Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis: Breast Carcinoma by M. A. HayatMethods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis: Breast Carcinoma by M. A. Hayat

Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis: Breast Carcinoma

EditorM. A. Hayat

Paperback | November 30, 2010

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This is the first book that discusses subjects of diagnosis, therapy, therapy assessment, and prognosis of breast cancer in one single volume.   Cancer killed 6.7 million people around the world in 2002 and this figure is expected to rise to 10.1 million in 2020. Approximately, 189,510 new cases of breast cancer were reported in 2007 in the United States, and 40,910 died in the same year. Focusing on Breast Carcinoma, this first volume in the series Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis brings together 56 leading scientists from around the world to deliver a comprehensive treatise on all aspects of breast cancer, including diagnosis, treatments and prognosis. Scientists and clinicians have contributed state of the art chapters on their respective areas of expertise providing the reader a whole field view of breast cancer management.  This fully illustrated volume: * Presents a constructive evaluation of commonly used methods for elucidating primary and secondary cancer initiation, progression, relapse, and metastasis. * Highlights methods of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment assessment including various imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, immunohistochemistry and histochemistry. * Discusses detailed therapeutic protocols, including both their benefits and side-effects. * Discusses examples of breast cancer treatments includingchemotherapy, radiation, chemoradiation, surgery, hormonal - and immunotherapy * Details the molecular processes that lead to the development and proliferation of cancer cells * Includes recent major advances in cancer diagnosis and therapy assessment  Professor Hayat has summarized the problems associated with the complexities of research publications and has been successful in editinga must-read volume for oncologists, cancer researchers, medical teachers and students of cancer biology.
Title:Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy and Prognosis: Breast CarcinomaFormat:PaperbackDimensions:776 pagesPublished:November 30, 2010Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9048178584

ISBN - 13:9789048178582

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Table of Contents

1. BREAST CANCER: COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION Bin Zheng INTRODUCTIONDEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION SCHEMESEVALUATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION SCHEME PERFORMANCEAPPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION SCHEMES TO CLINICAL ENVIRONMENTNEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION RESEARCHREFERENCES 2. SEBACEOUS CARCINOMA OF THE BREAST: CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES INTRODUCTIONMETHODS CLINICAL FEATURESPATHOLOGIC FINDINGSDIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSISPROGNOSIS AND TREATMENTREFRENCES 3. BREAST CANCER: DETECTION BY IN VIVO IMAGING OF ANGIOGENESIS Tore Bach-Gansmo and Derek TobinINTRODUCTIONANGIOGENESISINTEGRINSSCINTIMAMMOGRAPHYTECHNETIUM-LABELED NC100692INITIAL CLINICAL EXPERIENCE99mTc-NC100692 IN BREAST CANCERIMPROVEMENTS IN GAMMA CAMERA TECHNOLOGYSUPPLEMENTARY CLINICAL STUDYFUTURE INTEGRIN SCINTIGRAPHYREFERENCES 4. BREAST AND PROSTATE BIOPSIES: USE OF OPTIMIZED HIGH-THROUGHPUT MicroRNA EXPRESSION FOR DIAGNOSIS (METHODOLOGY) Michael D. Mattie and Robert C. Getts INTRODUCTIONMETHODOLOGY FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT microRNA PROFILINGPurification of microRNAAMPLIFICATION OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT RNALABELING OF microRNAREFERENCES5. FAMILIAL BREAST CANCER: DETECTION OF PREVALENT HIGH-RISK EPITHELIAL LESIONSPeter Bult and Nicoline HoogerbruggeINTRODUCTIONMATERIALS METHODSCLASSIFICATION OF PREMALIGNANT LESIONSREFERENCES6. DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN BENIGN AND MALIGNANT PAPILLARY LESIONS OF THE BREAST: EXCISIONAL BIOPSY OR STEREOTACTIC VACUUM-ASSISTED BIOPSY (METHODOLOGY)Alice P.Y. Tang, Gary M.K. Tse, and Wynnie W.M. LamINTRODUCTIONRADIOLOGICAL APPEARANCE OF PAPPILARY LESIONS OF THE BREASTPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGSASSOCIATION OF PAPPILARY LESIONS WITH DUCTAL CARCINOMA FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CORE NEEDLE BIOPSYCURRENT ROLE OF EXCISIONAL BIOPSYDIFFICULTY IN PATHOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN MALIGNANT AND BENIGN LESIONS AFTER NEEDLE BIOPSYVACCUM-ASSISTED BIOPSYTECHNIQUE OF STEREOTACTIC VACCUM-ASSISTED BIOPSYTECHNIQUE OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED VACCUM-ASSISTED BIOPSYADVANTAGES OF DIRECTIONAL VACCUM-ASSISTED DEVICECOMPLICATIONS OF VACCUM ASSISTED BIOPSYCURRENT EXPERIENCE OF VACCUM-ASSISTED BIOPSY AND PERCUTANEOUS CORE BIOPSY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PAPPILARY LESIONSIS EXCISION BIOPSY NEEDED IN ASSESSING PAPPILARY LESIONS OF THE BREAST ATYPICAL PAPILLOMA/ PAPILLARY LESION WITH ATYPICAL DUCTAL HYPERPLASIA AT VACCUM-ASSISTED BIOPSYBENIGN PAPILLOMA AT VACCUM-ASSISTED BIOPSYREFERENCES 7. MULTICENTRIC BREAST CANCER: SENTINEL NODE BIOPSY AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL Michael Knauer, Peter Konstantiniuk, Anton Haid, Etienne Wenzl, Roswitha Köberle-Wührer, Michaela Riegler-Keil, Sabine Pöstlberger, Roland Reitsamer, and Peter SchrenkINTRODUCTIONTECHNIQUE OF SENTINEL NODE BIOPSY IN MULTICENTRIC BREAST CANCERTechnique of Lymphatic MappingHistologic Evaluation of Sentinel NodesSurgical ProceduresRESULTS OF THE AUSTRIAN SENTINEL NODE STUDY GROUPPatients and DataFollow-upDISCUSSIONClinical Advantage of Sentinel Node Biopsy in Multicentric Breast CancerQuality Control of Sentinel Node Biopsy Procedure REFERENCES 8. BREAST CANCER RECURRENCE: ROLE OF SERUM TUMOR MARKERS CEA AND CA 15-3 (METHODOLOGY) Franco Lumachi, Stefano M.M. Basso, and Umberto BassoINTRODUCTIONSERUM TUMOR MARKERS AND BREAST CANCERCARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGENCANCER ANTIGEN 15-3PREDICTION OF RISK OF RECURRENCE AND LOCOREGIONAL RELAPSEMONITORING THE RESPONSE TO THERAPY OF RECURRENCESCONCLUSIONSREFERENCEs 9. BREAST CANCER PATIENTS BEFORE, DURING OR AFTER TREATMENT: CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD DETECTED BY MULTIGENE REAL- TIME REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION Barbara K. ZehentnerINTRODUCTIONMATERIALS AND METHODSTumor Cell Enrichment from Peripheral BloodRNA Extraction and cDNA SynthesisMultigene Real-Time RT-PCRRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONREFERENCES 10. BREAST CANCER PATIENTS: DIAGNOSTIC EPIGENETIC MARKERS IN BLOOD Qinghua Feng and Nancy B. KiviatINTRODUCTIONUSE OF DNA METHYLATION MARKERS IN CANCER DETECTION IDENTIFICATION OF DNA METHYLATION MARKERSCIRCULATING TUMOR DNA AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR CANCER DETECTIONMETHODS FOR METHYLATION ANALYSISBLOOD SAMPLE COLLECTIONDNA ISOLATION FROM BLOODBISULFITE CONVERSIONMethylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP) AssayMethyLight AssayNested Polymerase Chain Reaction MethodPOTENTIAL NOVEL METHODSDATA ANALYSISEXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONSPERSPECTIVES AND LIMITATIONS REFERENCES 11. BREAST CANCER PATIENTS: DETECTION OF CIRCULATING CANCER CELL RELATED mRNA MARKERS BY MEMBRANE ARRAY METHOD Shiu-Ru Lin, Jaw-Yuan Wang, Ming-Yii Huang, and Chung-Chi Chen INTRODUCTIONLIMITATION OF TRADITIONAL STANDARD METHOD FOR DETECTING THE CIRCULATING CANCER CELLSDETECTION OF mRNA-RELATED MOLECULES BY REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE-PCR (RT-PCR)HISTOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DEVELOPING A POWER TOOL FOR DETECTING CIRCULATING CANCER CELLS WITH THE MEMBRANE ARRAYMembrane Array PreparationPreparation of Digoxigenin-labeled cDNA Targets and HybridizationComparison of Membrane Array Method with Real-Time PCRPotential Clinical Application of Membrane Array MethodFUTURE PERSPECTIVEREFERENCES 12. PREDICTION OF METASTASIS AND RECURRENCE OF BREAST CARCINOMA: DETECTION OF SURVIVIN- EXPRESSING CIRCULATING CANCER CELLS Shang-mian YieINTRODUCTIONDETECTION OF CIRCULATING BREAST CANCER CELLSMethods Used to Detect Circulating Cancer CellsCytometric MethodsReverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (RT-PCR-ELISA)Selection of Breast Cancer-Associated MarkerPotential Clinical ApplicationsREVERSE TRANSCRIPTION-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION-ELISAMETHODOLOGYPreparation of RT-PCR-ELISA SystemDetection of Circulating Cancer Cells by RT-PCR-ELISA SystemValidation of RT-PCR-ELISA SystemCONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVESREFERENCES13. NODE-NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER: PREDICTIVE AND PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD CYTOKERATIN-19 mRNA-POSITIVE CELLS Nikos Xenidis, Maria Perrakis, S. Kakolyris, Dimitris Mavroudis, and Vassilis Georgoulias INTRODUCTIONPROGNOSTIC AND PREDICTIVE FACTORSTumor SizeHistological GradeLymphatic and Vascular InvasionProliferation RateEstrogen and Progesterone ReceptorsHuman Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 (HER-2/neu)MINIMAL RESIDUAL DISEASECIRCULATING TUMOR CELLSDETECTION OF CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLSTechniques for Circulating Tumor Cells DetectionPreanalytical Circulating Tumor Cells Enrichment TechniquesCytometric TechniquesNucleic Acid-Based TechniquesMolecular Markers for Circulating Tumor Cells DetectionMarkers with Low Breast Cancer SpecificityMarkers with High Breast Cancer SpecificityCLINICAL RELEVANCE OF CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS Predictive and Prognostic Value of Circulating Tumor Cells in Node- Negative Breast Cancer PatientsREFERENCES 14. BREAST AND COLON CARCINOMAS: DETECTION WITH PLASMA CRIPTO-1 Caterina Bianco, Luigi Strizzi, Antonella De Luca, Nicola Normando, and David S. SalomonINTRODUCTIONFUNCTION OF CRIPTO-1 DURING EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENTCRIPTO-1 IN HUMAN MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AND TUMORIGENESISINTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PATHWAYS ACTIVATED BY CRIPTO-1EXPRESSION OF CRIPTO-1 IN HUMAN COLON AND BREAST CARCINOMASCRIPTO-1 AS TARGET FOR THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION IN HUMAN CARCINOMASDETECTION OF CRIPTO-1 IN THE PLASMA OF BREAST AND COLON CANCERPATIENTS WITH ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)REFERENCES15. BREAST CANCER RISK IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CYTOLOGY IN NIPPLE ASPIRATE FLUID Kimberly Baltzell, Dixie Mills, Britt-Marie Ljung, Susan Love, and Margaret WrenschINTRODUCTIONCURRENT METHODS OF ASSESING BREAST CANCER RISKRISK ASSESSMENT MODELSBREAST DUCT ANATOMYDuctal AnatomyThe NippleNIPPLE ASPIRATE FLUIDCollection of Nipple Aspirate FluidComponents of Nipple Aspirate FluidCYTOLOGIC EVALUATION OF NIPPLE ASPIRATE FLUIDRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ABNORMAL CYTOLOGY IN NIPPLE ASPIRATE FLUID AND BREAST CANCER RISKREFERENCES 16. TISSUE MICROARRAYS: CONSTRUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR BIOMARKER STUDIESShannon M. Mumenthaler, Nam Yoon, Ai Li, Vei Mah, George Chang, Farzad Nooraie, Yahyah Elshimali, Stephanie Hanna, Sarang Kim, Steve Horvath, Sophia Apple, David Chia, David B. Seligson, and Lee GoodglickINTRODUCTIONADVANTAGES OF TISSUE MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGYCONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A TISSUE MICROARRAYDonor Blocks and Core Size and NumberSelecting the Right Tissue from the Correct Patient PopulationAvailable Tissue MicroarraysTISSUE MICROARRAY SECTIONINGLINKING TISSUE TO A PATIENT AND PATHOLOGY DATABASEPROTOCOL FOR MARKER ANALYSISSample Immunohistochemistry ProtocolTISSUE MICROARRAYS PREPARED FROM FROZEN TISSUEQUANTIFYING BIOMARKER EXPRESSIONManual ScoringAutomated ScoringDATA ANALYSIS: SPOT LEVEL AND POOLED DATASpot-level AnalysisPooled DataSTATISTICAL TOOLSDISEASE PROGRESSION STUDYAnnexin A1 StudyGATA-3 StudyMULTIMARKER STUDYCONCLUSIONREFERENCES17. SYSTEMATIC VALIDATION OF BREAST CANCER BIOMARKERS USING TISSUE MICROARRAYS: FROM CONSTRUCTION TO IMAGE ANALYSIS Catherine M.A. Kelly, Denise Ryan, Sarah Penny, and William M. Gallagher INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF A BIOMARKERCANDIDATE BIOMARKER IDENTIFICATION USING DNA MICROARRAYSSYTEMATIC APPROACH TO BIOMARKER IDENTIFICATION AND VALIDATIONTISSUE MICROARRAYSCELL PELLET ARRAYSFROZEN TUMOR TISSUE MICROARRAYFROZEN PROTEIN ARRAYTISSUE IMMUNOBLOTTINGTISSUE MICROARRAY ASSAYWESTERN BLOT ANALYSIS AND ANTIBODY OPTIMIZATIONWESTERN BLOTTINGIMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRYMANUAL ANALYSISDIGITAL SLIDE SCANNING IMAGE STORAGEDIGITAL SLIDE SCANNING AND STORAGE REFERENCES 18. PHYLLODES TUMORS OF THE BREAST: ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN DIAGNOSIS Puay Hoon Tan, Gary Man-Kit Tse, George Wai-Cheong Yip, and Boon Huat BayINTRODUCTIONCLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PHYLLODE TUMORSIMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRYROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSISOF PHYLLODE TUMORSROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN PROGNOSIS OF PHYLLODETUMORSROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN UNDERSTANDING THE PATHOGENESIS OF PHYLLODE TUMORSREFERENCES 19. PHYLLODES TUMOR OF THE BREAST: PROGNOSIS ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRYNicole Nicosia Esposito and David J. DabbsINTRODUCTIONIMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSISMarker of Proliferation: Ki-67 (MIB-1)Tumor Suppressor Gene P53Steroid Receptors: Estrogen and Progesterone ReceptorsProteins with Targeted Therapy ImplicationsC-kit (CD117)Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorHER-2/neuCHROMOSOMAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSISHISTOPATHOLOGIC ANALYSISREFERENCES 20. METAPLASTIC BREAST CARCINOMA: DETECTION USING HISTOLOGY AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY Tibor TotINTRODUCTIONDEFINITIONCURRENT CLASSIFICATIONHISTOLOGYIMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRYTHE CONCEPT OF BASAL-LIKE TUMORSCLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURESPROGNOSTIC AND PREDICTIVE PARAMETERSREFERENCES 21. INVASIVE BREAST CANCER: OVEREXPRESSION OF HER-2 DETERMINED BY IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY AND MULTIPLEX LIGAND-DEPENDENT PROBE AMPLIFICATION Paul J. van Diest, C.B. Moelans, D. Purnomosari, G. Pals, and R.A. de WegerINTRODUCTIONMULTIPLEX LIGATION-DEPENDENT PROBE AMPLIFICATION OF HER-2/neu AMPLIFICATIONCORRELATION BETWEEN HER-2/neu MULTIPLEX LIGATION-DEPENDENT PROBE AMPLIFICATION AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRYDISCUSSIONREFERENCES 22. OPERABLE BREAST CANCER: NEOADJUVANT TREATMENT (METHODOLOGY)Manfred Kaufmann, Sibylle Loibl, and Gunter von MinckwitzINTRODUCTIONDIAGNOSISTREATMENT DECISIONChemotherapyEndocrine TherapyTherapy for HER-2/neu-Overexpressing TumorsPredictive Marker of Response and ResistanceLOCAL TREATMENTSurgical Management of the BreastSurgical Management of the AxillaRadiotherapyPATHOLOGYREFERENCES 23. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR BREAST CANCER James A. McCubrey, Richard A. Franklin, Partick M. Navolanic, Alberto M. Martelli, and Linda S. SteelmanINTRODUCTIONMETHOTREXATE AND 5-FLUOROURACILCYCLOPHOSPHAMIDEANTHRACYCLINESTAXANESTRASTUZUMABTAMOXIFENAROMATASE INHIBITORSREFERENCES 24. LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCER: ROLE OF CHEMOTHERAPY IN IMPROVING PROGNOSISGiuseppe Frasci, Giuseppe D'Aiuto, Giovanni Iodice, Massimiliano D'Aiuto, and Giuseppe ComellaINTRODUCTIONPreoperative Versus Postoperative ChemotherapyCLINICOPATHOLOGICAL END POINTS AND LONG-TERM OUTCOMESEARCHING FOR THE BEST NEOADJUVANT TREATMENTDrugsDose and ScheduleROLE OF TAREGETED THERAPYTrastuzumabLapatinibBevacizumabOther MoleculesCORRECT INDIVIDUALIZATION OF THE TREATMENTHormone Receptor StatusGene Expression ProfileEarly Assessment of Tumor ResponseTAILORED NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY MAY IMPROVE THE PROGNOSISCONCLUSIONSREFERENCES25. THE RELEVANCE OF DOSE-INTENSITY FOR ADJUVANT TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCERSherko Kummel, Mahdi Rezai, Rainer Kimmig, and Peter SchmidINTRODUCTIONDOSE-INTENSITY AND DOSE-DENSITY THEORETICALFRAMEWORK CANCER AND LEUKEMIA GROUP B TRIAL 9741 ANDGRUPPO ONCOLOGIAGONO-MIC STUDYECOG 1199 STUDYEvidence from other Adjuvant TrialsEvidence from Neoadjuvant TrialsREFERENCES 26. ADVANCED BREAST CANCER: TREATMENT WITH DOCETAXEL/EPIRUBICIN A.G. Pallis, V. Georgoulias, and D. MavroudisINTRODUCTIONEpirubicinDocetaxelAnthracycline-Taxane combinationDOCETAXEL-EPIRUBICIN COMBINATIONPhase 1 StudiesToxicity of the Docetaxel-Epirubicin CombinationPharmacokinetic DataPHASE II STUDIES OF THE DOCETAXEL/EPIRUBICIN COMBINATIONREFERENCES 27. SYSTEMIC THERAPY FOR BREAST CANCER: USING TOXICITY DATA TO INFORM DECISIONS John K. Erban and Joseph LauINTRODUCTIONCATEGORIES OF SYSTEMIC THERAPY FOR BREAST CANCERHormonal TherapyChemotherapyBiological and Targeted TherapeuticsSupportive Agents as Anticancer TherapyMEASURING HARMS OF SYSTEMIC THERAPYRISKS OF ACUTE TOXICITIESLATER SEQUELAE OF SYSTEMIC THERAPY AND CHOICE OF TREATMENTHARMS RELATED TO EFFECTIVE TREATMENT MODALITIESCardiac and Cardiovascular ToxicityNeurological Effects of TherapyMusculoskeletal ComplicationsSecondary Malignancy Fertility, Teratogenicity, and in utero Effects on the Fetus CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSREFERENCES 28. CHEMOTHERAPY FOR METASTATIC BREAST CANCER: PATIENTS WHO RECEIVED ADJUVANT ANTHRACYCLINES (AN OVERVIEW) Alessandro Morabito, Maria Carmela Piccirillo, Jane Bryce, Katia Monaco, Gianfranco De Feo, Antonia Del Giudice, Fabiano Falasconi, and Francesco PerroneINTRODUCTIONFIRST-LINE ANTHRACYCLINE-CONTAINING REGIMENSCURRENT OPTIONS OF TREATMENT FOR HER-2-NEGATIVE METASTATIC BREAST CANCER PATIENTSTaxanes as Single Agents or in Combination with Non-Cross-Resistant DrugsCombinations without Anthracyclines and Taxanes Combinations with Liposomal AnthracyclinesCURRENT OPTIONS OF TREATMENT FOR HER-2 POSITIVE METASTATIC BREAST CANCER PATIENTSTrastuzumab and AnthracyclinesTrastuzumab and TaxanesTrastuzumab Combinations Without Anthracyclines and/or TaxanesTrastuzumab and PolychemotherapyTrastuzumab and Liposomal AnthracyclinesCONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVESREFERENCES29. ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-NEGATIVE AND HER-2/neu- POSITIVE LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CARCINOMA: THERAPY WITH PACLIAXEL AND GRANULOCYTE-COLONY STIMULATING FACTORGiuseppe Frasci, Giuseppe D'Aiuto, Giovanni Iodice, Renato Thomas, Massimiliano D'Aiuto, and Giuseppe ComellaHORMONE RECEPTOR STATUS AND RESPONSE TO CHEMOTHERAPYHER-2/neu STATUS AND RESPONSE TO CHEMOTHERAPYPACLIAXEL- CHEMOTHERAPY AS PRIMARY TREATMENT OF LARGEOPERABLE OR LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCERWEEKLY CISPLATIN-EPIRUBICIN-PACLITAXEL WITH G-CSF SUPPORT IN LABCWEEKLY CISPLATIN-EPIRUBICIN-PACLITAXEL WITH G-CSF SUPPORTIN LARGE OPERABLE DISEASEDISCUSSIONREFERENCES30. BREAST CANCER: SIDE EFFECTS OF TAMOXIFEN AND ANASTROZOLEJohn R. Benson, E.H. Turner, and Zoe WintersINTRODUCTIONBIOLOGICAL MODELSANTIHORMONAL THERAPIESAntiestrogensAromatose InhibitorsADVANCED BREAST CANCERNEOADJUVANT HORMONAL THERAPYADJUVANT HORMONAL THERAPYADJUVANT TRIALS OF TAMOXIFENADJUVANT TRIALS OF AROMATOSE INHIBITORSCHEMOPREVENTIONTamoxifenAromatose InhibitorsSIDE-EFFECTS OF HORMONAL THERAPIESTamoxifenAROMATOSE INHIBITORSSIDE-EFFECTS OF HORMONAL TREATMENTCONCLUSIONSREFERENCES31. BREAST CANCER: EXPRESSION OF HER-2 AND EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AS CLINICAL MARKERS FOR RESPONSE TO TARGETED THERAPYStanley E. Shackney, David R. Emlet, Russell Schwartz, Kathryn A. Brown, Agnese A. Pollice, and Charles A. SmithINTRODUCTIONCELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF HER-2/EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR INTERACTIONSQUANTITATIVE CONSIDERATIONSDYNAMIC ASPECTS OF HER-2 AND EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTORRECEPTOR SIGNALINGTECHNICAL ASPECTS OF CLINICAL MEASUREMENTS OF HER-2 AND EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORTECHNICAL ASPECTS OF CLINICAL MEASUREMENTS OF HER-2 AND EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR: IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY VERSUS IMMUNOFLUORESCENCETECHNICAL ASPECTS OF CLINICAL MEASUREMENTS OF HER-2 AND EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR: FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATIONEXPRESSION OF HER-2 AND EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOROVERVIEW AND CONCLUSIONSREFERENCES 32. YOUNG BREAST CANCER PATIENTS UNDERGOING BREAST-CONSERVING THERAPY: ROLE OF BRCA1 AND BRCA2 Andrea Chao Bafford, Judy E. Garber, Anu Chittenden, and Mehra GolshanINTRODUCTIONBRCA1 AND BRCA2BRCA-RELATED BREAST CANCERBREAST-CONSERVING THERAPY VERSUS MASTECTOMYBREAST-CONSERVING THERAPY IN BRCA CARRIERSALGORITHM FOR SURGICAL DECISION MAKINGREFERENCES33. RADIATION THERAPY FOR OLDER WOMEN WITH EARLY BREAST CANCER Benjamin D. SmithINTRODUCTIONEPIDEMIOLOGYNATURAL HISTORYPATHOLOGYRADIATION THERAPY FOR LOCAL CONTROL RADIATION THERAPY FOR REGIONAL CONTROLRADIATION THERAPY TO IMPROVE SURVIVALRADIATION TECHNIQUESRADIATION TOXICITYREFERENCES  34. ACUTE SIDE EFFECTS OF RADIOTHERAPY IN BREAST CANCER PATIENTS: ROLE OF DNA-REPAIR AND CELL CYCLE CONTROL GENES Xiang-Lin Tan, Odilia Popanda, and Jenny Chang-ClaudeINTRODUCTIONSelection of Possible Marker Genes and Single Nucleotide PolymorphismsDNA Repair Genes and Clinical Radiation ReactionCell Cycle Control Genes TP53 and p21, Clinical Radiation ReactionMATERIALS AND METHODSStudy Subjects and Data CollectionGenotyping MethodsStatistical MethodsRESULTSGentotype-Specific Risks to Acute Skin Toxicity of RadiotherapyHaplotype-Specific Risks to Acute Skin Toxicity of RadiotherapyCombined Effects of Genotypes on the Risk of Acute Skin Toxicity afterRadiotherapyJoint Effects of the Genotypes in DNA Repair Genes and TP53 Arg72 ProDISCUSSIONPolymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes and the Risk of Acute Side Effects after RadiotherapyPolymorphisms in TP53 and p21 Genes and the Risk of Acute Side Effects after RadiotherapyJoint Effects of the Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes and TP53Body Mass Index and Development of Acute Side Effects after RadiotherapyEpidemiological and Clinical Characteristics, Strengths, and Limitations of the StudyREFERENCES35. 18F-FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE/POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPH IN PRIMARY BREAST CANCER: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR FALSE-NEGATIVE RESULTS Rakesh Kumar and Neena LalINTRODUCTIONTUMOR SIZE HISTOLOGICAL TUMOR TYPETUMOR GRADE PATTERNSProliferative ActivityTumor Blood Vessel DensityTISSUE HETEROGENICITYUNIFOCAL VERSUS MULTIFOCAL BREAST LESIONSESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE RECEPTORSBREAST DENSITYAXILLARY LYMPH NODE SPREADDistant SpreadBLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELSGLUCOSE TRANSPORTERSDATA ACQUISITION AND DATA ANALYSISRECENT DEVELOPMENTSREFERENCES 36. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE SURGERY DURING PROPHYLACTIC MASTECTOMY (METHODOLOGY)Judy C. Boughey and Isabelle BedrosianINTRODUCTIONPREOPERATIVE EVALUATION PRIOR TO SENTINEL LYMPH NODE SURGERY AND PROPHYLACTIC MASTECTOMYMETHODOLOGY OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE SURGERY AT THE TIME OF PROPHYLACTIC MASTECTOMYChoice of Mapping AgentSite of Injection of Mapping AgentTime of Injection of Mapping AgentLymphoscintigraphySurgical TechniquePathological Analysis of Sentinel Lymph NodeINDICATORS FOR PERFORMING SENTINEL LYMPH NODE SURGERY AT THE TIME OF PROPHYLACTIC MASTECTOMYREFERENCES37. BREAST CONSERVATION SURGERY: METHODS Lloyd A. Mack, Robert L. Lindsay, and Walley J. TempleINTRODUCTIONSURGICAL METHODSSkin IncisionsTumor RemovalClosure of Defect/Skin ClosureOncoplasticsMinimally Invasive/Ablative TechniquesREFERENCES 38. LYMPH NODE-NEGATIVE BREAST CARCINOMA: ASSESSMENT OF HER-2/neu GENE STATUS AS PROGNOSTIC VALUE Gloria PeiróINTRODUCTIONPROTEIN OVEREXPRESSIONEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent AssayImmunohistochemistrymRNA OVEREXPRESSIONQuantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction cDNA Microarray-Based MethodGENE AMPLIFICATIONSouthern and Slot BlottingFluorescence In Situ HybridizationBright-field In Situ HybridizationChromogenic In Situ HybridizationSilver-Enhanced In Situ HybridizationQuantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase ChainReactionREFERENCES39. MULTIFOCAL OR MULTICENTRIC BREAST CANCER: UNDERSTANDING ITS IMPACT ON MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT OUTCOMES Julia L. OhDEFINITIONS OF MULTIFOCALITY AND MULTICENTRICITYIMPACT ON SURGICAL RESECTIONIMPACT ON ADJUVANT RADIATION THERAPYNEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY AND LOCOREGIONAL THERAPYCONCLUSIONS ON MANAGEMENTREFERENCES 40. ARE BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS AT RISK OF DEVELOPING OTHER CANCERS? Jaime S. Raymond and Carol J. Rowland HogueSUMMARYINTRODUCTIONMATERIALS AND METHODSPopulationDefinition of Second Primary TumorsAnalysis of Risk of Second Primary TumorsRESULTSDISCUSSIONREFERENCES 41. DISTANT METASTASIS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER: PROGNOSIS WITH NODAL STATUS Anees B. ChagparINTRODUCTIONBREAST CANCER IN THE ELDERLYTumor BiologyPatient ComorbiditiesDETERMINANTS OF DISTANT METASTATIC DISEASELYMPH NODE EVALUATION IN THE ELDERLYREFERENCES 42. CONCOMITANT USE OF TAMOXIFEN WITH RADIOTHERAPY ENHANCES SUBCUTANEOUS BREAST FIBROSIS IN HYPERSENSITIVE PATIENTS David Azria, Yazid Belkacemi, Joseph Gligorov, and M. OzsahinBACKGROUNDCONCURRENT TAMOXIFEN AND RADIOTHERAPY Preclinical DataClinical ResultsEfficacy of Combined TAM-RT Treatment Toxicitites Combined TAM-RT TreatmentTAMOXIFEN AND RADIOTHERAPY IN HYPERSENSITIVE PATIENTSMethodologyRadiation-induced ApoptosisTreatment ModalitiesRadiation-induced Assessment of Side EffectsStatistical AnalysisRESULTSPatient CharacteristicsTreatment Delivery Acute ToxicityRelapse-free and Overall SurvivalLate Side EffectsComplication-relapse-free Survival Complication-free SurvivalDISCUSSION AND PERSPECTIVESREFERENCES43. MALIGNANT PHYLLODES TUMOR OF THE BREAST: IS ADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY NECESSARY? Aaron P. Brown, David K. Gaffney, and O. Kenneth MacdonaldINTRODUCTIONCLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSISPatient CharacteristicsTriple AssessmentClinical Examination Radiological ImagingHistological AnalysisPROGNOSISTREATMENTSurgerySurgical TechniqueRadiotherapyRadiation TechniqueChemotherapyChemotherapy TechniqueSUMMARYREFERENCES 44. LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCER: MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE Can AtalayINTRODUCTIONLOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCERMULTIDRUG RESISTANCEABCB1 (MDR1) ProteinABCC1 (MRP1) ProteinABCG2 (BCRP) ProteinMULTIDRUG RESISTANCE IN LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCEREffects of MDR on Clinical Response to ChemotherapyEffects of MDR on SurvivalMODULATION OF ABC TRANSPORTERSFUTURE PERSPECTIVESREFERENCES 45. BREAST CANCER: DIAGNOSIS OF RECURRENCE USING 18F-FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE-POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY/COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY Simona Ben-Haim and Lea RadanINTRODUCTIONMETHODOLOGY: FDG-PET AND PET/CT IMAGINGImage InterpretationFDG-PET AND PET/CT IMAGING FOR BREAST CANCER RECURRENCEREFERENCES 46. ROLE OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE BIOPSY IN DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU: DIAGNOSIS AND METHODOLOGY Amit GoyalINTRODUCTIONPATIENT SELECTIONMETHODOLOGY: SENTINEL LYMPH NODE BIOPSY Choice of RadioisotopeDose of RadioisotopeTiming of InjectionLymphoscintigraphyOperative TechniqueREFERENCES  47. BREAST CONSERVATION TREATMENT OF EARLY STAGE BREAST CARCINOMA: RISK OF CARDIAC MORTALITYEleanor E.R. HarrisINTRODUCTIONCARDIAC MORTALITYIMAGING STUDIES ASSESSING CARDIAC INJURYTECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING CARDIAC TOXICITYDaily PositioningIntensity Modulated Radiation TherapyBreath Hold TechniquesREFERENCES

Editorial Reviews

"Once more Professor Hayat has to be congratulated for bringing together 56 leading scientists representing 16 countries in the field of breast cancer, which has made it possible to publish such an excellent book. It represents a valuable addition to the available literature on breast cancer treatment since it covers all aspects of breast cancer, including diagnosis, treatments, and prognosis. Thereby, not only efficacy of various anticancer drugs and their side-effects are pointed out, but also the necessity of age-dependent breast cancer strategies is highlighted. Therefore, I conclude that this book is a true benefit to all clinicians, surgeons, and oncologists working in the field of breast cancer." Professor Dr. Thomas DittmerInstitute of ImmunologyWitten/Herdecke UniversityWitten, Germany"This first volume of the Handbook on Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis, concerns problems related to diagnosis, treatment, monitoring of therapy, and prognosis in breast cancer. This is an impressive monograph containing data range on novel techniques (e.g., PET examination of sentinel lymph nodes) used in early diagnosis, prognosis (Molecular studies on circulating neoplastic cells), and treatment (surgery, chemo-radio-and hormontherapy) of various histological types of breast cancer. This monograph resulting from cooperative efforts of 56 authors from 16 countries (specialists in this field) cannot be matched by any publication of this type. The oncologists, pathologists, and scientists engaged in problems of breast cancer should have this extremely valuable Handbook at hand." Professor Piotr DziegielDepartment of Histology and EmbryologyMedical University of Wroclaw, Poland"It has been a great pleasure to review the forthcoming book, Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis: Volume 1, edited by Professor M.A. Hayat. Dr. Hayat is a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, New Jersey. After seeing the chapters listed in his book, I am very impressed by the thoroughness of the topics in the proposed book. As an editor, Dr. Hayat has assembled a group of well known researchers and clinicians from many parts of the world to write the state-of-the art chapters on breast cancer, including but not limited to the chapters, on computer-assisted diagnosis, familial breast cancer, serum markers in diagnosis, circulating cancer cells before and after treatments, epigenetic markers, metastasis and its detection, validation of biomarkers, immunohistochemistry, invasive cancer and treatments. He has summarized the problems associated with the complexities of research publications which are not easy reading even for many scientists and clinicians. The subject matter is, undoubtedly, complex and formidable for many breast cancer patients. The current consolidated information on breast cancer research is not readily available. The numbers of cancer cases are projected to increase significantly by 2030, especially in low and middle income countries. Even in the advanced countries, there is a population of low and middle income people who do not have access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. These people suffer from the same problems as those belonging to the low and middle income countries. Dr. Hayat has provided data in his preface showing that some cancers can be reduced by changes in lifestyle and education. His assessment is very timely.With best wishes and regards to Dr. Hayat."Akhouri A. Sinha, Ph.D. Professor of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, The University of Minnesota and Research Scientist at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota."Professor Hayat has done it again! He has edited (METHODS OF CANCER DIAGNOSIS, THERAPY, AND PROGNOSIS, to be published by Springer) a comprehensive treatise on diagnosis, therapy, recurrence, resistance along with risk benefit ratio in cancers with special emphasis on breast cancer. Scientists and clinicians from the world over have contributed the latest advances in their respective areas of expertise. The reader is provided with a whole field view of the state of the art in breast cancer management. This treatise will serve as a must read for oncologists, scientist researchers and students of cancer biology. I look forward to the next series dealing with epidemiology, genetic predisposition and the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer biology." Debabrata Banerjee Ph.DAssociate ProfessorMedicine and PharmacologyCancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick