This volume, is developed from a collaborative study sponsored by the World Health Organization over a period of five years, the result of the combined effort of over 30 experts working in 19 different countries. The book presents a comprehensive survey of the development, policy, and procedures of methadone maintenance in countries with experience in this treatment. In addition to presenting a general overview of methadone's role in treating opioid addiction, the volume also focuses on specific questions of current interest, particularly the critical issue of methadone maintenance in the prevention of AIDS. Public health specialists and policymakers will find this book an invaluable source of information about what can be expected from methadone maintenance programs and why such programs have achieved some success in the rehabilitation of opiate users, while so many other attempts in this area have failed. Following an introductory chapter, the contributors look at the impact of AIDS epidemiology on methadone policy. The role of methadone in addressing intravenous drug abuse and unsafe sex practices in drug dependent persons is explored in an attempt to assess the ability of methadone maintenance programs to stem the spread of AIDS. Subsequent chapters review the world literature on methadone in treating opioid dependency, explore national policies and practices regarding methadone maintenance, present an international survey of methadone's role, and analyze the present state of research on methadone. A bibliography and index complete the volume.