Merchant Capital and Islam

Paperback | November 1, 2011

byMahmood Ibrahim

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The rise of merchant capital in Mecca conditioned the development of Meccan social, economic, religious, and political structure. Mahmood Ibrahim traces the roots of capitalism from the emergence of merchants as the main force in Mecca through the first civil war in Islam (656–661). Through a rereading of original Arabic sources and drawing from modern scholarship on the subject, Ibrahim offers a new interpretation of the rise of Islam.

He argues that Islam contributed certain institutional beliefs and practices that unblocked obstacles and helped merchants gain political and economic hegemony over western Asia. Ibrahim contends that, with the conquest of Mecca, the newly formed Muslim state spread its control to the rest of Arabia, which mobilized a significant social force and allowed for further expansion outside Arabia, thus extending merchant control to include new surplus-producing regions, a vast network of trade routes, and wider markets.

This extensively researched study offers a new interpretation of the history of Islam, including the formation of Islamic society and the unfolding of the first civil war. In offering a better understanding of the Umayyad Caliphate that ruled Islam for a century to come, Ibrahim helps lay the groundwork for understanding the Middle East as it is today.

Of interest to scholars of Middle Eastern studies, this important work will be necessary reading for students of Near Eastern and North African history, as well as students of the history of Medieval Europe.

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The rise of merchant capital in Mecca conditioned the development of Meccan social, economic, religious, and political structure. Mahmood Ibrahim traces the roots of capitalism from the emergence of merchants as the main force in Mecca through the first civil war in Islam (656–661). Through a rereading of original Arabic sources and dr...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:256 pages, 9 × 6 × 0.68 inPublished:November 1, 2011Publisher:University Of Texas PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0292741189

ISBN - 13:9780292741188

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Table of Contents

AcknowledgmentsIntroduction1. Pre-Islamic ArabiaThe Period of Antiquity (to A.D. 300)The Second Himyarite State (A.D. 300–600)The Decline of HimyarThe Lakhmids of Hira2. The Development of Merchant Capital in MeccaThe GenesisThe DevelopmentThe Rise of Mecca’s PowerCulture as Ideology3. Merchant Capital and Mecca’s Internal DevelopmentSocial and Economic DifferentiationFactional Conflict and the Rise of the Banu UmayyaConsolidation of the Position of the Banu Umayya4. Merchant Capital and the Rise of IslamThe Institutional Environment of IslamMuhammad in MeccaMuhammad in MedinaThe Winning of Mecca and Arabia5. Islamic Expansion and the Establishment of the Islamic StateThe Consolidation of Arabia: The Ridda WarSyriaIraqEgypt6. The Emergence of the New SegmentDistribution of WealthThe Shura and the Seeds of the Fitna Uthman’s CaliphateGrowth of the OppositionOpen Revolt7. The Civil War and the Struggle for PowerThe Election of AliThe Revolt of Talha and ZubairMu awiya’s StrategySiffinThe TahkimThe Internal Conquest: The Return of the Traditional SegmentEpilogueThe Umayyad CaliphateIslam, Capitalism, or FeudalismNotesBibliographyIndex