Multiculturalism, Crime, and Criminal Justice by Robert McnamaraMulticulturalism, Crime, and Criminal Justice by Robert Mcnamara

Multiculturalism, Crime, and Criminal Justice

byRobert Mcnamara, Ronald Burns

Paperback | August 7, 2017

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Multiculturalism, Crime, and Criminal Justice provides an overview of the problems and promises of cultural diversity in society and within all facets of the criminal justice system. It focuses on how different marginalized groups - African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans,Native Americans, women, the LGBTQ community, the elderly, and juveniles - are impacted by law enforcements, the courts, and correctional agencies, addressing the issues that each group faces. It also examines how multiculturalism affects those who work within the criminal justice system, includingmembers of minority groups.
Robert McNamara received his PhD in Sociology from Yale University and is Professor of Criminal Justice at The Citadel. Ronald Burns is Chair of the Criminal Justice Department at Texas Christian University.
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Title:Multiculturalism, Crime, and Criminal JusticeFormat:PaperbackDimensions:416 pages, 9.25 × 7.5 × 0.68 inPublished:August 7, 2017Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0190642637

ISBN - 13:9780190642631

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Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with a Summary, Key Terms, Discussion Questions, and Endnotes.PART 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO MULTICULTURALISM1. IntroductionRaceEthnicityMinority Groups- Distinguishing Physical or Cultural Traits- Unequal Treatment by Those in Power- Involuntary Membership- Solidarity of Members- In-Group MarriageTypes of Minority Groups- Racial Groups- Ethnic Groups- Religious Groups- Gender GroupsCreating Subordinate Groups- Migration- Annexation- ColonialismThe Consequences of Subordinate Group StatusPrejudice and DiscriminationRacismWhere Does Multiculturalism Fit Into the Discussion?- Is Multiculturalism in America a Good Thing?--Multiculturalism divides people--Multiculturalism fosters discrimination--Multiculturalism prevents equality--The Value of Multiculturalism2. Group Dynamics, Communication, and Social InteractionErving Goffman and the Nature of Social Interaction- Impression ManagementSocial Interaction and the Criminal Justice SystemThe Criminal Justice "System"?Groups- What Constitutes a Group?- Groups in the Criminal Justice SystemCommunication- The Communication Process- Nonverbal Communication- Obstacles Affecting Communication- Differential Treatment and SymbolismSocial Interaction and Multiculturalism- Status and Roles- Socially Constructing RealityPART II: CULTURAL SPECIFICS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM3. African Americans and the Criminal Justice SystemHistorical Background- Slavery- The Post-Slavery Era- The Civil Rights Movement- Civil Disobedience- Martin Luther King Jr. and the Riots- The Rise of Black Power- The Nation of Islam and Black IdentityAfrican Americans Today: The Rise of the Black Middle ClassThe Historical Treatment of African Americans in the Criminal Justice SystemAfrican Americans and the Criminal Justice System Today- The Police--Public Opinion and the Police--Violent Crime--Arrests--Use of Force--Deadly Force--Profiling and Other Forms of Abuse- The Courts and African Americans: Sentencing Issues- The Death Penalty and African Americans- Corrections and African Americans- Race, Fear, and Crime- Is the Criminal Justice System Racist?4. Hispanic Americans and the Criminal Justice SystemChicanos and Mexicans- Immigration- Chicanos TodayCubans- Cubans TodayPuerto RicansThe Influence of Central and South AmericaHispanic Involvement in the Criminal Justice System- Immigration and Crime5. Asian Americans and the Criminal Justice SystemA Brief Profile of Asian Americans- Model Minority Myth- Income Data- Hate Crimes and Racial ProfilingFar East Asians- Chinese Americans- Japanese- KoreansSoutheast Asian AmericansPacific Islander Americans- Hawaiians- FilipinosIndian Subcontinent- Asian IndiansAsian and the Criminal Justice System- Crime Statistics- Asian Gangs- Human Smuggling- Transnational Organized Crime6. Native Americans and the Criminal Justice SystemHistorical Presence of Native Americans- Legislating for the People- Termination- Government Involvement in Indian AffairsNative Americans Today- Employment and Income- Casino Gambling- Educational Achievement- Health CareNative Americans and the Criminal Justice System- Crime Rates- Victimization- Native Americans in the Federal System- The Role of Alcohol and Native American Crime- Questioning the Relationship between Native Americans and Crime Statistics- Native Americans and the Police- The Administration of Justice: Tribal Courts- Native Americans and the Correctional System7. Women and the Criminal Justice SystemThe Fight for RightsWomen as a Distinct CultureFemale Arrestees and Victims- Trends in Arrest Rates- VictimizationWomen and Policing- Policewomen- Interaction with the PoliceFemales and the Courts- Sentencing- Capital Punishment and Females- Female Courtroom PersonnelFemales and Corrections- Female Incarceration- Women in Jail- Females in Prison- Females Working in Corrections8. LGBTs and the Criminal Justice SystemPublic Attitudes about Lesbians, Gays, Bisexual, and TransgenderOperationalization of Terms: Gay vs. Homosexuality- Differences Between Male and Female SexualityThe History of Homosexuality and Gay Identities in the United StatesLGBT's and the Criminal Justice System- Hate Crimes and VictimizationChallenges for LGBT and PLWHIV in the Criminal Justice SystemLGBTs/PLWHIV and The Police- Gay Police Officers- The Courts and LGBTs/ PLWIHIV- LGBT/PLWHIV and Prison Life9. The Elderly and the Criminal Justice SystemBaby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation YElderly Crime- Elderly Victims- Elderly OffendersTypes of Elderly Offenders- Shoplifting- Homicide- Sex Offenxes- Drunk DrivingFormal Reactions to the Elderly Criminal- Elderly Inmates10. Juveniles and the Criminal Justice SystemDefinitions of Juvenile DelinquencyHistory of Juvenile Delinquency in the United StatesNineteenth-Century United StatesDelinquency in the Early Twentieth CenturyDelinquency in the 1960s-1970sDelinquency from the 1980s and into the New MillenniumThe Juvenile PopulationJuvenile VictimsJuvenile Offenders- Juveniles and the Police- Juveniles and the Courts- Relative Rate Index- Juveniles and CorrectionsShort-term FacilitiesInstitutional Life for Delinquents- Mental Illness and Detention- Suicide and Institutionalized Youth- Delinquency, Detention, and Public PolicyPART III: INTERNAL ISSUES IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND MULTICULTURALISM11. Policing and MulticulturalismHistorical Policing- The Roots of U.S. Policing- Historical U.S. Policing- Slave Patrols and Black Codes- Three Eras of PolicingPolice Personnel Issues- Legislating Diversity in Policing- Integrating Policing- Steps to Diversify PolicingPolice Practices- Police Discretion- Organizational Variables- Situational Factors- Officer Characteristics- Neighborhood and Community InfluencesPolice-Community Relations12. Courts and MulticulturalismInitial Appearance- Notice of Charges- Counsel and the Initial Appearance- Pretrial ReleasePreliminary Hearing/Grand JuryArraignmentTrials- Jury Selection- Constructing the VenireVoir Dire- The Body of the Trial- Jury Nullification- Enhancing Jury TrialsSentencing- Discriminatory Sentencing?- Sentencing StructuresAppellate CourtsMulticulturalism and Courtroom Personnel13. Corrections and MulticulturalismThe Organization of CorrectionsThe Correctional PopulationIncarceration- Prison- Multiculturalism and Challenges in Prison- JailCommunity Corrections- Probation- Release from Prison and ParoleCorrectional Staff and Training- Diversity and Correctional Staff14. Preparing for Multiculturalism and Diversity: Training and PoliciesTraining and Multiculturalism- The Role of Education- Training and Law Enforcement- Multiculturalism and Courtroom Personnel Training- Multiculturalism and Correctional Staff Training- The Limitations of TrainingPolicies and Multiculturalism15. The Future of Multiculturalism in Criminal Justice: Strategies for SuccessForecasting the Future- Forecasting Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice SystemCritical Issues Affecting Multiculturalism and Criminal Justice- Racial and Ethnic Profiling- Hate Crimes- Immigration- Globalism and International CrimeProgress?

Editorial Reviews

"This book will fit into any curriculum that has a race and crime or social inequality and crime component. It merits strong consideration." --Addrain Conyers, Marist College