During the last decade, there has been a major push in the United States to develop strong middle level programs in American schools. The key purpose of such programs is to meet the unique intellectual, social, emotional, and physical needs of young adolescents who are too old to be called children and too young to assume the responsibilities of adulthood. Effective programs are those in which the school administration actively seeks to make the middle school meet the needs of the student, rather than force the student to fit the school. While the concept of middle level education has existed since the early 1960s, it has received much attention during the last decade, due to the growth of sociological, psychological, and educational research on adolescents. This reference book is a comprehensive guide to literature and resources on middle level education. Included are more than 1,700 entries for books, articles, dissertations, newsletters, government documents, videotapes, and other publications. Entries are arranged in topical chapters, and each entry includes an evaluative annotation. The volume concludes with a descriptive list of resources, such as organizations and journals.