Motivation: A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion by Eva Dreikurs Ferguson

Motivation: A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion

byEva Dreikurs Ferguson

Hardcover | November 1, 1999

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Motivation: A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion shows how motivation relates to biological, social, and cognitive issues. A wide range of topics concerning motivation and emotion are considered, including hunger and thirst, circadian and other biological rhythms,fear and anxiety, anger and aggression, achievement, attachment, and love. Goals and incentives are discussed in their application to work, child rearing, and personality. This book reviews an unusual breadth of research and provides the reader with the scientific basis for understanding motivationas a major variable in human and animal life. It also offers insights that can be applied to immediate and practical problems. Various areas are examined in depth, such as the relationships between reward, incentives, and motivation. The discussion of biological rhythms shows that humans and animalsare more alert at certain times than others, and these rhythms also affect performance. The topics in the book span the ways in which motivation connects with many aspects of contemporary psychology. Basic issues of design and methodology, details of research procedures, and important aspects ofdefinition and measurement, are discussed throughout the book. Motivation: A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion examines the way motivation functions and how it interacts with other important variables: physiological processes; learning, attention, and memory; rewards and stressors; the role of culture as well as speciescharacteristics. The presentation makes clear in what important ways motivation, as a construct, contributes to the scientific understanding of behavior. The book offers advanced undergraduate and graduate students a broad overview of motivation. It also is of value for the professional psychologistwho seeks an integrated overview of the classical and contemporary literature in the field of motivation. The book provides information on a broad range of issues and thus can be used also as supplementary reading for courses on cognition and biological as well as social psychology.

About The Author

Eva Dreikurs Ferguson is at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville.

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Title:Motivation: A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and EmotionFormat:HardcoverPublished:November 1, 1999Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195068661

ISBN - 13:9780195068665

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 -- Introduction: What is MotivationHistorical ConsiderationsUnderstanding Motivation Helps to Explain Behavior: Will, Drive, Instinct, and Motivation: Motivation is an Intervening Variable: Motivation is Energizing and Directional: Variability and Stability: SummaryChapter 2 -- How Do We Study Motivation?Definitions: How Do You Define Motivation?Defining a Construct: Operational Definitions: The Relationship Between Motivation and Other VariablesMotivation Leads to Action: How Do Rewards and Incentives Become Motivation?: SummaryChapter 3 -- Arousal: The Energizing and Intensity Aspect of MotivationThe Construct of ArousalDefining and Measuring Arousal: The Reticular Activating System: Physiological Measurements: Arousal Has Many AspectsSituational Specificity and Response Sterotypy: State Versus Trait: Arousal Compared to Arousability: Tense Compared to Energetic Arousal: Arousal -- Performance RelationshipsMotor Activity and Arousal: Inverted-U Function and the "Yerkes-Dodson Law": SummaryChapter 4 -- Biological Rhythms and SleepRelationship of Biological Rhythms to MotivationBiological RhythmsIntroduction: Biological Rhythms versus Biorhythms: Measuring Circadian Rhythms: Seasonal Rhythms: Nonphotic Factors which Influence the Circadian System: Control of Biological RhythmsThe Mammalian Biological Clock: Multiple Oscillators within the Circadian System: Melatonin: Advantages of Biological TimekeepingEffects of Disrupting Biological RhythmsSeasonal Affective Disorder and Phototherapy: "Jet Lag": SleepStages of Sleep: Why do we Sleep?: Relationship of Sleep to Circadian Rhythms: Effects of Aging on Biological Rhythms and SleepSummaryChapter 5 -- Time of Day, Alertness, and PerformanceVariables of Importance in Addition to Time of DayTime Since Sleeping: Prior Activity: Stimulation and Goals: Are There Several Rhythms?Sleep Compared to Temperature Rhythms: Alertness-Sleepiness: Performance Varies with Alertness and Time of DayPerformance and Alertness: Different Tasks Show Different Effects: Time of Day Affects Shift Work and MoodShift Work: Mood Changes: Personality Characteristics and "Morningness" Versus "Eveningness"Morningness-Eveningness: Extraversion, Impulsiveness, and Morningness-Eveningness: SummaryChapter 6 -- Emotion and Mood: I. Problems of Definition and MeasurementHow Are Motivation and Emotion Different?Emotion and Motivation: Duration and Congruence: Situational Variables and Goals: Definitions and Classifications of EmotionHistorical Considerations: Categories, Classification of Basic Emotions, and Face Muscle Movememt: Intensity and Arousal of Emotions: Emotion and Every-Day-LifeDimensions of Emotions: Person-Environment Relationships: How Can Emotions be Changed?: Emotion, Mood, and AffectAre Emotion, Mood, and Affect Different?: Pleasantness-Unpleasantness: Dimensions Are Different Than Categories: Emotion and Opponent ProcessesOpponent Process Theory: Test of the Opponent Process Theory: SummaryChapter 7 -- Emotion and Mood: II. Cognition and Information ProcessingComplexity of Emotion and CognitionMultiple Targets at a Given Moment: Developmental Factors and the Question of Blends Versus Pure Emotions: An Ecological Perspective: Long-Term Versus Short-Term Targets: Emotion and Mood Have A Reciprocal Relationship With CognitionWhat Kinds of Cognitions Relate to Emotion?: Bower's Studies of Emotion and Mood: Emotion and Information ProcessingAre Emotion and Cognition One or Two Separate Systems?: Emotion as a Node in an Associative Network: Emotional States Regulate Allocation of Capacity: State-Dependent Effects: Are There Additional Issues?: Approach and WithdrawalEmotion and Cerebral Asymmetry: Visual Recognition of Emotional Stimuli: SummaryChapter 8 -- Hunger and Thirst: Biological and Cultural ProcessesBiological Processes and the Regulation of Energy in HungerProblems of Definition: Motivational States vs. Consummatory Responses: Consummatory, Appetite, and Instrumental Responses: Consummatory Responses and Subjective Descriptions: Concepts and Terms: Primary vs. Secondary: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, and Feedforward Regulation: Short-Term vs Long-Term Regulation: Hunger and Satiety, Onset and Cessation of Eating: The Role of the Central Nervous System: The Role of the Lateral Hypothalamus: The Role of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus: The Role of Caudal Brainstem: Hunger and Satiety, Onset and Cessation of Eating: The Role of Peripheral Sites: The Autonomic Nervous System: Cholecystokinin (CCK): The Role of Glucose, Insulin, and Lipids in Onset and Offset of Eating: Glucose: Insulin: Lipids: Biological Processes in Thirst and Fluid Level RegulationDifferent Kinds of Thirst and Definitions: Osmoreceptors, Vasopressin, and the Lateral Hypothalamus: Salt Appetite: Drinking, Drinking Offset, and Non-Primary Factors: The Role of Culture and Learning in Hunger and EatingTaste and Appetite: Culture: Learned Aversions: Appetite and Appetizing: Weight Maintenance and Eating Disorders: Cues, Obesity, and Eating Restraint: Anorexia, Bulimia, and Obesity: Disorders and Disease: Is There an Ideal Figure and an Ideal Weight?: Effects of Hunger, Thirst, and Glucose on Responding and Information ProcessingThe Directional Effects of Hunger and Thirst: Sensitivity to Cues: The Interactive Effects of Hunger and Food: Information Processing and Learning in Nonhuman Animals: Human Information Processing: Effects of Sweets and Hunger on Measures of Memory: Sugar Can Enhance Memory Performance: Event-Related Brain Potentials and Memory Performance: SummaryChapter 9 -- Rewards, Incentives, and Goals: Addictive Processes, Extrinsic Incentives, and Intrinsic MotivationGeneral Theoretical IssuesIn What Ways Has the Effect of Reward Been Studied?: Instrumental and Operant Conditioning: A Brief Historical Overview: Praise as a Verbal Reinforcer: Reward Variables That Affect Learning and Performance: Unlearned and Conditioned Rewards and Motivations: Delay and Magnitude of Reward: Brain Stimulation, Reward Systems, and Drug AbuseReward Systems: Addiction and Substance Abuse: Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Incentives, and Achievement MotivationIncentive and Incentive Motivation: Intrinsic Motivation and External Rewards: Does Intrinsic Motivation Decrease with Extrinsic Rewards?: Additional Perspectives: Incentives, Success and Failure, and the Achievement Motive: Achievement Motivation Theory: McClelland and Atkinson: Expectancy-Value Theory and Success and Failure: SummaryChapter 10 -- Goals and Success-Failure BeliefsGoals, Level of Aspiration, and Level of ExpectationThe Work of Kurt Lewin and Colleagues: Other Research on Level of Aspiration and Level of Expectation: Individual Differences in Goal SettingGoal Setting and the Achievement Motive: Dweck: Performance Goals Versus Learning Goals: Other Goal-Expectancy Approaches: Beliefs Regarding Success (Versus Failure) and ReinforcementBelief About Success and Failure on Tasks and Self-Efficacy: Locus of Control of Reinforcement: Goals and Performance AttainmentLocke and Goal Setting Theory: Research by Others on Goal Setting and Goal Striving: SummaryChapter 11 -- Aggression and Anger: Attribution Mastery Power, CompetitionAttribution and AchievementWeine and Attribution Theory: Other Research Approaches: AngerAnger in Everyday Life: Measurement of Anger: Hostility, Anger, and Type A PersonalityHostility: Type A Personality and Coronary Heart Disease: SummaryChapter 12 -- Aggression, Power, and MasteryWhat is Meant By Aggression?The Motivational Aspects of Aggression: The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: Aggression in AnimalsIs There an Aggression Drive?: Conspecific Aggression: Situational Variables: Interspecies Aggressive Behavior: Brain Areas and HormonesBrain Areas: Hormones: Self-Interest vs. Collective Interest: Competition and Human AggressionSelf-Interest Versus Collective Interest: Sports and Games: Culture: Human Aggression: Power, Arousal, and LearningPower: Arousal and Learning: Machiavellianism, Mastery, and AssertivenessMachiavellianism: Mastery: Assertiveness: SummaryChapter 13 -- Fear and AnxietyGeneral ConsiderationsEarly Experimental WorkEscape and Avoidance Conditioning Studies of Fear and Anxiety: Punishment, Fear, and Anxiety: Learned Helplessness and Flooding: Contemporary Research in Fear LearningPsychobiological Findings: Human Conditioning Studies: Social Variables Involved in Fear Learning: Anxiety, Individual Differences, Cognition, and CopingState and Trait Anxiety: Cognition and Coping: SummaryChapter 14 -- Sex, Gender, and LoveHormonal Effects, Sexual Dimorphism, and Sexual MotivationGonadal Steroid Hormones: Social Animals: Prairie Voles and Spotted Hyenas: Human Studies: GenderThe Importance of Gender: Gender Identity, Gender Schema, and Gender Differences: LoveParent-Child Love: Peer Relationships and Friendship: Romantic Love and Adult Love Relationships: Summary