Modern Welding Technology by Howard B. CaryModern Welding Technology by Howard B. Cary

Modern Welding Technology

byHoward B. Cary, Scott Helzer

Paperback | November 10, 2004

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This well-respected, introductory welding book contains coverage of the latest codes, materials, and processes necessary to become proficient in an ever more complex industry. The technology of welding is growing and the book's focus on arc welding processes and the use of steel in construction reflect those changes-while continuing to provide a comprehensive coverage of basic principles and theory. Contains content on hybrid welding and stir friction welding; background concepts and basic welding techniques; the latest standards, codes, and specifications provided by the AWS; the most recent information on the use of high strength metals, laser welding, and arc and oxyacetylene welding; specifications for filler materials, electrodes, brazing fluxes, etc.; computer-aided welding processes; the latest information on the training of welding personnel; and welding power sources. For any welding-related occupations, especially welding inspectors, technicians, or engineers.

Title:Modern Welding TechnologyFormat:PaperbackDimensions:736 pages, 10.8 × 8.35 × 1.9 inPublished:November 10, 2004Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0131130293

ISBN - 13:9780131130296

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Read from the Book

Welding continues to be the preferred method of joining metal parts. As welding becomes more digital, the technology becomes more complex, but its application as a process becomes simpler and more efficient. Worldwide, welding continues to grow, and that growth is dependent upon the growth of the steel and other metal industries. Since the last edition of Modern Welding Technology, much has changed in the world of welding. New processes have been born, and others have gotten married. There are now combinations of welding processes known as hybrid welding. Welding power sources have continued to get smaller, more efficient, lighter, and more controllable. Some welding processes have become more popular and others more refined. For example, the laser is more widely used, especially for cutting, and a new process, stir friction welding, is starting to be used to join aluminum for automotive and space applications. The need to improve weld quality and reduce welding costs continues to drive the welding industry. This is the highest priority because of improved materials and fabricating methods. Semiautomatic welding has largely replaced manual welding, and automatic and robotic welding are fording more applications in the industry. Adaptive control is rapidly becoming more widely used. More powerful computer controls and more rugged sensors are being used. All of this has helped take the human welder farther away from the arc and fumes and has helped clean up the welder's environment. Throughout the world many new alloys are being developed. Metals compete with plastics, composites, ceramics, and any material that will serve the need. The end result is the most economical material for a given application. Many new steels and alloys are being welded today, including higher strength thermomechanically processed steels. Steels with lower carbon and lower impurity elements are available with high strengths based on the particular heat treatment. New steels for high-temperature applications have been developed. New grades of stainless steel that combat corrosion are appearing. New aluminums containing lithium and other elements are being utilized in the aircraft industry. Nonmetallic materials are advancing. Plastics have been greatly improved, and there are now composite beams available to build bridges. Ultimately, the most suitable material for the lowest price will be used for every application. The welding industry will determine the welding method. Welding education and training are changing. Today there is less emphasis on skill training for manual welding, but more emphasis on technology training. We must be able to select the proper application of welding to increase productivity. A more thorough understanding is needed. That is the purpose of this book. A major breakthrough has been accomplished by the joint American Welding Society (AWS) and the Welding Research Council program for providing the optimum way to make a quality weld. Standard welding procedures have been issued that show the preferred way to make a particular weld. As a result, welding costs should be greatly reduced because standard procedures save the expense of duplicating qualifying procedures and allow the portability of welding credentials. It is a great step forward. The American Welding Society continues to make welding-related occupations more professional. Through standardizing the qualification and certification of personnel, public confidence in welding will increase. AWS has become the welding authority in the United States and is providing ways to educate welding inspectors, teachers, technicians, and engineers. This is done through increased training, testing, and certification of knowledge, based on proficiency testing. The original concept of this book has been maintained, with emphasis on the arc welding processes and the use of steel for industrial and construction uses. The book still follows faithfully the standards, codes, and specifications provided by the AWS. It allows the reader to keep up-to-date as welding technical information and technology improvements advance. Truly, the industry is moving rapidly, and the welding process is improved and more productive.

Table of Contents

1. Welding Background.


The Importance of Welding.

Welding Joins All Metals.

Historical Development of Welding.

The Welding Industry.

The Future of Welding.



2. Fundamentals of Welding.


Welding Basics.

Welding Processes and Grouping.

Methods of Applying Welding.

Welding Procedures.

Welding Physics and Chemistry.



3. Welding Personnel, Training, and Certification.


The Work of the Welder.

The Job Outlook for Welders.

Where Welders Work.

Training Programs and Schools.

Qualifying and Certifying Welding Personnel.



4. Safety and Health of Welders.


Personnel Protection and Safety Rules.

Electric Shock Hazard.

Arc Radiation Hazard.

Air Contamination Hazard.

Fire and Explosion Hazard.

Compressed Gases Hazard.

Weld Cleaning and Other Hazards.

Safety for Specific Welding Processes and Occupations.



5. Arc Welding With a Nonconsumable Electrode.


The Nonconsumable Welding Arc.

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding.

Plasma Arc Welding.

Carbon Arc Welding.

Stud Welding.

Other Nonconsumable Arc Welding Processes.



6. Arc Welding with a Consumable Electrode.


The Consumable Welding Arc.

Metal Transfer Across the Arc.

Shielded Metal Arc Welding.

Gas Metal Arc Welding.

Flux-Cored Arc Welding.

Submerged Arc Welding.

Electroslag Welding.

Electrogas Welding.

Other Consumable Electrode Welding Processes.

Art Welding Variables.

Arc Welding Process Selection.



7. Gas Welding, Brazing, Soldering, and Solid-State Welding.


Oxyfuel Gas Welding.



Thermite Welding.

Solid-State Welding.

Miscellaneous Welding Processes.



8. Resistance, Electron Beam, and Laser Beam Welding and Cutting.


Resistance Welding.

Electron Beam Welding.

Laser Beam Welding.

High Energy Beam Cutting.



9. Welding-Related Processes.


Oxygen Cutting.

Arc and Plasma Cutting.

Water Jet Cutting.

Automatic Shape Cutting.

Thermal Spraying.

Adhesive Bonding.

Joining Plastics.

Joining Composites and Ceramics.

Preheat and Postheat Treatment.

Mechanical Stress Relief.



10. Power Sources for Arc Welding.


Arc Welding Electricity.

Welding Arc Requirements.

Types of Welding Machines.

Rotating Welding Machines.

Transformer Welding Machines.

Rectifier Welding Machines.

Inverter Welding Machines.

Selecting and Specifying a Power Source.

Installing and Maintaining a Power Source.



11. Other Welding Equipment.


Arc Welding Guns and Torches.

Electrode Feed Systems.

Welding Cables and Clamps.

Auxiliary Welding Equipment.

Weld Monitoring.



12. Mechanized, Automated, and Robotic Arc Welding.


Automation of Welding.

Arc Motion Devices.

Standardized Automatic Arc Welding Machines.

Dedicated Automatic Arc Welding Equipment.

Flexible Automation of Welding.

Arc Welding Robots.

Controls for Automatic Arc Welding.

Sensors and Adaptive Control.

Tooling and Fixtures.



13. Electrodes and Filler Materials.


Types of Welding Consumables.

Covered Electrodes.

Solid Electrode Wires.

Cored Electrode Wires.

Packaging of Electrode Wires.

Welding Fluxes.

Other Welding Materials.



14. Gases Used in Welding.


Shielding Gases.

Fuel Gases for Welding and Cutting.

Atmosphere Gases.

Gas Containers and Apparatuses.



15. Metals and Their Weldability.


Properties of Metals.

Metal Specifications and Steel Classifications.

Identification of Metals.

Heat and Welding.

Welding Metallurgy.

Weldability of Metals.



16. Welding Steels.


Welding Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels.

Welding Alloy Steels.

Welding Stainless Steels.

Welding Ultrahigh-Strength Steels.



17. Welding Nonferrous Metals.


Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys.

Magnesium-Base Alloys.

Nickel-Base Alloys.

Reactive and Refractory Metals.

Other Nonferrous Metals.



18. Welding Special and Dissimilar Metals.


Cast Iron and Other Irons.

Tool Steels.

Reinforcing Bars.

Coated Steels.

Other Metals.

Clad Metals.

Dissimilar Metals.



19. Design for Welding.


Advantage of Welded Construction.

Weldment Design Factors.

Welding Positions and Weld Accessibility.

Design of Weld Joints and Welds.

Influence of Specifications on Design.

Design Conversion to Weldments.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD).

Weldment Redesign to Reduce Cost.

Welding Symbols.



20. Cost of Welding.


Weldment Cost Elements.

Weld Metal Required for Joints.

Filler Metal and Materials Required.

Time and Labor Required.

Power and Overhead Costs.

Weld Cost Formulas and Examples.



21. Quality Control and Evaluation of Welds.


Quality Control Program.

Destructive Testing.

Visual Inspection.

Nondestructive Testing.

Corrective Actions for Weld Effects.

Workmanship Specimens and Standards.

Nondestructive Examination Symbols.



22. Welding Specifications, Procedures, and Qualifications.


Weld Reliability.

Welding Costs and Specifications.

Welding Procedures and Qualifying Them.

Standard Welding Procedure Specifications (SWPS).

Qualifying and Certifying Welders.



23. Welding Problems and Solutions.


Arc Blow.

Welding Distortion and Warpage.

Heat Forming and Straightening.

Weld Stresses and Cracking.

In-Service Cracking.




24. Failure Analysis, Repair Welding, and Surfacing.


Weld Failure Analysis.

Developing a Rework Procedure.

Making the Repair Weld.

Rebuilding and Overlay Welding.

Surfacing for Wear Resistance.

Surfacing for Corrosion Resistance.

Other Surface Applications.



25. Welding Pipe and Tubing.


Tubular Products.

Pipe and Tube Welding.

Manual and Semiautomatic Pipe Welding.

Mechanized Pipe and Tube Welding.

Automated Pipe Welding.

Tube to Sheet Welding.



26. Special Welding Applications.


Arc Spot Welding.

Sheet Metal Welding.

One-Side Welding.

Narrow Gap Welding.

Underwater Welding.

Welding in Space.