Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis: Brain Cancer by M. A. HayatMethods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis: Brain Cancer by M. A. Hayat

Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis: Brain Cancer

EditorM. A. Hayat

Paperback | December 15, 2012

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This eighth volume in the series Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis discusses in detail the classification of the CNS tumors as well as brain tumor imaging. Scientists and Clinicians have contributed state of the art chapters on their respective areas of expertise, providing the reader a whole field view of the CNS tumors and brain tumor imaging in Europe.This fully illustrated volume:Explains the genetics of malignant brain tumors and gene amplification using quantitative-PCR;Presents a large number of standard and new imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, amide proton transfer imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance single voxel spectroscopy and intraoperative ultrasound imaging, for staging and diagnosing various primary and secondary brain cancers;Explains the usefulness of imaging methods for planning and monitoring (assessment) therapy for cancers;Discusses diagnosis and treatment of primary CNS lymphomas, CNS atypical teratoid/rhabdoid and CNS Rosai-Dorfman disease;Includes the subject of translational medicine. Professor Hayat has summarized the problems associated with the complexities of research publications and has been successful in editing a must-read volume for oncologists, cancer researchers, medical teachers and students of cancer biology.
Title:Methods of Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis: Brain CancerFormat:PaperbackDimensions:440 pagesPublished:December 15, 2012Publisher:Springer NetherlandsLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:9400733577

ISBN - 13:9789400733572

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Table of Contents

1. The World Health Organization Classification of the Central Nervous System Tumors: an Update Using Imaging; Shiori AmemiyaIntroductionAstrocytic TumorsPilomyxoid astrocytomaNeuronal and Mixed Neuronal-Glial TumorsPapillary Glioneuronal TumorExtraventricular NeurocytomaRosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor of the Fourth VentricleOther Neuroepithelial TumorsAngiocentric GliomaTumors of the Pineal RegionPapillary Tumor of the Pineal RegionEmbryonal TumorsMedulloblastoma with Extensive NodularityAnaplastic MedulloblastomaReferences2. Brain Tumor Imaging: European Association of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guidelines; Thierry Vander Borght, Susanne Asenbaum, Peter Bartenstein, Christer Halldin, Ozlem Kapucu, Koen Van Laere, Andrea Varrone, and Klaus TatschIntroductionBackground Information and DefinitionsCommon IndicationsIndicationsDetection of Viable Tumor TissueTumor DelineationSelecting the Best Biopsy SiteNoninvasive Tumor GradingTherapy PlanningTumor ResponseContraindications (relative)ProcedurePatient PreparationPrearrivalPreinjectionInformation Pertinent to Performance of the ProcedurePrecautions and Conscious Sedation RadiopharmaceuticalRadiopharmaceuticalRecommended DosageRadiation DosimetryRadiation Dosimetry of Brain Transmission ScansData AcquisitionTime Delay from Injection to Beginning of Data AcquisitionSet-up for Data AcquisitionImage ProcessingPET ReconstructionSPECT ReconstructionReformatting of PET and SPECT ImagesComparative EvaluationInterpretation CriteriaVisual InterpretationQuantificationReportingGeneralBody of the ReportInterpretation and ConclusionIssues Requiring Further ClarificationReferences3. Assessment of Heterogeneity in Malignant Brain Tumors; Timothy E. Van Meter, Gary Tye, Catherine Dumur, and William C. BroaddusIntroductionThe problem of Heterogeneity and Its Clinical SignificancePrevious Studies Assessing Molecular Heterogeneity of TumorsUse of Stereotactic Neuroimaging Systems for Tumor SamplingMethodologyDescription of MethodMRI-Guided Stereotactic BiopsyIntegrated Histopathological ScoringUse of Genomics Technologies for Regional Molecular ProfilingResultsHistopathological ConsiderationsAssessing Quality of Biopsy ExtractsGenomic Assessment of Regional Tumor PhenotypeValidation StudiesDiscussionUtility of Stereotactic Biopsy for Tumor CharacterizationFuture Technical Applications Clinical Impact of Improved Tumor CharacterizationReferences4. Diagnosing and Grading of Brain Tumors: Immunohistochemistry; Hidehiro Takei and Suzanne Z. PowellIntroductionImmunohistochemical Markers for Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Brain TumorsImmunohistochemical Markers Routinely Used In Diagnostic Neuro-OncologyPracticeNew Immunohistochemical Markers Applicable to Brain Tumor DiagnosisUseful Immunohistochemical Markers for Differential Diagnosis of Brain TumorsImmunohistochemistry as a Useful Adjunct in Grading of Brain Tumors: Ki-67 and Phospho-Histon H3Immunohistochemical and Analytical MethodsReferences5. Malignant Brain Tumors: Roles of Aquaporins; Jerome Badaut and Jean-Francois BrunetIntroductionAquaporin Expression in Normal Brain and its FunctionAquaporin Distribution and its Potential RoleAquaporin Astrocyte Endfeet Marker in Brain Water HomeostasisInvolvement of Aquaporin 9 Expression in Brain Energy MetabolismAquaporin Distribution in Tumors: Role in Prognosis and TreatmentAquaporin in tumors: Water Homeostasis or Cell Migration?Aquaporin 4 in Tumors: Biomarker for Tumor ClassificationAQP9 in Brain Tumors: New FindingsReferences6. Brain Metastases: Gene Amplification Using Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis; Carmen Franco-Hernandez, Miguel Torres-Martin, Victor Martinez-Glez, Carolina Pena-Granero, Javier S. Castresana, Cacilda Casartelli and Juan A. ReyIntroductionObjectivesEquipment and ProcedureDNA ExtractionQuantitative-PCR: Amplification StatusProcedureResultsFurther ConsiderationsReferences7. Cyclic Amp Phosphodiesterase-4 in Brain Tumor Biology: Immunochemical Analysis; B. Mark Woerner and Joshua B. RubinIntroductionMaterials and MethodsWestern BlottingMaterialsMethodsImmunohistochemistryMaterialsMethodsImmunocytochemistryMaterialsMethodsResults and DiscussionReferences8. Radiosurgical Treatment of Progressive Malignant Brain Tumors; Cole A. GillerIntroductionMethodology of Treatment PhilosophyMethodology of IndicationsMethodology of Choice of Fractionation ScheduleMethodology of DosimetryConstruction of Hypofractionated PlansCase ExampleCohort StudyReferences9. Anti-Vascular Therapy for Brain Tumors; Florence M. Hofman and Thomas C. ChenIntroductionSpecific Drug TargetsAngiogenic Growth FactorsGrowth Factor Receptor InhibitorsEndothelial Cell Adhesion and MigrationBone Marrow-derived Endothelial Progenitor CellsConclusionReferences10. Glial Brain Tumors: Antiangiogenic Therapy; William PJ Leenders and Pieter WesselingClinical Features of GliomaHistopathology and Genetics of GliomasCurrent Treatment ModalitiesAntiangiogenesis as Antitumor TherapyVascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and AngiogenesisPreclinical Antiangiogenesis Therapy for DiagnosisBlood Vessel NormalizationClinical Experience with Antiangiogenesis TherapyFuture PerspectivesReferences11. Brain Tumors: Amide Proton Transfer Imaging; Jinyuan Zhou and Jaishri O. BlakeleyIntroductionChemical Exchange-Dependant Saturation Transfer Imaging: Principles and ApplicationsMagnetization Transfer Contrast, Chemical Exchange-Dependant SaturationTransfer and Amide Proton TransferAmide Proton Transfer Imaging of Experimental Brain Tumor ModelsAmide Proton Transfer Imaging of Human Brain TumorsReferences12. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Rat Models of Invasive Brain Tumors; Sungheon Kim, Steve Pickup, and Harish PoptaniIntroductionImaging Tissue MicrostructureDiffusion TensorDiffusion Tensor MetricsData Acquisition methodsRat Brain Tumor Models9L GliosarcomaC6 GliomaF98 GliomaMayo 22 Hunman Brain Tumor XenograftFuture ConsiderationsTractographyTumor Cell Density and Diffusion AnisotropyReferences13. Brain Tumors: Diffusion Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging; Pia C. Sundgren, Yue Cao, and Thomas L. ChenevertIntroductionImaging TechniquesDiffusion Weighted ImagingDiffusion Tensor ImagingDiffusion Imaging in Tissue CharacterizationDiffusion Imaging in Tumor GradingDiffusion Imaging in Presurgical PlanningDiffusion Imaging in Treatment Follow-upDiffusion Imaging in Differentiation of Recurrent TumorFrom Radiation Injury and Postsurgical InjuryPitfallsFuture ApplicationsReferences14. Brain Tumors: Planning and Monitoring Therapy with Positron Emission Tomography; D.J. Coope, K. Herholz, and P. PriceIntroductionImaging Brain Tumors with Positron Emission Tomograoghy and FDGAmino Acid PET in Brain TumorsPositron Emission Tomography Imaging in Less Common Tumor TypesDelineation of Tumor Extent for Treatment PlanningMinimizing Damage to Uninvolved Brain StructuresMonitoring Brain Tumors-When is the best time to intervene?Selection of Treatment ModalitiesAssessing Response to Treatment and PrognosisThe Future of PET Imaging in Brain TumorsReferences15. Clinical Evaluation of Primary Brain Tumor: O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography; Matthias Weckesser and Karl-Josef LangenIntroductionIntensity and Dynamics of O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine-UptakeCorrelation of O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine-Uptake With Morphological ImagingRecommendations for Image Acquisition and InterpretationClinical ApplicationReferences16. Combined use of [F-18]Fluorodeoxyglucose and [C-11]Methionine in 45 PET-Guided Stereotactic Brain Biopsies; Benoit PirotteIntroductionMaterials and MethodsPatient SelectionStereotactic PET Data AcquisitionAnalysis of Stereotactic PET Images and Target DefinitionData AnalysisResultsAbnormal Met and FDG UptakesLesions in the Cortical Grey MatterLesions in the Sub-cortical Grey MatterSpecific Contribution of Met-PET and FDG-PETSpecificity and Sensitivity to Detect Tumor TissueDiscussionPET for the Guidance of Stereotactic Brain BiopsyChoice of RadiotracerAccuracy of Stereotactic PET CoregistrationComparison Between Met and FDGReferences17. Hemorrhagic Brain Neoplasm: 99MTc-Methoxyisobutyl Isonitrile-Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography; Filippo F. Angileri, Fabio Minutoli, Domenico La Torre and Sergio BaldariIntroductionRadiopharmaceutical and Technical Issues99mTc-MIBI-SPECT in Brain Tumors Evaluation99mTc-MIBI-SPECT in Hemorrhagic Brain NeoplasmReferences18. Brain Tumor Imaging Using p-[123I]IODO-L-Phenylalanine and SPECT; Dirk HellwigIntroductionImaging MethodPreparation of 123I-IPAPatient Preparation and Administration of 123I-IPASPECT AcquisitionCorrelative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ImagingCoregistration of SPECT and NMR ImagesQualitative Interpretation and Quantitative Image AnalysisResults of Brain Tumor Imaging Using 123I-IPAInitial Evaluation of Suspected Brain TumorsEvaluation of Suspected Recurrence or ProgressionQuantitative Criteria for the Evaluation of Brain Lesions by IPA-SPECTComparison of 123I-IPA and 123I-IMTDosimetry of 123I-IPADiscussionPotential AdvancementsAcknowledgementReferences19. Diagnosis and Staging of Brain Tumors: Magnetic Resonance Single Voxel Spectra; Margarida Julia-Sape, Carles Majos and Carles ArusIntroductionSingle Voxel Magnetic Resonance SpectroscopyWhat Does Single Voxel MRS Tell us about a Brain TumorInformation Provided by a Single Voxel MR SpectrumMethodsHow to Perform a Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study When a Brain Tumor is SuspectedAcquisition Parameters for Single Voxel Magnetic ResonanceSpectroscopyReporting on a Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy StudyQuantifying a Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study: Processing a Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance SpectrumQuantifying an MRS Study: Ratio-Based DeterminationsQuantifying an MRS Study: Classifiers and Decision-Support SystemsWhen There is an Indication for a SV MRS ExamDiscrimination Between Tumor and Pseudotumoral LesionTumor ClassificationFollow-up of Brain-Tumors after TreatmentReferences20. Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Acquisition and Reconstruction: Application to Functional and Spectroscopic Imaging in Human Brain; Fa-Hsuan Lin and Shang-Yueh TsaiIntroductionPrinciples of Parallel MRIParallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging AcquisitionsParallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging ReconstructionsMathematical FormulationApplication: Sense Human Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance ImagingApplication: Sense Proton Spectroscopic ImagingConclusionReferences21. Intra-Axial Brain Tumors: Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Elias R. Melhem and Riyadh N. AlokailiIntroductionClassification and Overview of Central Nervous System TumorsIntra-Axial Tumor Imaging ProtocolDiffusion ImagingDiffusion Tensor ImagingPerfusion Magnetic Resonance ImagingProton Magnetic Resonance SpectroscopyBasics of Central Nervous System Tumor Image InterpretationGeneral Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearance of Intra-axial TumorsAppearance of Specific Intra-axial Brain Tumors on Advanced Magnetic Resonance ImagingPrimary (non-lymphomatous) NeoplasmsSecondary Neoplasms (Metastases)LymphomaTumefactive Demyelinating LesionsBrain AbscessEncephalitisApproach to an Unknown Intra-axial Brain Tumor Limitations and Future DirectionReferences22. Brain Tumors: Apparent Diffusion Coefficient at Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Kazuhiko Sugiyama and Kaoru KurisuIntroductionDiffusion-Weighted Imaging and T2 Shine-ThroughDiffusion-Weighted Images SequencesCellularity and Apparent Diffusion CoefficientClinical Application of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in BrainTumor Grade and Apparent Diffusion CoefficientDifferentiation of Brain Tumors and Apparent Diffusion CoefficientAstrocytomas, Oligodendrogliomas, and EpendymomasDysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial TumorsMedulloblastomas, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors, and EpendymomasCentral Neurocytomas and SubependymomasHemanglioblastomas and Other Posterior Cranial Fossa TumorsGlioblastomas, Metastatic Tumors, and Malignant LymphomasHistologic Subtyping of Meningiomas and schawannomasPituitary and Parasellar Tumors and Other TumorsVisualizing Tumor InfiltrationDistinguishing Tumor Recurrence from Radiation NecrosisMonitoring Treatment EffectsDistinguishing Tumor Recurrences from Resection InjuryDistinguishing Brain Abscesses from Cystic or Necrotic Malignant TumorsLimitations: Variations in Apparent Diffusion CoefficientMeasurements and Selection of Regions of InterestFuture DirectionsReferences23. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Tumors Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticles; Matthew A. Hunt and Edward A. NeuweltIntroductionBiologic and Molecular CharacteristicsImaging CharacteristicsExperimental StudiesHuman ImagingIntraoperative Magnetic Resonance ImagingFuture DirectionsReferences24. Metastatic Solitary Malignant Brain Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Nail Bulakbasi and Murat KocaogluIntroductionScreening and Initial EvaluationImaging ProtocolImaging Properties of Solitary Brain MetastasisDifferential Diagnosis of Solitary Brain MetastasisFuture Trends and ConclusionReferences25. Brain Tumor Resection: Intraoperative Ultrasound Images; Christof RennerIntroductionGeneral PrinciplesPrinciples of Intraoperative Ultrasound ExaminationEfficacy of Intraoperative UltrasoundReferences26. Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: Salvage Treatment; Michele Reni, Elena Mazza, and Andres J. M. FerreriIntroductionDiagnostic Workup at RelapsePrognostic FactorsMethodological IssuesWhole-Brain RadiotherapyChemotherapySingle Agent ChemotherapyRetreatment with MethotrexateCombination ChemotherapyMonoclonal AntibodiesHigh-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem-cell RescueIntrathecal ChemotherapyConclusionsReferences27. Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors: Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Receptor; Michael A. Grotzer, Tarek Shalaby and Alexandre ArcaroInsulin-Like Growth Factor 1 ReceptorRole in CNS Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid TumorAnalytical MethodsImmunohistochemistryImmunoprecipitationWestern BlottingQuantitative RT-PCRCell ViabilityDetection of ApoptosisEvaluation of IGF-I/-II/IGF-IR IN CNS AT/RTDown-Regulation of IGF-IRTherapeutic Significance of IGF-IR IN CNS AT/RTReferences28. Central Nervous System Rosai-Dorfman Disease; Osama Raslan, Leena M. Ketonen, Gregory N. Fuller and Dawid SchellingerhoutIntroduction, Epidemioligy and EtiologyIntracranial Rosai Dorfman Disease: Clinical and ImagingFindings and Diffrential DiagnosisSpinal Rosai Dorfman Disease: Clinical and Imaging FindingsHistopathological and Diffinate DiagnosisClinical Course and TreatmentReferences