Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Nicole BeaucheminMetastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Nicole Beauchemin

Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer

byNicole Beauchemin

Paperback | October 13, 2012

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Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, and in many parts of the western world, it is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. This book covers colon cancer metastasis from the most fundamental aspects to clinical practice. Major topics include physiopathology, genetic and epigenetic controls, cancer initiating cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, growth factors and signalling, cell adhesion, natures of liver metastasis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, inflammatory response, prognostic markers, sentinel node and staging, and finally diagnosis and treatment. Each chapter has been contributed by leaders in the field. A key feature is that it connects with a large readership including students, fundamentalists and clinicians. Another specific feature of the book is that the chapters are written in a didactic and illustrative fashion. These characteristics coupled with the choice of the topics and authors, makes this book a reference in the field. It represents an essential acquisition for medical libraries, clinicians as well as medical and graduate students.
Title:Metastasis of Colorectal CancerFormat:PaperbackDimensions:416 pagesPublished:October 13, 2012Publisher:Springer-Verlag/Sci-Tech/TradeLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9400732937

ISBN - 13:9789400732933

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Table of Contents

Introduction; N. Beauchemin, J. Huot1. The Metastatic Process: an Overview; N.Porquet, S. Guot, J. Huot1.1 Models of metastasis- 1.1.1 The progression model- 1.1.2 The transient compartment model- 1.1.3 The early oncogenesis model- 1.1.4 The fusion model- 1.1.5 The gene transfer models- 1.1.6 The genetic predisposition model1.2 Metastatic steps- 1.2.1 Development of the primary colorectal cancer   - 1.2.1.1 Initiation of the primary neoplasm   - 1.2.1.2 Influence of stromal cells    - 1.2.1.3 Influence of the extracellular matrix    - 1.2.1.4 Epithelial-Mesenchymal transition   - 1.2.1.5 Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis- 1.2.2 Intravasation- 1.2.3 Circulation of cancer cells- 1.2.4 Extravasation   - 1.2.4.1 The adhesion on endothelial cells and the homing concept of metastasis   - 1.2.4.2 The passage across the endothelium1.2.5 Colonization of the secondary sites1.3 Concluding RemarksReferences2. Physiopathology of Colorectal Metastasis; C. Ferrario, M. Basik2.1 Mechanisms of metastatic spread- 2.1.1 Circulatory spread   - 2.1.1.1 Lymphatic spread   - 2.1.1.2 Hematogenous spread- 2.1.2 Local spread- 2.1.3 Tumour dormancy2.2 Sites of metastasis and consequences of spread- 2.2.1 Liver   - 2.2.1.1 Steps in liver invasion   - 2.2.1.2 Development of liver failure- 2.2.2 Lungs- 2.2.3 Peritoneum- 2.2.4 Bone and bone marrow- 2.2.5 Brain metastasis2.3 factors contributing to metastatic spread- 2.3.1 Tumour factors   - 2.3.1.1 Tissue Factor   - 2.3.1.2 EGFR- 2.3.2 Host factors   - 2.3.2.1 Immunity   - 2.3.2.2 Diet, exercise and liver disease- 2.3.3 Iatrogenic factors2.4 ConclusionReferences3. The Genetic of Colorectal Cancer; A.M. Kaz, W.M. Grady3.1 Introduction3.2 The Adenoma-to-Carcinoma Sequence3.3 Genomic Instability- 3.3.1 Overview- 3.3.2 Chromosome Instability - 3.3.3 DNA Mismatch Repair Inactivation and Microsatellite Instability- 3.3.4 Base Excision Repair Defects/MYH3.4 Common Deregulated Signalling Pathways- 3.4.1 Wingless/Wnt Signalling Pathway   - 3.4.1.1 APC   - 3.4.1.2 B-Catenin (CTNNB1)- 3.4.2 KRAS, BRAF and RAS-RAF-MAPK Signalling Pathway   - 3.4.2.1 K-RAS   - 3.4.2.2 BRAF- 3.4.3 p53 (TP53)- 3.4.4 The Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) Pathway   - 3.4.4.1 PIK3CA   - 3.4.4.2 PTEN- 3.4.5 TGF-B Signalling Pathways   - 3.4.5.1 TGFBR2   - 3.4.5.2 The SMAD Family of Genes   - 3.4.5.3 TGF-B Superfamily Receptors: ACVR2 and BMPR1A3.5 Genome-Wide Analyses of Colorectal Cancer Genes 3.6 Metastasis Genes3.7 ConclusionsReferences4. Epigenetics of Colorectal Cancer; F.J. Carmona, M. Esteller4.1 Introduction 4.2 DNA methylation defects in colorectal cancer- 4.2.1 Hypomethylation of DNA4.3 Inactivation of tumour suppressor genes by CpG island hypermethylation4.4 Epigenetic regulation of microRNA in cancer4.5 MicroRNAs as metastasis switches4.6 Histone modification defects in colon cancer4.7 Epigenetic contribution to colorectal cancer metastasis4.8 Epigenetic biomarkers and therapiesReferences5. Cancer-initiating Cells in Colorectal Cancer; A. Kreso, L. Gibson, C.A. O'Brien5.1 Introduction5.2 The cell surface phenotype of colon cancer- initiating cells5.3 COLON CANCER-INITIATING CELLs and chemoresistance5.4 The role of CANCER-INITIATING CELLs in metastases5.5 CANCER-INITIATING CELLs as biomarkers5.6 CANCER-INITIATING CELLs and clinical trials 5.7 Cell of origin and COLON CANCER-INITIATING CELLs5.8 Controversies in the cancer stem cell field5.9 ConclusionsReferences6. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Cancer; O. Schmalhofer, S. Brabletz, T. Brabletz6.1 Introduction6.2 Tumour budding as a prognostic factor in CRC6.3 WNT signalling and nuclear B-catenin in CRC6.4 Intratumoural distribution of nuclear -catenin6.5 WNT targets in CRC- 6.5.1 Proliferation-associated WNT targets- 6.5.2 Stemness-associated WNT targets- 6.5.3 Invasion- and neo-angiogenesis-associated WNT targets6.6 Inducers of nuclear B-catenin localization6.7 Regulation of E-cadherin expression in CRC6.8 Snail1 and Snail26.9 ZEB1, ZEB2 and Twist6.10 ConclusionReferences7. Cell Adhesion Molecules in Colon Cancer Metastasis; A. Arabzadeh, N. Beauchemin7.1 Introduction7.2 Integrins- 7.2.1 Integrin a-subunits of VLA subfamily; a2, a3, a5 and a6 chains - 7.2.2 av integrin subfamily - 7.2.3 Integrin b-subunits; b1, b4 and b6 chains7.3 E-cadherin7.4 CD44 and its variant isoforms7.5 Selectins751 P-selectin 752 L-selectin 753 E-selectin 7.6 Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily- 7.6.1 Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)- 7.6.2 Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)7.7 ConclusionReferences8. Epithelial Cell Signalling in Colorectal Cancer Metastasis; C. Saucier, N. Rivard8.1 Receptor tyrosine kinase signalling in colorectal cancer metastases- 8.1.1 Receptor tyrosine kinase structure and mechanisms of activation- 8.1.2 Deregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase, a common theme in colon metastases   - 8.1.2.1 EGFR   - 8.1.2.2 Met/HGF receptor   - 8.1.2.3 Receptor tyrosine kinase-targeted therapy- 8.1.3 The role of RTK-proximal signalling effectors: road maps to the activation of RAS/MAPK and PI3K/AKT    - 8.1.3.1 The role of Grb2, Shc and Gab1 in colorectal cancer, an open question8.2 The KRAS oncogene and its downstream signalling- 8.2.1 The ERK MAP kinase signalling pathway- 8.2.2 The PI3K signalling pathway - 8.2.3 Oncogenic KRAS signalling inhibits epithelial cell polarity- 8.2.4 Oncogenic KRAS signalling promotes cell invasion, migration and intravasation- 8.2.5 Oncogenic KRAS signalling prevents anoikis- 8.2.6 Oncogenic KRAS signalling in extravasation, proliferation and angiogenesis8.3 ConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferences 9. Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Colon Cancer Metastasis; D. Garnier, J. Rak9.1 Introduction: tumour-vascular interface in progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer9.2 Mechanisms of vascular and lymphatic growth- 9.2.1 Formation of microvascular networks - 9.2.2 Lymphangiogenesis and molecular mediators of lymphatic development9.3 Oncogenic and microenvironmental inducers of tumour angiogenesis in colon cancer- 9.3.1 Aberrations of the vascular growth in cancer - 9.3.2 Genesis of the pro-angiogenic phenotype in colorectal cancer- 9.3.3 Cellular, molecular and systemic triggers of tumour angiogenesis- 9.3.4 Tumour angiogenesis, metastasis and the haemostatic system9.4 Effectors of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in primary and metastatic colorectal tumours- 9.4.1 Angiogenesis in primary CRC- 9.4.2 Angiogenesis and metastasis in CRC- 9.4.3 Tumour associated lymphatic circulation in CRC9.5 Targeting vascular processes in metastatic colorectal cancer - 9.5.1 Anti-angiogenesis in CRC- 9.5.2. Anti-lymphangiogenesis- 9.5.3 Future directions in targeting tumour-vascular interface in metastatic CRCAcknowledgementsReferences10. Role of the Host Inflammatory Response in Colon Carcinoma Initiation, Progression and Liver Metastasis; P. Brodt10.1 General Introduction10.2 Role of inflammation in cancer progression: focus on CRC- 10.2.1 Role of tumour-infiltrating macrophages in tumour progression and in CRC- 10.2.2 Review of macrophage-derived cytokines that play a role in CRC and liver metastasis   - 10.2.2.1 Role of IL-6   - 10.2.2.2 Role of TNF-a and the TNF receptors   - 10.2.2.3 Role of IL-1   - 10.2.2.4 Role of IL-2310.3 Role of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in colon cancer cell invasion and migration. 10.4 Tumour cells entering the liver can elicit a rapid host inflammatory response that promotes metastasis. - 10.4.1 Pre-extravasation events- 10.4.2 Post-extravasation events10.5 Summary and future directionsReferences11. Molecular Prognostic Markers in Colon Cancer; T. Winder, H.-J. Lenz11.1 Introduction11.2 Pathologic Prognostic Markers11.3 Genomic Instability- 11.3.1 Loss of heterozygosity of 17p and 18q (LOH)- 11.3.2 DNA - Ploidy- 11.3.3 Microsatellite instability (MSI)11.4 GENETIC MARKERS- 11.4.1 Metabolic Genes   - 11.4.1.1 Thymidilate synthase (TS)   - 11.4.1.2 Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD)   - 11.4.1.3 Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)- 11.4.2 EGFR pathway and potential markers   - 11.4.2.1 K-Ras   - 11.4.2.2 B-Raf   - 11.4.2.3 Germline polymorphisms within the EGFR signalling pathway- 11.4.3 Angiogenesis   - 11.4.3.1 VEGF-dependent regulation of angiogenesis   - 11.4.3.2 VEGF-independent regulation of angiogenesis11.5 epigenetic markers- 11.5.1 CpG Island Methylator phenotype (CIMP)11.6 Ongoing Trials- 11.6.1 E5202- 11.6.2 CALGB-C80405- 11.6.3 PETAC-811.7 ConclusionsReferences12. The Sentinel Lymph Node and Staging of Colorectal Cancer; G. des Guetz, B. Uzzan12.1 Introduction 12.2 Feasibility of SENTINEL LYMPH NODE mapping12.3 Techniques of Sentinel Lymph Node DIAGNOSIS12.4 Comparaison between SENTINEL LYMPH NODE mapping and standard methods12.5 Prognostic relevance of occult tumour cells in lymph nodes12.6 Perspectives12.7 Conclusion References13. Treatment of Colorectal Cancer; E. Al-Sukhni, S. Gallinger13.1 Surgical Anatomy13.2 Surgical Options- 13.2.1 Colon cancer- 13.2.2 Rectal cancer 13.3 Neo-Adjuvant and Adjuvant Therapy - 13.3.1 Fluoropyrimidines - 13.3.2 Oxaliplatin - 13.3.3 Monoclonal antibodies- 13.3.4 Other agents- 13.3.5 Radiotherapy- 13.3.6 Summary of recommendations for colon cancer- 13.3.7 Summary of recommendations for rectal cancer13.4 Surveillance13.5 Management of Metastatic Disease- 13.5.1 Resectable metastases- 13.5.2 Unresectable metastases- 13.5.3 Resistance to chemotherapy13.6 Palliative Therapy13.7 Overall conclusionReferences14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Rectal Cancer; T. Vuong, T. Niazi, S. Liberman, P. Galiatsatos, S. Devic14.1 Introduction14.2 Diagnosis and staging of rectal cancer14.3 The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of rectal cancer- 14.3.1 External beam radiation therapy in combination with surgery   - 14.3.1.1 Indications   - 14.3.1.2 To prevent local recurrence   - 14.3.1.3 To promote tumour down-staging   - 14.3.1.4 To facilitate sphincter preservation surgery   - 14.3.1.5 To provide local control either with curative or palliative intent- 14.3.2 Timing of Radiation therapy- 14.3.3 Radiation therapy alone or with chemotherapy?- 14.3.4 Dose fractionation- 14.3.5 Immediate or delayed surgery14.4 Surgery for Rectal Cancer- 14.4.1 Laparoscopy- 14.4.2 Local Treatment for Early Rectal Cancer14.5 Adjuvant Chemotherapy- 14.5.1 Before the era of TME surgery- 14.5.2 Neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy and TME era14.6 ConclusionReferences15. Future Directions; J. Huot, N. Beauchemin