This empirical study provides an introduction to the dynamics of regulatory federalism and is the first book to focus on the major surface mining regulations. A broad spectrum of contributors, most with first-hand experience, describe the forces that have shaped the implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act since 1972. They offer varying perspectives for understanding interest group conflicts, technological and market considerations, intergovernmental procedures and problems. They describe the forces shaping the policy implementation process at the federal, state, and local level. This case study is intended for political scientists, public administrators, citizen activists and experts, historians, and students dealing with mining and regulatory policy. The edited collection opens with an overview of policy formation and implementation in the United States, drawing upon theoretical studies of pluralism, federalism, interest group politics, and intergovernmental dynamics. The case study defines the legislative and administrative history of surface mining regulation; the impact of interest groups, courts, and the states on the implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act; the influence of the coal industry and of environmental interests, federal and state relations, and the intergovernmental process.