This is the companion to the comprehensive review of national health systems presented in Volume I. In that volume, the author analyzed the resources, organization, financing, management, and delivery of health services in 68 countries at diverse levels of economic development and politicalideology. In Volume II, the principal issues in health systems across countries are carefully examined. These issues are categorized according to the several components by which national health systems may be analyzed. In the general field of health resources, Roemer discusses physicians andtraditional healers, nurses, pharmacists, auxiliary health personnel, the background and distribution of hospitals and health centers, and the production and consumption of drugs. The sections of this important work elucidate the various issues surrounding the world's health systems. The scope and functions of Ministries of Health and social security programs for health care in different types of health systems are reviewed. The book recognizes the contributions ofvoluntary health agencies, as well as the characteristics of major services in the private sector of national economies. The serious implications of private profit in health systems and the benefits and difficulties of private/public sector relationships are also examined. This authoritative volume presents a global analyzation of economic and management support for national health systems including a discussion of world-wide expenditures according to the source of financing and the purposes for which money is spent. Special attention is also given to experiencesin the delivery of health service including ambulatory and primary care, and equivalent analyses are made of world-wide delivery of hospital services, regionalization, and long-term care. Volume II concludes with a review of international health activities from the 19th century International Sanitary Conferences up to the present era of the World Health Organization. This critical work probes the political factors involved in this evolution. The last chapter summarizes majorsocial trends in society, along with major trends in the health system components: resources, programs, economic support, management, and delivery of services.