Specimens Primary Isolation Table 30: Media for primary isolation of fungi Table 31: Inhibitory mold agar versus. Sabouraud dextrose agar as a primary medium for isolation of fungi Macroscopic Examination of Cultures Microscopic Examination of Growth Procedure for Identification of Yeasts Direct Identification of Yeasts from Blood Culture (by PNA FISH) Isolation of Yeast When Mixed with Bacteria Germ Tube Test for the Presumptive Identification of Candida albicans Rapid Enzyme Tests for the Presumptive Identification of Candida albicans Caffeic Acid Disk Test Olive Oil Disks for Culturing Malassezia species Conversion of Thermally Dimorphic Fungi in Culture Method of Inducing Sporulation of Apophysomyces elegans and Saksenaea vasiformis In Vitro Hair Perforation Test (for Differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum) Germ Tube Test for Differentiation of Some Dematiaceous Fungi Temperature Tolerance Testing Maintenance of Stock Fungal Cultures Controlling Mites Staining Methods Acid-Fast Modified Kinyoun Stain for Nocardia spp. Acid-Fast Stain for Ascospores Ascospore Stain Calcofluor White Stain Giemsa Stain Gomori Methenamine Silver (GMS) Stain Gram Stain (Hucker Modification) Lactophenol Cotton Blue Lactophenol Cotton Blue with Polyvinyl Alcohol (Huber's Mounting Medium, Modified) Rehydration of Paraffin-Embedded Tissue (Deparaffination) Media Introduction Acetamide Agar Arylsulfatase Broth Ascospore Media Assimilation Media (for Yeasts) Birdseed Agar (Niger Seed Agar; Staib Agar) Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Agar Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract (BCYE) Agar Canavanine Glycine Bromothymol Blue (CGB) Agat Casein Agar CHROMagar Candida Medium ChromID Candida Medium (formerly Candida ID 2) Citrate Agar Cornmeal Agar Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM) Dixon Agar (Modified) Esculin Agar Fermentation Broths for Yeasts Gelatin Medium Inhibitory Mould Agar (IMA) Leeming-Notman Agar (Modified) Loeffler Medium Lysozyme Medium Middlebrook Agar Opacity Test for Nocardia farcinica Mycosel Agar Nitrate Broth Polished Rice, or Rice Grain, Medium Potato Dextrose Agar and Potato Flake Agar Rapid Assimilation of Trehalose (RAT) Broth Rapid Sporulation Medium (RSM) SABHI Agar Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) Sabouraud Dextrose Agar with 15% NaCl Sabouraud Dextrose Broth Starch Hydrolysis Agar Trichophyton Agars Tyrosine, Xanthine, or Hypoxanthine Agar Urea Agar Water Agar Yeast Extract-Phosphate Agar with Ammonia COLOR PLATES GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITES