Mushirul Hasan makes a valuable contribution to debates about the society, polity, and history of Indian Muslims in this book. Rejecting generalizations like Good Muslim, Bad Muslim and the clash of civilizations, this book presents Indian Islam as one that is rooted in its environment andthat exists in a pluralist milieu. Hasans agenda is to defend pluralism, secularism, and tolerance against skewed notions of Islam and Muslims that are being promoted by right-wing ideologies and some sections of the West. Hasan argues that not only have Hindu nationalist historiography and the hegemonizing Indian nationalistdiscourse ignored modern Indian Muslim thought, Western scholars of more orthodox forms of Islam have made misjudgements about Muslims based on prejudice. Moderate or Militant brings together Hasans arguments on communalism, nationalism, education, and partition. Using the writings of modern Muslim thinkers like Aziz Ahmad and Mohammad Mujeeb, and many other seminal writings on nineteenth and early-twentieth century Indian Islam, Hasan tries to makea dent in the appalling ignorance about Islam and the culture associated with it that exists today. This book will be of interest to social scientists, public policymakers, and those interested in understanding Indian Muslims.