Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Industrial Pollutants by Micheline Kirsch-VoldersMutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Industrial Pollutants by Micheline Kirsch-Volders

Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Industrial Pollutants

byMicheline Kirsch-Volders

Paperback | October 1, 2011

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This book is intended for anyone who cares about the health of people exposed to industrial pollutants. Attention is given to those pollutants which present a possible risk to the genetic material of exposed workers. Chapters are devoted to heavy metals such as arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, etc.; insecticides (chlorinated, organophosphorus, and carbonate insecticides); monomers such as vinyl-chloride, acrylonitrile, styrene, vinylidene chloride, butadiene, chlorobutadiene, hexachlorobuta­ diene, etc.; and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, I, 2-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethyl­ ene, dichloromethane, and I, I, I-trichloroethane. The main aim of this work is to provide the physician, the biologist, the pharmacologist, or anyone involved in genetic toxicology with a useful compendium of up-to-date information and references. Efforts are made to open the field to nonspecialists. An introductory chapter deals with the mechanisms whereby a given compound, reaching genetic material, either directly or indirectly, may increase the risk of a cancer developing in the exposed individual and of abnormalities being passed on to his or her progeny. Efforts are also made to allow easy and efficient reading for those who are not interested in detailed results. Comparative tables provide the following data on the compounds studied: chemical properties, production, occurrence, accepted standards in the industry, and positive or negative results with different test systems. Finally, senior research workers might find good descriptions in this book of the most recent results from mutagenesis and carcinogenesis testing in plant, nonmammalian, and mammalian systems.
Title:Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Industrial PollutantsFormat:PaperbackPublished:October 1, 2011Publisher:Springer USLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:1461296498

ISBN - 13:9781461296492

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Table of Contents

Introduction: Mutagenesis as a Health Problem.- 1 Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis.- I: Cellular Factors which Modify the Expression of Mutagenic Action Into Genetic Lesions.- 1. The Nature of the Target.- 1.1. Direct Mutagenesis with DNA as Target.- 1.2. Indirect Mutagenesis through Non-DNA Targets.- 1.2.1. Spindle Inhibitors.- 1.2.2. Action on Enzymatic Processes.- 1.3. Role of the Cell Cycle.- 1.4. Interspecies Differences.- 2. The Nature of the Mutagen.- 2.1. True Mutagens.- 2.2. Turbagens.- 3. An Overview of DNA Repair Processes.- 3.1. Prereplicative Error Correction.- 3.2. Replicative Error Avoidance.- 3.3. Post-Replicative Error Avoidance.- 3.4. Post-Replicative DNA Repair (PRR).- 3.5. Direct and Indirect Mutagens.- 3.6. Why SOS Repair?.- 4. Metabolization, Synergism, and Protection.- II: Relation Between Mutation, Repair, and Chromosome Aberration.- 5. Estimation of DNA Damage.- 6. Mechanisms Involved in Structural Chromosome Aberrations.- 6.1. Chromosome Breaks and Exchanges.- 6.1.1. Chromosome Breaks.- 6.1.2. Chromosome Exchanges.- 6.2. Chromosome Gaps.- 6.3. Sister Chromatid Exchanges.- 7. Significance of Aneuploidy.- III: Chromosomal Alterations and Carcinogenesis.- 8. Carcinogens and Chromosomal Rearrangements.- 9. Chromosomal Rearrangement Associated with Carcinogenesis.- 10. Chromosomal Rearrangements in Human Cancer-Prone Syndromes.- 11. Carcinogenic Chromosomal Rearrangement.- 12. Induction of Chromosomal Rearrangement.- 13. Role of Chromosomal Rearrangement in Carcinogenesis.- 14. Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis.- References.- 2 Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Industrially Used Metals.- 1. General Considerations.- 1.1. Risks and Their Assessment.- 1.2. Metabolism and Toxicity.- 1.3. Mechanisms of Metal Toxicity.- 1.4. Mutagenesis: Tests and Their Interpretation.- 1.5. Carcinogenesis: Mechanisms and Evaluation.- 1.6. Action on the Developing Organism.- 2. Arsenic.- 2.1. Exposure, Occurrence, and General Toxicity.- 2.2. Mutagenesis.- 2.3. Carcinogenesis.- 2.4. Teratogenesis.- 3. Beryllium.- 3.1. Exposure, Occurrence, and General Toxicity.- 3.2. Mutagenesis.- 3.3. Carcinogenesis.- 4. Cadmium.- 4.1. Exposure, Occurrence, and General Toxicity.- 4.2. Mutagenesis.- 4.3. Carcinogenesis.- 4.4. Teratogenesis.- 5. Chromium.- 5.1. Exposure, Occurrence, and General Toxicity.- 5.2. Mutagenesis.- 5.3. Carcinogenesis.- 5.4. Teratogenesis.- 6. Lead.- 6.1. Exposure, Occurrence, and General Toxicity.- 6.2. Mutagenesis.- 6.3. Carcinogenesis.- 6.4. Teratogenesis.- 7. Mercury.- 7.1. Exposure, Occurrence, and General Toxicity.- 7.2. Mutagenesis.- 7.3. Carcinogenesis.- 7.4. Teratogenesis.- 8. Nickel.- 8.1. Exposure, Occurrence, and General Toxicity.- 8.2. Mutagenesis.- 8.3. Carcinogenesis.- 8.4. Teratogenesis.- 9. Other Metals.- 9.1. Mutagenesis.- 9.2. Carcinogenesis.- 9.3. Teratogenesis.- 10. Conclusions.- References.- 3 Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Insecticides.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Chemical and Biochemical Properties.- 2.1. Chlorinated Insecticides.- 2.1.1. Chemical Properties.- 2.1.2. Biochemical Properties.- 2.2. Organophosphorus Insecticides.- 2.2.1. Chemical Properties.- 2.2.2. Biochemical Properties.- 2.3. Carbamate Insecticides.- 2.3.1. Chemical Properties.- 2.3.2. Biochemical Properties.- 2.4. Miscellaneous Insecticides.- 2.4.1. Chemical Properties.- 2.4.2. Biochemical Properties.- 3. Mutagenicity.- 3.1. Chlorinated Insecticides.- 3.1.1. DDT and Related Compounds.- 3.1.2. Cyclodienes: Aldrin and Dieldrin.- 3.1.3. Cyclodienes: Heptachlor and Chlordane.- 3.1.4. Chlordecone and Mirex.- 3.1.5. Lindane and Paradichlorobenzene.- 3.1.6. Toxaphene.- 3.2. Organophosphorus Insecticides.- 3.2.1. Prokaryotes.- 3.2.2. Eukaryotes.- 3.3. Carbamate Insecticides.- 3.3.1. Carbaryl.- 3.3.2. Other Carbamate Insecticides.- 3.4. Miscellaneous Insecticides.- 4. Carcinogenicity.- 4.1. Chlorinated Insecticides.- 4.1.1. DDT and Related Compounds.- 4.1.2. Cyclodienes: Aldrin and Dieldrin.- 4.1.3. Cyclodienes: Chlordane and Heptachlor.- 4.1.4. Chlordecone and Mirex.- 4.1.5. Lindane.- 4.1.6. Toxaphene.- 4.2. Organophosphorus Insecticides.- 4.3. Carbamate Insecticides.- 4.4. Miscellaneous Insecticides.- 5. Teratogenicity.- 5.1. Chlorinated Insecticides.- 5.2. Organophosphorus Insecticides.- 5.3. Carbamate Insecticides.- 5.4. Miscellaneous Insecticides.- 6. Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- 4 Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Industrially Important Monomers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Vinyl Chloride.- 2.1. Toxicity.- 2.2. Metabolism.- 2.3. Mutagenicity.- 2.4. Carcinogenicity.- 2.5. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity.- 3. Acrylonitrile.- 3.1. Toxicity.- 3.2. Metabolism.- 3.3. Mutagenicity.- 3.4. Carcinogenicity.- 3.5. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity.- 4. Styrene.- 4.1. Toxicity.- 4.2. Metabolism.- 4.3. Mutagenicity.- 4.4. Carcinogenicity.- 4.5. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity.- 5. Vinylidene Chloride.- 5.1. Toxicity.- 5.2. Metabolism.- 5.3. Mutagenicity.- 5.4. Carcinogenicity.- 5.5. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity.- 6. Butadiene.- 6.1. Toxicity.- 6.2. Metabolism.- 6.3. Mutagenicity.- 6.4. Carcinogenicity.- 6.5. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity.- 7. Chlorobutadiene.- 7.1. Toxicity.- 7.2. Metabolism.- 7.3. Mutagenicity.- 7.4. Carcinogenicity.- 7.5. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity.- 8. Hexachlorobutadiene.- 8.1. Toxicity.- 8.2. Metabolism.- 8.3. Mutagenicity.- 8.4. Carcinogenicity.- 8.5. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity.- 9. General Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- 5 Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity of Halogenated Hydrocarbon Solvents.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Chloroform.- 2.1. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.- 2.2. Toxicity.- 2.3. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity.- 2.4. Embryotoxicity and Teratogenicity.- 3. Carbon Tetrachloride.- 3.1. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.- 3.2. Toxicity.- 3.3. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity.- 3.4. Embryotoxicity and Teratogenicity.- 4. Trichlorethylene (TCE).- 4.1. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.- 4.2. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity.- 4.3. Embryotoxicity and Teratogenicity.- 5. 1,2-Dichloroethane.- 5.1. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.- 5.2. Toxicity.- 5.3. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity.- 5.4. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity.- 6. Tetrachloroethylene.- 6.1. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.- 6.2. Toxicity.- 6.3. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity.- 6.4. Embryotoxicity and Teratogenicity.- 7. Dichloromethane.- 7.1. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.- 7.2. Toxicity.- 7.3. Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Effects.- 7.4. Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity.- 8. 1-1,1-Trichloroethane.- 8.1. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.- 8.2. Toxicity.- 8.3. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity.- 8.4. Embryotoxicity and Teratogenicity.- 9. Conclusions.- References.- Conclusions.