The manufacture of integrated circuits and opto- electronic devices, for example, calls for accuracies in the nanometre range (approximately three atomic lattice spacings). This book examines the technology and systems needed to achieve this level of accuracy. It is written by the leadingresearchers in Japan, that is the world leaders. The underlying concept of nanotechnology systems comes from the prediction that the extremely high accuracy required in materials processing will ultimately reach the order of 1nm (nanometer) = 0.001 m. Since the distance between lattice atoms is about 0.3 nm this constitutes the limit inresolution for measurable or confirmable lengths of solid materials. This leads directly to processing at the atomic bit level at which sub-nm resolution becomes necessary. This means that the accuracy and resolution of the positioning and measuring apparatus used in atomic bit processing must at least be on the order of sub-nm. Nanotechnology is thus concerned with integrated processing systems with measurement, position control, and processing technologies in thesub-nm range. This is essential in the fabrication of extremely precise and fine parts. fabrication of extremely precise and fine parts.