The 20th century's most protracted conflict, the Cold War, also provided the longest and most stable peace in the history of the modern world--a fragile peace that came at the price of national freedom for many. With the demise of the Cold War, new nearly unknown countries, long ignored or suppressed, came to the world's attention, as ethnic and national conflicts, rooted in the newly independent states' own multiethnic populations, emerged. From Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia to Eritrea and Uzbekistan, this book provides an essential guide to the states recognized since 1989 and the nations that dwell in their borders. It is the first reference work to address the post-Cold War nationalist resurgence by focusing on the nations within the new nation-states--both the core nationalities and the national minorities. Each article highlights the historical, political, social, and economic evolution of the new nations. The book provides detailed up-to-date information on nations that are emerging to claim a role in the post-Cold War world.