Molecular Physiology and Metabolism of the Nervous System: A Clinical Perspective

Hardcover | April 26, 2012

byGary A. Rosenberg

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The molecular basis for the physiology of the brain has advanced enormously in the past twenty years with an influx of new information gleaned through technological developments in neuroimaging and molecular discoveries. Molecular Physiology and Metabolism of the Nervous System, authored byGary A. Rosenberg, an authority on the physiology of brain fluids and metabolism, combines the classic physiology that dates back to the beginning of the nineteenth century with the advances in molecular sciences, providing a strong framework for understanding the diseases that are commonly treatedby neurologists. Molecular Physiology and Metabolism of the Nervous System focuses on the current neuropathology and implications of cerebrospinal fluid diseases and diseases of the blood-brain barrier: how the two affect stroke, infection, brain tumors, and increased intracranial pressure. The book discusses theeffects of blood flow in stroke and dementia, the disruption of the blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammation, and the dysfunction due to brain edema and increased intracranial pressure. Molecular Physiology and Metabolism of the Nervous System is necessary reading for neurologists, neuroscientists, and residents in neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, giving them a strong grounding in physiology and metabolism that will aid them in diagnosis and treatment.

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The molecular basis for the physiology of the brain has advanced enormously in the past twenty years with an influx of new information gleaned through technological developments in neuroimaging and molecular discoveries. Molecular Physiology and Metabolism of the Nervous System, authored byGary A. Rosenberg, an authority on the physio...

Gary A. Rosenberg, MD, is Chairman of Neurology and Professor of Neurology, Neurosciences, Cell Biology and Physiology, and Mathematics and Statistics at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

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Format:HardcoverDimensions:240 pages, 10 × 7 × 0.98 inPublished:April 26, 2012Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195394275

ISBN - 13:9780195394276

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Table of Contents

Part I: Physiology of brain fluids and blood-brain barrier1. Anatomy of Fluid Interfaces that Protect the Microenvironment1.1. Historical perspective1.2 Cerebral microenvironment1.3. Development of the brain-fluid interfaces1.3.1. Neural tube, ependymal cells and stem cells1.3.2. Cilated ependymal cells and CSF movement1.3.3. Choroid plexuses, arachnoid and capillaries1.4. Extracellular Space and Extracellular Matrix1.5. Brain-Fluid Interfaces1.5.1. Anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels1.5.2. Brain cells interfaces with CSF at ependymal and pia1.6. Dura, arachnoid and pial layers1.7. What are sources of energy?2. Physiology of the Cerebrospinal and Interstitial Fluids2.1. Introduction2.2. Proteins in the CSF2.3. CSF Pressure Reflects Venous Pressure in the Right Heart2.4. Formation, Circulation and Absorption of CSF2.4.1. Formation of CSF by choroid plexuses2.4.2. Choroid plexus and disease biomarkers in CSF2.4.3. Absorption of CSF at the arachnoid villi2.5. Electrolyte balance in the CSF2.6. Meninges and sites of masses and infection2.7. Interstitial fluid2.8. Lyphatic drainage2.9. Water diffusion, bulk flow if ISH and diffusion tensor imaging2.10. Neuropeptides and fluid homeostasis2.11. Aquaporins and water transport in the CNS3. Neurovascular Unit3.1. Early experiments on blood-brain barrier3.2. The Neurovascular unit and tight junction proteins3.3. Integrins, selectins and endothelial cell adhesion3.4. Astrocytes, pericytes and basal lamina3.5. Movement of substances into and out of brain3.6. Glucose and amino acid transport3.7. Proteases and the neurovascular unit3.8. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)3.9. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)3.10. Barrier systems evolved to an endothelial barrierPart II: Metabolism, disorders of brain fluids, and mathematics of transport4. Glucose, Amino acid and Lipid Metabolism4.1. Glucose metabolism4.2. Amino acid neurotransmitters4.3. Lipid metabolism4.4. Eicosanoid metabolism4.5. Hepatic encephalopathy4.6. Hypoglycemia4.7. Hyponatremia, osmotic demyelination and acid balance4.7.1. Hyponatremia4.7.2. Hyperglycemia4.7.3. Acidosis5. Disorders of Cerebrospinal Circulation: Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) and Hydrocephalus5.1. Introduction5.2. Clinical Features of IIH5.3. Treatment of IIH5.4. Hydrocephalus5.5. Hydrocephalus in children5.6. Adult-onset hydrocephalus5.6.1. Obstructive hydrocephalus5.6.2. Normal-pressure hydrocephalus6. Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow and Blood Brain Barrier Transport by NMR and PET6.1. Introduction6.2. Mathematical approach to cerebral blood flow and transport6.2.1. Cerebral blood flow: Schmidt-Kety approach6.2.2. Regional blood flow6.2.3. Transport between blood and brain6.3 Positron emission tomography (PET)6.3.1. Single-injection external registration6.3.2. Patlak graphical BBB method for autoradiography and MRI6.4 Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy6.4.1. Multinuclear NMR6.4.2. Relaxation phenomenon and the rotating frame6.4.3. 31P-MRS6.4.4. 13C-MRS6.4.5. 1H-MRSPart III: Ischemia, edema and inflammation7. Mechanisms of Ischemic/Hypoxic Brain Injury7.1. Epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of stroke7.2. Molecular cascades in ischemic tissue results from energy failure7.3. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters7.4. Neuroinflammation in stroke7.5. Proteases in hypoxia/ischemia7.6. Caspases and cell death7.7. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and apoptosis7.8. Tight junction proteins and MMPs7.9. MMPs and tPA-induced bleeding7.10. Animal models in stroke7.11. Arteriovenous malformations and cavernous hemangiomas7.12. MRI, PET and EPR in hypoxia-ischemia7.12.1. MRI and MRS7.12.2. Positron emission tomography (PET)7.12.3. Electron paramagnetic resonance8. Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease8.1. Regulation of cerebral blood flow8.2. Hypoxia-ischemia in cardiac arrest8.2.1 Prognosis for recovery after cardiac arrest8.2.2 Cardiac surgery and memory loss8.2.3 Delayed post anoxic leukoencephalopathy8.3. Hypoxia inducible factors and gene expression8.4. Intermittent hypoxia is a strong stimulus for HIF8.5. Vascular cognitive impairment8.6. White matter hyperintensities on MRI and Binswanger's disease8.7. Alzheimer's disease, vascular disease and the amyloid hypothesis9. Effects of Altitude on the Brain9.1. Introduction9.2. Genetic tolerance to altitude9.3. Acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary edema9.4. High altitude cerebral edema9.5. Cognitive consequences of hypobaric hypoxia9.6. Imaging of the brain at high altitude9.7. Hypoxia-inducible factors and sleep disorders in AMS9.8. Treatment of altitude illnesses10. Brain Edema10.1. Introduction10.2. Role of aquaporins in brain edema10.3. Role of Neuroinflammation in the formation of vasogenic edema10.3.1. Oxidative stress and brain edema10.3.2 . Arachidonic acid and brain edema10.3.3. Vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietins10.4. Clinical conditions associated with brain edema10.5. Imaging brain edema10.6. Treatment of brain edema and hypoxic/ischemic injury10.7. Multiple drugs for treatment of ischemia11. Intracerebral Hemorrhage11.1. Introduction11.2. History of ICH11.3. Molecular mechanisms in ICH11.4. Clinical aspects of intracranial bleeding11.5. Pathophysiology of ICH: Evidence from animal studies11.6 Extrapolation of experimental results to treatments for ICH12. Autoimmunity, Hypoxia, and Inflammation in Demyelinating Diseases12.1. Introduction12.2. Heterogeneity of the pathological findings in MS12.3. Proteases implicated in MS pathology12.4. BBB disruption in MS12.5. Devic's neuromyelitis optica12.6. Nonimmunological processes in demyelination12.7. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and pathogenesis of MS12.8. Epilogue- synthesis and future directions