Like its companion From Tagus to the Ganges, this book deploys the concept of 'connected histories' to shed important light on aspects of the history of early modern Eurasia. It reflects on two and a half centuries of Mughal-European relations, beginning with the early years of the Mughals in India,and ending with the eighteenth century. The volume demonstrates that the interface and balance of power between the Mughals and the Europeans are an integral part of a wider system of international political alliances. Sanjay Subrahmanyam introduces the idea of 'contained conflict', which is usedas a paradigm to study political and commercial relations in the period. He also questions the lines of political and cultural division that traditional history writing has accepted. This will interest students and scholars of Indian and South Asian history, medieval history, early modern India, as well as politics.