Mosquito Vectors of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Northern India: Role of BPD hop cage method by Bina Pani DasMosquito Vectors of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Northern India: Role of BPD hop cage method by Bina Pani Das

Mosquito Vectors of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Northern India: Role of BPD hop cage method

byBina Pani Das

Paperback | November 3, 2012

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Japanese Encephalitis (JE), a mosquito borne disease, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in 14 Asian countries due to its epidemic potential, high case fatality rate and increased possibility of lifelong disability in patients who recover from this dreadful disease. In spite of seriousness of the disease, still only few books are available for ready reference. Hence, this book will be useful for students, entomologists, paramedical staff and vector control managers in public health.The objective of the book is to disseminate the knowledge gained by the author from ecological studies on JE vectors undertaken in 2 endemic and 2 non endemic areas of Northern India over a period of last 15 years (1998-2012) of research in the field of ecology of mosquito vectors of JE virus initially at National Institute of Communicable Diseases (Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India), Delhi and later at Jamia Millia Islamia, a Central University, Delhi, to anyone who wishes to curtail death of children due to this dreaded disease. Of the thousand suspected JE deaths in India annually, more than 75% is contributed by Northern India wherein disease transmission failed to be explained based on entomological evidence due to inadequate mosquito surveillance tool used in determining JE vector density. In order to overcome the above problem, Dr Bina Pani Das, the author of this book, developed "BPD hop cage method", a simple, cost effective, and operationally feasible surveillance tool specially designed to capture predominantly day resting adult Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes, the principal JE vector species in the country from land and aquatic vegetation.
Dr Bina Pani Das, Ph. D., is a Medical Entomologist and Former Joint Director, NICD, Delhi wherein she was associated from 1985 to 2007 in field oriented research related to mosquito borne diseases of great public health concern like malaria, dengue/Chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis. At present, she is with Jamia Millia Islamia Uni...
Title:Mosquito Vectors of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Northern India: Role of BPD hop cage methodFormat:PaperbackDimensions:80 pagesPublished:November 3, 2012Publisher:Springer IndiaLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:8132208609

ISBN - 13:9788132208600

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Table of Contents

Japanese encephalitis and problem in vector surveillance: An Introduction.-1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Global Scenario .- 1.3 Emergence of JE in India .-1.4 Magnitude of JE problem in India.- 1.4.1 Trend of JE occurrence.-1.4.2 Contribution of JE cases by states .- 1.4.3 Concept of endemic and epidemic districts in India .-1.5 JE outbreaks in India .-1.6 Clinical presentation and diagnosis.-1.6.1 Laboratory diagnosis.-1.7 Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis.- 1.7.1 Natural History .- 1.7.2 Seasonality.-1.8 Vectors of Japanese encephalitis .- 1.9 Problem faced while investigating AES/JE outbreak in Northern India .- 1.10 Research problem addressed by the author and included in this book .-1.10.1 Developed a new sampling technique for JE vector Surveillance.-1.10.2 Pictorial key to common species of Culex (Culex) mosquitoes associated with Japanese encephalitis virus in India.- 1.10.3 Ecological studies on JE vectors in Northern India .-1.10.4 Discovery of a new Bio-control agent .-1.10.5 Situation specific vector control measures.-1.11 JE Control Programme in India.- 1.11.1 Vaccination.- 1.11.2 JE Vector control .- References.- 2 Mosquito surveillance tools used and methodology followed in Ecological study on JE vectors in Northern India .- 2.1 Introduction.-1.2 Study area.- 2.2.1 Phase 1: Non-endemic area: In and around Delhi (1998-2002).- 2.2.2 Phase 2: Endemic area I: Karnal District, Haryana state of India (2002-2004) .-2.2.3 Phase 3: JE endemic area II: Saharanpur district, Uttar Pradesh state of India (2005-2006) .- 2.3 Methodology.- 2.3.1 Metrological data.- 2.3.2 Epidemiological data .-2.3.3 Sampling of adult mosquitoes.- 2.3.4 Sampling mosquito larvae.-2.3.5 Mosquito blood meal identification.- 2.3.6 JE virus detection.- 2.4 Pictorial key for identification of common species of Culex (Culex) mosquitoes.- References.-3 Pictorial key to common species of Culex (Culex) mosquitoes associated with Japanese encephalitis virus in India.-3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Pictorial ey.- References.- 4. BPD hop cage method for effective JE vector surveillance.-4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Standardization of BPD hop cage method for sampling JE vectors.- 4.3 Identification of natural day resting places of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in and around Delhi.- 4.4 Comparative efficacy of drop net, hand catch and BPD hop cage method for monitoring JE vector abundance.- 4.5 Use of BPD hop cage method in JE vector surveillance and outbreak investigation of Japanese Encephalitis .- 4.5.1 JE vector surveillance.-4.5.2 Outbreak investigation of AES/JE.- References.- 5 Ecology of Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles in and adjoining areas of Delhi, non-endemic area in northern India, with special reference to Chilodonella uncinata as a bio-control agent .-5.1 Introduction .- 5.2 Seasonal abundance of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in and around Delhi .- 5.3 Resting preference of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in and around Delhi .- 5.4 First time detection of overwintering phenomenon in Culex tritaeniorhynchus in India.- 5.5 Breeding habit of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in and around Delhi.- 5.6 Natural microbial organisms found infecting JE vector larvae in and around Delhi .- 5.6.1 Discovery of a new microbial control agent for mosquito vectors of human Diseases.- 5.6.2 Events that lead to the invention .- 5.6.3 Problems encountered in detection, isolation and identification of the causative organism.-5.6.4 Biological characteristics of Chilodonella uncinata .- 5.6.5 Role of Ch. uncinata on the population dynamics of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquito in nature.- 5.6.6 Colonization of Ch. uncinata under laboratory condition: .- 5.6.7 Formulation.- 5.6.8 Mode of entry of Ch. uncinata inside the host body and subsequent histopathology .-5.6.9 Filling of national and international patents .- 5.7 Situation specific vector control measures .-5.7.1 Control strategies in Delhi.-5.7.2 Control strategies in paddy growing areas in adjoining areas of Sonipat district (Haryana) .- References .- 6. Ecology of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Karnal District (JE endemic area), Haryana state in Northern India.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 JE in Haryana state/Karnal district.- 6.3 Ecological study of JE vector in Karnal district.- 6.3.1 Prevalence Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, the principal JE vector species in Karnal district.- 6.3.2 Seasonal abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in study sites in Karnal district .- 6.3.3 Resting habit of vector species study areas of the district.-6.3.4 Seasonal abundance of larval stages of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in Karnal district .-6.3.5 First time detection of JE virus in vector species from Haryana.- 6.4 Spread of JE to new areas.-6.5 JE Control Strategy.- 6.5.1 Mosquito control .- 6.5.2 Control of pigs.-6.5.3 Vaccination.-References .-7. Ecology of mosquito vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus in Saharanpur District (JE endemic area) of Uttar Pradesh state in Northern India.-7.1 Introduction.-7.1.1 Mosquito control strategy adopted by Saharanpur district.-7.1.2 Need for Ecological study of JE vectors in by Saharanpur District.-7.2 Epidemiological profile of Japanese encephalitis in Uttar Pradesh state/Saharanpur district .- 7.2.1 Magnitude of JE problem in Uttar Pradesh state .- 7.2.2 Japanese encephalitis problem in Saharanpur district .-7.3 Mosquito fauna Saharanpur district, including notes on their medical importance.-7.3.1 Topography of Saharanpur district .-7.3.2 Study sites.- 7.3.3 Features of affected and unaffected study sites.- 7.3.4 Adult mosquito survey in Saharanpur district .- 7.3.5 Medical Importance of mosquitoes in Saharanpur district.- 7.4 Comparative seasonal abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus from affected and unaffected villages of Saharanpur district.- 7.4.1 Proportion of members of Culex vishnui sub group in affected and unaffected villages.- 7.4.2 Comparative Seasonal abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus primary JE vector species in Saharanpur distric.-t.-7.5 Shifting pattern in the resting habits of Cx. tritaeniorhynchur in Saharanpur district .- 7.6 Feeding behaviour of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in Saharanpur district.- 7.7 Brick kiln industry and its role in JE vector breeding potential in Saharanpur district.- 7.8 Detection of natural vertical transmission of JE virus in vector mosquitoes of Saharanpur district.- 7.9 Seasonal variations in minimum infection rates of JE virus in vector mosquitoes in relation to seasonal abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in Saharanpur district.-7.10 JE vector/virus surveillance.- 7.10.1 JE vector surveillance JE virus surveillance in mosquitoes JE vector control/management strategies for Saharanpur district Protection of human Reduction of adult vector population.-7.11 Measures to protect pigs.- 7.12 JE vaccination programme in haranpur district.- References.-Subject Index.