Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction by Munéo KitajimaMemory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction by Munéo Kitajima

Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction

byMunéo Kitajima

Hardcover | February 8, 2016

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The first goal of this book is to extend Two Minds originating from behavioral economics to the domain of interaction, where the time dimension has to be dealt with rigorously; in human–machine interaction, it is of crucial importance how synchronization between conscious processes and unconscious processes is established for a sense of smoothness, and how memory processes and action selection processes are coordinated. The first half this book describes the theory in detail. The book begins by outlining the whole view of the theory consisting of action selection processes and memorization processes, and their interactions. Then, a detailed description for action selection processes theorized as a nonlinear dynamic human behavior model with real-time constraints is provided, followed by a description for memorization processes. Also, implications of the theory to human–machine interactions are discussed.

The second goal of this book is to provide a methodology to study how Two Minds works in practice when people use interactive systems. The latter half of this book describes theory practices in detail. A new methodology called Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE) is introduced, which adds the time dimension to Hutchins’ Cognitive Ethnography, in order to practice "know the users" systematically by designing user studies based on a simulation of users’ mental operations controlled by Two Minds. The author then shows how CCE has been applied to understanding the ways in which people navigate in real physical environments by walking and by car, respectively, and explores the possibility of applying CCE to predict people’s future needs. This is not for understanding how people use interfaces at present but to predict how people want to use the interfaces in the future given they are currently using them in a certain way

Finally, the book concludes by describing implications of human–machine interactions that are carried out while using modern artefacts for people's cognitive development from birth, on the basis of the theories of action selection and memorization.

Muneo Kitajima is Professor at both the Nagaoka University of Technology and The University of Tokyo, Japan. His current research interests include cognitive architecture that is capable of simulating human beings' daily decision-making and action selection, ecology of networked society, and understanding synchronization between consci...
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Title:Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine InteractionFormat:HardcoverDimensions:162 pages, 9.6 × 6.4 × 0.6 inPublished:February 8, 2016Publisher:WileyLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:184821927X

ISBN - 13:9781848219274

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Table of Contents

Introduction ix

Part 1. Theoretical Foundation for Dealing with Action Selection and Memorization 1

Chapter 1. A Unified Theory of Action Selection and Memory 3

1.1. Organic self-consistent field theory 3

1.1.1. Self-consistent field theory in physics 3

1.1.2. “Organic” SCFT 4

1.1.3. Human beings considered in O-SCFT 4

1.1.4. Scale mix 5

1.2. Development of brain architecture model under the NDHBmodel/RT 6

1.2.1. O-PDP 6

1.2.2. The guideline for architecture selection 6

1.2.3. Development of cross-networks of neurons in the brain 7

Chapter 2. NDHB-Model/RT: Nonlinear Dynamic Human Behavior Model with Realtime Constraints 11

2.1. Maximum satisfaction architecture 11

2.1.1. Happiness goals 11

2.1.2. Society layers 12

2.1.3. Brain layers 12

2.1.4. Conditions to make people feel satisfaction 15

2.2. Brain information hydrodynamics 16

2.2.1. The time axis is central to information flow 17

2.2.2. Cerebrum formation process 17

2.2.3. Information flows in the brain 19

2.2.4. Emergence of emotion in BIH 20

2.2.5. Biorhythm of information flow 21

2.2.6. Role of language 21

2.2.7. Multiple personality disorder 21

2.3. Structured meme theory 22

2.3.1. Meme 22

2.3.2. Memes propagate by means of resonance 23

2.3.3. Characteristics of meme propagation 24

2.4. NDHB-model/RT 25

2.5. MHP/RT: Model human processor with real-time constraints 27

2.5.1. MHP/RT’s basic flow 28

2.5.2. Basic MHP/RT behaviors 30

2.6. Two Minds and emotions 36

2.6.1. Dynamics of consciousness–emotion interaction: an explanation by MHP/RT 37

2.6.2. Taxonomy of emotions: behavioral perspective  40

Chapter 3. Layered-structure of Memory and its Development 43

3.1. MHP/RT modules and their associated memories 43

3.1.1. Memory formation process 45

3.1.2. MD memory frames 46

3.1.3. Memory functions via resonance 49

3.1.4. Memory operates in pipelining 49

3.2. Hierarchical structure of human action selection 51

3.2.1. Three-layered structure of interneurons system 51

3.2.2. Formation process 51

3.3. Emotion initiation via memory processes 54

Chapter 4. Implication for Human–Machine Interaction: Autonomous System Interaction Design (ASID) based on NDHB-Model/RT 57

4.1. Users modeled by MHP/RT with MD memory frames 57

4.2. Autonomous systems versus linear systems 58

4.2.1. Linear systems 58

4.2.2. Autonomous systems 60

4.3. Needs that a society of information systems must meet 60

4.4. Outline of ASI 61

4.5. Conclusions 62

Part 2. Theoretically Motivated Methodology for Understanding Users  65

Chapter 5. Cognitive Chrono-ethnography  67

5.1. Understanding people’s behavior in real life 67

5.2. Cognitive chrono-ethnography 69

5.2.1. Requirements for the methodology (CCE) to study human beings’ behavior in real life 69

5.2.2. CCE procedure 70

5.2.3. Behavior selection shaping factors 72

Chapter 6. A CCE Study: Slow Self-paced Navigation  75

6.1. Introduction: navigation in a train station by following signs 75

6.2. Steps 1 and 2 of CCE 76

6.2.1. Attention, planning and working memory 77

6.2.2. An MHP/RT simulation of navigation behavior 78

6.3. Step 3 of CCE: monitor recruiting 82

6.3.1. Investigation of cognitive aging characteristics 82

6.4. Steps 4 and 5 of CCE: monitor behavior observation and individual model construction 83

6.4.1. Train stations, tasks and participants 84

6.4.2. Method 85

6.5. Step 6 of CCE: socioecological model construction  86

6.6. Discussion 87

6.6.1. Two modes of navigation 87

6.6.2. Web navigation 88

6.6.3. Nature of complicated navigation processes 90

6.7. Conclusions 90

Chapter 7. Fast Externally-paced Navigation 93

7.1. Introduction 93

7.2. Steps 1 and 2 of CCE 95

7.2.1. Designing a CCE study 96

7.3. Step 3 of CCE: monitor recruiting 98

7.3.1. Screening 99

7.3.2. Interview for the final selection 100

7.4. Steps 4 and 5 of CCE: monitor behavior observation and individual model construction 100

7.4.1. Data analysis 100

7.4.2. Information necessary for safe and enjoyable driving 102

7.4.3. Examples 103

7.5. Conclusions 105

Chapter 8. Designing for Future Needs 109

8.1. Introduction 109

8.2. Making inaccessible future needs accessible: t-translation invariant principle 110

8.3. A case study of CCE: why do fans repeat visits to the ballpark? 112

8.3.1. Steps 1 and 2 of CCE 112

8.3.2. Step 3 of CCE: monitor recruiting 115

8.3.3. Step 4 of CCE: field observation 115

8.3.4. Step 5 of CCE: conduct retrospective interviews 116

8.3.5. Step 6 of CCE: socioecological model construction 117

8.3.6. Results: developing from a pre-fan to a repeater 120

8.4. Discussion 122

8.4.1. Selection of elite monitors 122

8.4.2. CCE interview 122

8.4.3. Applicability of CCE 123

8.5. Conclusions 124

Conclusion 127

Bibliography 133

Index 137