Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Central Nervous System: Origin, Mode of Distribution, and Function of Progressive Microglia, Perivascular Cells of Intra by M. OehmichenMononuclear Phagocytes in the Central Nervous System: Origin, Mode of Distribution, and Function of Progressive Microglia, Perivascular Cells of Intra by M. Oehmichen

Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Central Nervous System: Origin, Mode of Distribution, and Function of…

byM. OehmichenEditorMargaret M. Clarkson

Paperback | March 16, 2012

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A number of years ago Prof. J. Peiffer (Tiibingen/FRG) asked whether cerebros- nal fluid cells originate in blood cells. With this question, the first seeds were sown for the research which resulted in this book. The original question was eventually ex­ panded to whether extravascular hematogenous cells are present in the nervous sys­ tem. In the course of my research this question became more and more concentrated on the demonstration of monocyte derivatives (i.e., mononuclear phagocytes) within the nervous system. While these questions are certainly not new, they regularly crop up when micro­ glia are to be classified, particularly progressive microglia. Three extensive surveys were published during the past few years, all of which arrived at different conclusions (Cammermeyer, 1970b; Vaughn and Skoff, 1972; Fujita and Kitamura, 1976). In ad­ dition to progressive microglia, other active phagocytes were observed which I refer to as "perivascular cells," "free subarachnoidal cells," and "epiplexus cells." These cells were seldom described in the literature, and then predominantly in another context. A pre­ sentation based on the hypothesis that the cell types of the central nervous system have po­ tentially identical kinetics and functional potency has not been published.
Title:Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Central Nervous System: Origin, Mode of Distribution, and Function of…Format:PaperbackDimensions:176 pages, 24.4 × 17 × 0.01 inPublished:March 16, 2012Publisher:Springer NatureLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:3642463878

ISBN - 13:9783642463877

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Table of Contents

A. Formulation of the Problem and Relevant Literature.- I. "Mononuclear Phagocyte System".- Conclusion.- II. Literature Dealing with Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Central Nervous System.- 1. Progressive Microglia.- 2. Perivascular Cells of Intracerebral Vessels.- 3. Free Subarachnoidal Cells.- 4. Epiplexus Cells.- Conclusion.- III. Considerations on the Origin of Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Central Nervous System.- 1. Homoplastic Genesis.- a) Resting and Progressive Microglia.- b) Perivascular Cells of Intracerebral Vessels.- c) Free Subarachnoidal Cells.- d) Epiplexus Cells.- 2. Local Heteroplastic Genesis.- a) Progressive Microglia and Neuroglia.- b) Microglia and Subependymal Glia.- c) Progressive Microglia and Perivascular Cells.- d) Progressive Microglia and Free Subarachnoidal Cells.- e) Progressive Microglia and Epiplexus Cells.- f) Progressive Microglia, Perivascular Cells, and Free Subarachnoidal Cells..- g) Progressive Microglia, Perivascular Cells, and Epiplexus Cells.- h) Progressive Microglia, Free Subarachnoidal Cells, and Epiplexus Cells.- i) Perivascular Cells and Free Subarachnoidal Cells.- j) Free Subarachnoidal Cells and Epiplexus Cells.- k) Epiplexus Cells and Epithelial Cells of the Choroid Plexus.- 3. Hematogenesis.- a) Progressive Microglia and Blood Cells.- b) Progressive Microglia, Perivascular Cells, and Blood Cells.- c) Progressive Microglia, Perivascular Cells, and Free Subarachnoidal Cells, and Blood Cells.- d) Free Subarachnoidal Cells and Blood Cells.- e) Free Subarachnoidal Cells, Epiplexus Cells, and Blood Cells.- f) Epiplexus Cells and Blood Cells.- Conclusion.- B. Author's Investigation.- Materials and Methods Consistently Used.- I. Origin of Mononuclear Phagocytes of the Nervous System.- 1. Local Proliferation.- 2. Hematogenesis.- 3. Monocytic Origin.- a) Investigations of the Hematogenesis of Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Central Nervous System of Rabbits.- b) Investigations of the Monocytic Origin of Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Central Nervous System.- c) Investigations of the Monocytic Origin of Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Nervous System which Avoid Tracer Reutilization.- 4. Lymphocytic Origin.- Conclusion.- II. Mode of Distribution and Possible Lymphatic Efflux of Intracerebrally Injected Corpuscular Particles and Cellular Elements.- 1. Corpuscular Particles.- 2. Cellular Elements.- Conclusion.- III. Functional Activity of Mononuclear Phagocytes of the Central Nervous System.- 1. Phagocytosis Experiments.- a) Phagocytic Reaction of Local Cells Following Intracerebral Application of Labeling Material.- b) Giant Cell Formation.- c) Phagocytic Reaction of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Cells.- 2. Cytochemical Investigations.- 3. Investigations with Immunologic "Markers".- a) Leptomeningeal Membrane Specimens.- b) Cells of the Subarachnoid, Ventricular, and Perivascular Spaces.- c) Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Cells.- d) Glass-Induced Inflammatory Cells in the Sense of Progressive Microglia.- e) Brain of the Athymic or So-Called Nude Mouse.- f) Application of Anti-Lymphocyte and Anti-Monocyte Sera to Human Brain Tissue.- Conclusion.- C. Discussion and Conclusion.- I. Explanation of the Author's Findings.- 1. Cytogenesis.- a) Undamaged Animals.- b) Animals with a Lesion of the Nervous System.- 2. Distribution and Fate.- a) Intracerebral Distribution.- b) Lymphatic Efflux.- 3. Function.- a) Nonimmunologic Activity.- b) Immunologic Activity.- II. Mononuclear Phagocytes of the Central Nervous System and the "Mononuclear Phagocyte System".- 1. Identity.- 2. Significance.- III. Summary of the Author's Investigations.- References.